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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401434 matches for " Clare M. Rutterford "
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Microbicides Development Programme: design of a phase III trial to measure the efficacy of the vaginal microbicide PRO 2000/5 for HIV prevention
Andrew Nunn, Sheena McCormack, Angela M Crook, Robert Pool, Clare Rutterford, Richard Hayes
Trials , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-10-99
Abstract: MDP301 is a multicentre randomised placebo-controlled Phase III trial. The design was informed by pre-trial feasibility and pilot studies. The choice of trial population, assessments and endpoints are discussed along with statistical and ethical considerations. Adaptations to the design were made during the conduct of the trial; these included closing a study arm and changing the timing of the primary endpoint.The development of effective microbicide products remains one of the strongest hopes for new biomedical prevention tools. MDP301 is the largest Phase III microbicide trial to date, with 9404 enrolments, and is scheduled for completion in September 2009. Results are expected towards the end of 2009.Current controlled trials ISRCTN64716212.The global pandemic of HIV infection continues to be one of the world's most pressing public health problems. After 25 years there is still little progress in reducing the spread of the epidemic which has had such widespread social and economic effects on poor communities in developing countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. With an estimated 2.5 million new infections in 2007[1], there is an urgent need for effective prevention measures.In the face of such high prevalence and incidence, it is likely that a range of complementary interventions will be needed to bring HIV epidemics under more effective control. Thus, while behavioural modification and male circumcision [2-5] have an important role to play, other prevention measures need to be developed and tested. It is unlikely that an effective HIV vaccine will be available within the next ten years. The male condom represents the best available barrier method of protection, and is highly effective if used correctly and consistently. Unfortunately, regular condom use is particularly difficult to achieve among married couples or others in long-term relationships, and is clearly inappropriate for couples wishing to have children. An effective vaginal microbicide could off
Survival of Civilian and Prisoner Drug-Sensitive, Multi- and Extensive Drug- Resistant Tuberculosis Cohorts Prospectively Followed in Russia
Yanina Balabanova,Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy,Olga Ignatyeva,Irina Kontsevaya,Clare M. Rutterford,Anastasiya Shakhmistova,Nadezhda Malomanova,Yulia Chinkova,Svetlana Mironova,Ivan Fedorin,Francis A. Drobniewski
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020531
Abstract: A long-term observational study was conducted in Samara, Russia to assess the survival and risk factors for death of a cohort of non-multidrug resistant tuberculosis (non-MDRTB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) civilian and prison patients and a civilian extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDRTB) cohort.
Primary care Identification and Referral to Improve Safety of women experiencing domestic violence (IRIS): protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial
Alison Gregory, Jean Ramsay, Roxane Agnew-Davies, Kathleen Baird, Angela Devine, Danielle Dunne, Sandra Eldridge, Annie Howell, Medina Johnson, Clare Rutterford, Debbie Sharp, Gene Feder
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-54
Abstract: This protocol describes IRIS, a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with the general practice as unit of randomisation. Our trial tests the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a training and support programme targeted at general practice teams. The primary outcome is referral of women to specialist domestic violence agencies. Forty-eight practices in two UK cities (Bristol and London) are randomly allocated, using minimisation, into intervention and control groups. The intervention, based on an adult learning model in an educational outreach framework, has been designed to address barriers to asking women about domestic violence and to encourage appropriate responses to disclosure and referral to specialist domestic violence agencies. Multidisciplinary training sessions are held with clinicians and administrative staff in each of the intervention practices, with periodic feedback of identification and referral data to practice teams. Intervention practices have a prompt to ask about abuse integrated in the electronic medical record system. Other components of the intervention include an IRIS champion in each practice and a direct referral pathway to a named domestic violence advocate.This is the first European randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve the health care response to domestic violence. The findings will have the potential to inform training and service provision.ISRCTN74012786Domestic violence is threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults who are in the same family or who are (or have been) intimate partners. The prevalence of physical and sexual violence varies internationally from 15 to 71% [1]. The 2001 British Crime Survey reported that 20% of women in England and Wales were physically assaulted by a current or former partner at some time in their lives. When threats, financial abuse and emotional abuse are included, this increased to 25% of women [2]
Low Carbohydrate Diets in Type 2 Diabetes—A Translational Study  [PDF]
Peter M. Clifton, Leah T. Coles, Clare E. Galbraith
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.62016
Abstract: Although intensive interventions with low carbohydrate diets compared with higher carbohydrate diets can reduce HbA1c in people with type 2 diabetes, it is not clear if simple advice to make modest reductions in carbohydrate is effective in clinical practice. Forty-three people with type 2 diabetes and poor control (HbA1c > 7.5%) were randomized to receive 2 short education sessions over 6 months with a non-dietitian researcher on how to reduce carbohydrate intake by about 25% or to 2 control sessions in which the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating was provided. Hba1c and fasting glucose and lipids were measured at baseline and 3 months and 6 months. 33 volunteers attended a baseline visit; 27 completed 3 months and 24 6 months. HbA1c was reduced by 0.6% - 0.7% in the low carbohydrate diet group compared with the control group (P = 0.1). Fasting glucose was reduced by 2.3 mmol/L compared with the control group at 3 months (P < 0.03) only. Changes in HbA1c at 6 months were related to baseline HbA1c in the intervention group only. Although we have obtained suggestive evidence that a low carbohydrate diet can be successfully implemented in normal practice without professional help, our results are limited by low participant numbers and further studies are required.
The Potential of Targeting DNA Repair Deficiency in Acute Myeloid Leukemia  [PDF]
Clare M. Crean, Ken I. Mills, Kienan I. Savage
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2017.88060
Abstract: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal heterogeneous disease of the myeloid white blood cells. It is characterised by an accumulation of immature blast cells and a number of chromosomal and genetic mutations have been identified. In both de novo and therapy-related AML, defective DNA repair mechanisms are responsible for some of these genetic abnormalities. Targeting the DNA repair mechanism has been shown to be successful against certain forms of solid tumors and may represent a novel therapeutic approach for AML.
The 'alternative' EMT switch
Pamela Klingbeil, Clare M Isacke
Breast Cancer Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2915
Abstract: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is characterised by the acquisition of a mesenchymal, motile phenotype and is accompanied by characteristic molecular changes, including the cadherin switch that is a hallmark of EMT. This switch in expression from junction-forming E-cadherin to the motility promoting N-cadherin is induced by transcriptional regulators such as Twist and Snail [1]. In addition, alternative splicing of mRNA precursors can also influence EMT [2].The cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecule CD44 is highly susceptible to alternative splicing as the CD44 gene spans 20 coding exons, 10 of which are variantly expressed. Generally, expression of CD44 variant iso-forms (CD44v) is common in epithelial cells, while the standard isoform (CD44s), with all variant exons excised, is expressed by haematopoietic and mesenchymal cells. Alternative splicing of CD44 is known to be deregulated during pathological processes including tumour invasion and metastasis, but evidence for a correlation of tumour behaviour with the different CD44v is sparse and can be contradictory [3]. As the last steps of tumour progression require dynamic adhesive properties from a cell, switching between an adhesive state and a motile state is fundamental for successful metastasis formation. EMT and its postulated reversion are crucial processes involved in this cellular plasticity.In a recent article, Chonghui Cheng's laboratory demonstrated a functional role for CD44 alternative splicing during EMT [4]. Several nontumorigenic epithelial cell lines were used for EMT induction with different EMT triggers. In all cases this induction was accompanied by a switch in CD44 isoform expression from CD44v to CD44s and, using a variety of approaches, was demonstrated to be essential for EMT. Importantly, the overall level of CD44 protein did not change significantly during this process. Isoform specificity of this effect was confirmed using RNA interference and rescue experiments, and clea
The WHO, and what of the breast and female genital organs: part IV in the WHO classification of tumours series
Andrew M Hanby, Clare walker
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr788
Abstract: Editors: Fattaneh A Tavassoli and, Peter Devilee. World Health Organisation classification of tumours – new series, IARC Press, Lyon 2003.As with all members of this series, this book is well presented and represents exceedingly good value for money.In general the quality of production is good, with the photography of high to very high quality with good illustrations and colour balance. Plentiful micro and macroscopic pictures are presented, the latter being particularly helpful in the sections dealing with gynaecological lesions. Unfortunately in some cases the illustrations are poor, for example fig 1.105c is out of focus or too small, fig 184 which is stated to show ADH is of too low power to serve any useful purpose.The text offers a well-organised and comprehensive review of breast and gynaecological tumours. In particular this volume deserves a lot of praise, particularly for its synthesis of taxonomy with molecular pathology and probably gives the best ready reckoner for molecular and cytogenetic alterations in breast and gynaecological cancer within a pathology text book, to date. This synthesis could have been taken further, for example in the breast section no reference to the work relating HER2 amplification with epidermotropism and Paget's disease is given [1,2].Like all such books there was clear evidence that this text had been written by a committee and in several places the opportunity for reaching a consensus view on some important issues was lost. Most notably, with regards to microinvasion, multiple different definitions were given; one would have thought that the WHO were just the body that would provide some unification with regards to this sort of contentious area. On the other hand I am glad to see a cautious approach to the premature concept of lobular intraepithelial neoplasia (LIN) and ductal intralobular neoplasia (DIN) was adopted. The concept is, in theory, attractive but until the various and probably multiple lines of breast cancer evo
New onset diabetes complicated by haemolysis and rhabdomyolysis: a case report and review of the literature
Clare M Galtrey, Rohan Pathansali
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-2-159
Abstract: A 54-year-old Kenyan man presented with a 3-day history of reduced appetite, weakness and reduced level of consciousness as a result of a hyperglycaemic diabetic crisis with both hyperosmolarity and ketoacidosis. The patient then developed haemolysis and a raised creatine kinase level. A diagnosis of G6PD deficiency and rhabdomyolysis was made.This case highlights the importance of simple laboratory investigations in the early identification of the rarer complications of diabetic crisis such as haemolysis secondary to G6PD deficiency and rhabdomyolysis.The acute hyperglycaemic complications of diabetes include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HONK). Both are potentially life-threatening and complications include: ischaemia or infarction affecting any organ, particularly myocardial or cerebral; thromboembolic disease; acute respiratory distress syndrome; disseminated intravascular coagulation; multi-organ failure; rhabdomyolysis; cerebral oedema (rare in adults, less so in children); and iatrogenic complications due to inexpert rehydration and electrolyte management, over-administration of insulin or fluid overload leading to cardiac failure. Mortality from HONK is high, with reported death rates as high as 30% to 35%. HONK is the first manifestation of type 2 diabetes in about one-third of cases.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked inherited disorder that increases the vulnerability of erythrocytes to oxidative stress and is the most common enzyme deficiency worldwide and usually affects persons of African, Asian, Mediterranean or Middle-Eastern descent. Different gene mutations cause different levels of enzyme deficiency, with classes assigned to various degrees of deficiency and disease manifestation. The two most common mutations are G6PD Mediterranean and G6PD African. For example, 10% of black males in the United States have moderate (10% to 60% of normal) enzyme activity. Complications include acut
An Anderson Impurity in a Semiconductor
Clare C. Yu,M. Guerrero
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.54.8556
Abstract: We study an Anderson impurity in a semiconducting host using the density matrix renormalization group technique. We use the $U=0$ one--dimensional Anderson Hamiltonian at half filling as the semiconducting host since it has a hybridization gap. By varying the hybridization of the host, we can control the size of the semiconducting gap. We consider chains with 25 sites and we place the Anderson impurity (with $U>0$) in the middle of the chain. We dope the half--filled system with one hole and we find two regimes: when the hybridization of the impurity is small, the hole density and the spin are localized near the impurity. When the hybridization of the impurity is large, the hole and spin density are spread over the lattice. Additional holes avoid the impurity and are extended throughout the lattice. Away from half--filling, the semiconductor with an impurity is analogous to a double well potential with a very high barrier. We also examine the chemical potential as a function of electron filling, and we find that the impurity introduces midgap states when the impurity hybridization is small.
Kondo Insulators Modeled by the One Dimensional Anderson Lattice: A Numerical Renormalization Group Study
M. Guerrero,Clare C. Yu
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.51.10301
Abstract: In order to better understand Kondo insulators, we have studied both the symmetric and asymmetric Anderson lattices at half-filling in one dimension using the density matrix formulation of the numerical renormalization group. We have calculated the charge gap, spin gap and quasiparticle gap as a function of the repulsive interaction U using open boundary conditions for lattices as large as 24 sites. We find that the charge gap is larger than the spin gap for all U for both the symmetric and asymmetric cases. RKKY interactions are evident in the f-spin-f-spin correlation functions at large U in the symmetric case, but are suppressed in the asymmetric case as the f-level approaches the Fermi energy. This suppression can also be seen in the staggered susceptibility and it is consistent with neutron scattering measurements in CeNiSn.
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