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The Value of Using Unofficial Measurements of Rainfall: The Dublin Storm and Flood of June 1963  [PDF]
Colin Clark
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.72006
Abstract: Rainfall measurements are vital for the design of hydraulic structures, climate change studies, irrigation and land drainage works. The most important source of design rainfall data comes from convective storms. Accurate assessment of the storm rainfall requires a fairly dense network of raingauges. In 1963, such a storm took place over Dublin in Ireland. However, the existing raingauge network was insufficient to identify both the depth and pattern of rainfall. An appeal was made by Met Eireann for additional unofficial rainfall data. The result was remarkable in that the estimated maximum rainfall depth was found to be more than double the official value and that the resulting depth area analysis suggested a rainfall volume over a large area much bigger than the original isohyet map indicated. This result has huge implications for the estimation of maximum rainfall and dam safety assessment, especially in countries where the raingauge network has a low density. This paper first provides a description of the synoptic conditions that led to the storm, second an analysis of the rainfall data and how the unofficial measurements produced a very different depth area relationship; third, the social consequences of the resulting flood are described. Fourth, the storm is then placed in the context of other storms in the British Isles Finally the implications for rainfall measurement, gauge density and an example of how revised estimates of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) have been used to improve the safety and design standard of a flood detention dam are discussed.
The VL2-Spoken Language Phonological Awareness (VL2-SLPA) Measure  [PDF]
M. Diane Clark
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.310137
Abstract: Tests of phonological awareness have been developed for spoken languages that require spoken responses. For many deaf individuals, spoken measures of phonological awareness (PA) are not appropriate, as these deaf individuals do not use any spoken language or their oral language is rated as low on levels of aural comprehension. Given the need to have accessible measures of spoken language PA for deaf children, the VL2 Spoken Language Phonological Awareness Measure (VL2-SLPA) was developed. The VL2-SLPA can also determine if participants use a phonological code or an orthographic code to identify the two pictures that have the same first or last “sound”. The VL2-SLPA showed strong convergent validity to the Phoneme Detection Test, another measure developed for deaf individuals, which does not require a verbal response.
Graph Derangements  [PDF]
Pete L. Clark
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2013.34032

We introduce the notion of a graph derangement, which naturally interpolates between perfect matchings and Hamiltonian cycles. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of graph derangements on a locally finite graph. This result was first proved by W. T. Tutte in 1953 by applying some deeper results on digraphs. We give a new, simple proof which amounts to a reduction to the (Menger-Egerváry-K?nig-)Hall(-Hall) Theorem on transversals of set systems. We also consider the problem of classifying all cycle types of graph derangements on m × n checkerboard graphs. Our presentation does not assume any prior knowledge in graph theory or combinatorics: all definitions and proofs of needed theorems are given.

Investigating Mindfulness, Borderline Personality Traits, and Well-Being in a Nonclinical Population  [PDF]
Mabel Yu, Mitchell Clark
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.610121
Abstract: A growing body of literature has revealed that mindfulness-based interventions consistently have positive outcomes, suggesting that increased mindfulness is related to decreases in psychological symptoms and increases in well-being. In a sample of 110 Mount Royal University undergraduate students, we explored the intercorrelations between mindfulness, borderline personality traits, and subjective well-being (SWB). We hypothesized a negative correlation between mindfulness and borderline personality traits, a positive correlation between mindfulness and SWB, and a negative correlation between borderline personality traits and SWB. To examine, a battery of questionnaire containing four measures was used: Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Five Facet of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Personal Well-being Index (PWI), and Borderline Personality Questionnaire—revised (BPQ). Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis results were consistent with our hypotheses. As predicted, higher degrees of mindfulness are associated with less borderline personality traits and greater well-being, whereas the presence of borderline personality traits is linked to lower degrees of well-being. The findings of the present study have significant clinical implications.
Creating Benefits from Omega-3 Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals  [PDF]
Catharine Clark, Bill Lands
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.617166
Abstract: Foods currently eaten by Americans have abundant amounts of essential omega-6 (n-6) nutrients and relatively few omega-3 (n-3) nutrients. The average omega 3 - 6 balance score of typical US foods is about 6. This imbalance causes the average American to accumulate tissue proportions of n-3 and n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) with about 77% n-6 in HUFA. This HUFA balance links to many chronic health conditions that are made worse by overabundant actions of food-based omega-6 HUFA. Americans currently spend more on treating food-based health conditions than they spend on food. Less medication is needed to treat signs and symptoms when a key dietary cause of the signs and symptoms is prevented. Informed food producers can readily prepare and market new food products with more n-3 and less n-6 nutrients to reverse the current national nutrient imbalance and help people attain and maintain a healthy HUFA balance. New functional foods and nutraceuticals will help consumers shift their financial resources from treating signs and symptoms caused by HUFA imbalance to preventing the nutrient imbalance that causes the need to treat.
Inexpensive Geophysical Instruments Supporting Groundwater Exploration in Developing Nations  [PDF]
James A. Clark, Richard Page
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.310087
Abstract: Geophysical methods are often used to aid in exploration for safe and abundant groundwater. In particular resistivity and seismic refraction methods are helpful in determining depth to bedrock and zones of saturation in the subsurface. However the expense of these instruments ($5000 to $20,000) has resulted in their limited use in developing countries. This paper describes how to construct these devices for less than $250 each. The instruments are small, light and robust and are as useful for groundwater exploration as the commercial models for shallow aquifers (less than 35 m deep) where wells can be hand dug, augured or drilled with small portable drill rigs. Data interpretation can be accomplished quickly in the field with free software implemented on a laptop computer. A suite of geophysical instruments and software can therefore be assembled for less than $850. This paper gives the design for these instruments and essential information needed to use them. It is hoped that these inexpensive geophysical instruments can be widely distributed among drillers and aid workers in developing countries, improving the success rate of water wells.
Qualitative Economics—A Perspective on Organization and Economic Science  [PDF]
Michael Fast, Woodrow Clark II
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.22029
Abstract: Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics first of all is about two things; it is about interaction and it is about construction. If we are not able to understand and describe how people interact and construct, we cannot develop any theory of economics or understand human dynamics. So there are two issues to reflect upon: the object of thought and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology.
Feasibility of using polypropylene ground cover upon consideration of long-term responses of sweet cherry nutrition and profitability  [PDF]
Xinhua Yin, Clark F. Seavert
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.34072
Abstract: The impacts of synthetic polypropylene ground cover in the row area of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees (‘Regina’/’Gisela 6’) on soil nutrient availability, tree mineral nutrition and productivity, and economic returns were investigated on a Van Horn fine sandy loam soil at Hood River OR, from 2000 to 2007. Treatments included 2.44-m wide synthetic fabric ground cover made of black, woven poly-propylene over the row area of cherry trees (woven fabric), and no ground cover but with herbicide applications in the row area with the same width as the polypropylene ground cover (herbicide strip) – standard industry practice. This article reports the plant nutrition and soil fertility results of 2006 and 2007 and profitability and feasibility results of 2000 to 2007. Tree leaf nitrogen (N) concentrations were significantly higher with 9 to 14% increases using woven fabric compared with herbicide strip in 2006 and 2007. However, leaf sulfur (S) concentrations were significantly lowered with woven fabric in the two seasons. Woven fabric resulted in fruit with comparable quality and possible greater storability under enhanced fruit yields than herbicide strip in both years. Woven fabric was more profitable than herbicide strip based on an additional net present value of $2,606 ha-1 by the end of this study. Woven fabric had annual gross returns greater than annual costs in the fourth year after planting by $8,181 ha-1 relative to herbicide strip, and had cumulative net returns greater than total costs of all previous years in the sixth year after planting by $17,796 ha-1 over herbicide strip. However, to establish a sweet cherry orchard with woven fabric, the grower would spend an additional $4,332 ha-1 over herbicide strip. In conclusion, woven fabric is a profitable and sustainable in-row ground management alternative to herbicide strip for orchards from a long-term perspective.
Online Capacitance Modeling Tool for Conductors Represented as Simply-Connected Polygonal Geometries in 2D  [PDF]
Fengyuan Li, Jason V. Clark
Journal of Sensor Technology (JST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jst.2012.23022
Abstract: We present an online tool for calculating the capacitance between two conductors represented as simply-connected polygonal geometries in 2D with Dirichlet boundaries and homogeneous dielectric. Our tool can be used to model the so-called 2.5D geometries, where the 3rd dimension can be extruded out of plane. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) with significant facing surfaces may be approximated with 2.5D geometry. Our tool compares favorably in accuracy and speed to the finite element method (FEM). We achieve modeling accuracy by treating the corners exactly with a Schwarz-Christoffel mapping. And we achieve fast results by not needing to discretize boundaries and subdomains. As a test case, we model a MEMS torsional actuator. Our tool computes capacitance about 1000 times faster than FEM with 4.7% relative error.
On the representation of as
Lane Clark
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171200001885
Abstract: Let A(n,m) be the number of solutions of ∑k=−nnϵkk=m where each ϵk∈{0,1}. We determine the asymptotic behavior of A(n,m) for m=o(n3/2), extending results of van Lint and of Entringer.
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