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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 74 matches for " ClC-3 "
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Involvement of ClC-3 chloride/proton exchangers in controlling glutamatergic synaptic strength in cultured hippocampal neurons
Raul E. Guzman,Alexi K. Alekov,Jan Hegermann,Christoph Fahlke
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2014.00143
Abstract: ClC-3 is a member of the CLC family of anion channels and transporters that localizes to early and late endosomes as well as to synaptic vesicles (SV). Its genetic disruption in mouse models results in pronounced hippocampal and retinal neurodegeneration, suggesting that ClC-3 might be important for normal excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission in central neurons. To characterize the role of ClC-3 in glutamate accumulation in SV we compared glutamatergic synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons from WT and Clcn3-/- mice. In Clcn3-/- neurons the amplitude and frequency of miniature as well as the amplitudes of action-potential evoked EPSCs were significantly increased as compared to WT neurons. The low-affinity competitive AMPA receptor antagonist γ-DGG reduced the quantal size of synaptic events more effectively in WT than in Clcn3-/- neurons, whereas no difference was observed for the high-affinity competitive non-NMDA antagonist NBQX. Paired pulse ratios of evoked EPSCs were significantly reduced, whereas the size of the readily releasable pool was not affected by the genetic ablation of ClC-3. Electron microscopy revealed increased volumes of SV in hippocampi of Clcn3-/- mice. Our findings demonstrate that ClC-3 controls fast excitatory synaptic transmission by regulating the amount of neurotransmitter as well as the release probability of SV. These results provide novel insights into the role of ClC-3 in synaptic transmission and identify excessive glutamate release as a likely basis of neurodegeneration in Clcn3-/-.
血管平滑肌细胞的容积调节Cl-通道生物学特性及 功能研究进展
Research Progress on Biological Characteristics and Function of Volume Regulated Cl- Channel in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell

- , 2017, DOI: A
Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2
Miao Miao Bi,Sen Hong,Hong Yan Zhou,Hong Wei Wang,Li Na Wang,Ya Juan Zheng
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/ijms15010218
Abstract: Chloride channels (ClCs) have gained worldwide interest because of their molecular diversity, widespread distribution in mammalian tissues and organs, and their link to various human diseases. Nine different ClCs have been molecularly identified and functionally characterized in mammals. ClC-2 is one of nine mammalian members of the ClC family. It possesses unique biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, and molecular features that distinguish it from other ClC family members. ClC-2 has wide organ/tissue distribution and is ubiquitously expressed. Published studies consistently point to a high degree of conservation of ClC-2 function and regulation across various species from nematodes to humans over vast evolutionary time spans. ClC-2 has been intensively and extensively studied over the past two decades, leading to the accumulation of a plethora of information to advance our understanding of its pathophysiological functions; however, many controversies still exist. It is necessary to analyze the research findings, and integrate different views to have a better understanding of ClC-2. This review focuses on ClC-2 only, providing an analytical overview of the available literature. Nearly every aspect of ClC-2 is discussed in the review: molecular features, biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, cellular function, regulation of expression and function, and channelopathies.
Reactivity Investigation on Iron-Titanium Oxides for a Moving Bed Chemical Looping Combustion Implementation  [PDF]
Diana C. Campos, Jamal Belkouch, Mourad Hazi, A?ssa Ould-Dris
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2013.31005

Ilmenite-type natural ore which is constituted mainly of iron-titanium oxide is an interesting candidate as an oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion (CLC) process. Its reactivity was investigated using methane as reducing gas and air as oxidizing gas. Experiments were carried out in a coupled thermogravimetric–thermo differential analyzer (TGA-DTA). When temperature increases from 700 to 1000, the reaction rate increases by 50 times while the oxygen transfer capacity passes from 1.8% to 12%. TG-DT analyses showed that the overall mass loss due to ilmenite reduction reached at most 12%. It corresponds to 87% of theoretical mass loss due to the transformation of Fe2TiO5 into Fe and TiO2. It is established that the reduction for the iron-titanium oxides occurs in two steps: Fe2TiO5 FeTiO3 Fe + TiO2. The titanium reduction from the state TiO2 to the stage Ti3O5 was observed as well. This behavior is supported by XRD analysis. Subsequent oxidation of the reduced mineral led to recover the starting oxide. The stability of iron-titanium oxides was established over 35 looping cycles of oxidation-reduction, with an increase of 5% of oxygen transfer capacity and reactivity in the first 5 cycles and after that, ilmenite reactivity remained constant. At high temperatures, catalytic effect of ilmenite on methane decomposition leading to carbon deposition is observed. The deposited carbon participates in the reactivity of the oxide.

New Measuring Method for Colorless Liquid Level Based on CLC100 Level Sensor and Powercast Wireless Sensor Kit  [PDF]
Guanlin Yan, Gerhard Lindner, Yuming Shen
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.74014
Abstract: In this paper, a new wireless measuring method for colorless liquid level measurement was presented, based on latest CLC100 liquid level sensor and Powercast wireless sensor development kit. The wireless system is divided into two parts, level measurement and data transmission part as well as data receiving and display part. First part included the capacitive liquid level sensor CLC100 and the wireless senor board. CLC100 sensor was used for liquid level measurement. Wireless sensor kit from Powercast Corporation included one wireless sensor board, which was used for signal transmission. A built-in PIC microcontroller was embedded in the transmission module, for the purpose of processing and data transmitting. Due to CLC100 sensor’s output voltage exceeding the sensor board’s input limitation, a voltage convertor was designed to connect the sensor and the wireless sensor board. The final results were voltages corresponding to the liquid level, and were processed by an independent PIC development board, and then sent to PC’s hyper terminal via serial-port by this PIC microcontroller. Experiments showed that this wireless sensor node prototype worked well.
Cellular Light-Weight Concrete Blocks as a Replacement of Burnt Clay Bricks
K.Krishna Bhavani Siram
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Burnt Clay Brick is the predominant construction material in the country. The CO2 emissions in the brick manufacture process have been acknowledged as a significant factor to global warming. The focus is now more on seeking environmental solutions for greener environment. The usage of Cellular Light-weight Concrete (CLC) blocks gives a prospective solution to building construction industry along with environmental preservation. In this paper, an attempt is made to compare CLC Blocks and Clay Bricks, and recommend a replacement material to red brick in construction industry.
- , 2016, DOI: 10.16118/j.1008-0392.2016.02.027
Abstract: ClC-2是一种电压门控氯通道,在稳定细胞膜电位、调节细胞兴奋性方面有重要意义。但其在癫发病机制中所起的作用仍不清楚。本研究就ClC-2的各项研究进展,包括ClC-2的结构与功能、ClC-2在癫动物模型中的改变以及在癫患者中ClC-2基因表达异常与癫发病的相关性进行综述。
ClC-2 is a member of the supergene family of voltage-gated chloride channels. It is proved to be inwardly rectifying, and plays an important role in setting the intracellular chloride concentration in neurons expressing inhibitory GABAA receptors. The role of ClC-2 in epilepsy is still not clear. Here, we review the structures and functions of ClC-2 and changes of ClC-2 in experimental epileptic models. This article try to analyze the correlation between ClC-2 and epilepsy

Han Wuying,

生态学报 , 1990,
Abstract: Based on the data from multi-disciplinary investigations in Daya Bay during the period of 1985-1986, the seasonal variations in quantity of carbon for each carbon sink were calculated and then the model for carbon cycle has been constituted. The model was used to calculate the fluxes of carbon through each cycling way in different seasons so that the retention times of carbon in different sinks were given in this paper.
Determination of the forming limit diagram of zinc electro-galvanized steel sheets
W. Fracz,F. Stachowicz
Metalurgija , 2012,
Abstract: Forming limit curves (FLC) of deep drawing steel sheets have been determined experimentally and calculated on the base of the material tensile properties following the Hill, Swift, Marciniak-Kuczyński and Sing-Rao methods. Only the FLC modeled from a singly linear forming limit stress curve exhibits good consistence with experimental curve. It was established that a linearized limit stress locus describes adequately the actual localized neck conditions for the material chosen in this study. The quantitative X-ray microanalysis of the Fe contents in the sheet surface layer composition was used to determine cracking limit curve (CLC) of electro-galvanized steel sheet. The change in zinc layer (and base sheet metal) thickness was used as a criteria in calculation of the CLC.
Gastro protective properties of the novel prostone SPI-8811 against acid-injured porcine mucosa
Meghali Nighot,Adam Moeser,Ryuji Ueno,Anthony Blikslager
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i34.4684
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the protective properties of novel prostone ClC-2 agonist SPI-8811 in porcine model of gastric acid injury. METHODS: Porcine gastric mucosa was mounted in Ussing chambers and injured by bathing mucosal tissues in an HCl Ringer’s solution (pH = 1.5) with or without SP1-8811 (1 μmol/L), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitor (inhibitor 172, 10 μmol/L, apical) and ClC-2 inhibitor ZnCl2, 300 μmol/L, apical), on the apical surface of tissues. Transepithelial resistance and mucosal-to-serosal 3H-mannitol fluxes were measured over a 90-min period. Tissues were analyzed by morph metric techniques, Immunofluorescence and by western blots. RESULTS: Compared with control tissues, acid exposure decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and increased 3H-mannitol flux. Pretreatment of gastric mucosa with SPI-8811 was protective against acid-induced decreases in TER (TER, 50 Ω.cm2 vs 100 Ω.cm2) and abolished increases in flux (3H-mannitol flux, 0.10 μmol/L.cm2 vs 0.04 μmol/L.cm2). Evidence of histological damage in the presence of acid was markedly attenuated by SPI-0811. Immunofluorescence and western analysis for occludin revealed enhanced localization to the region of the tight junction (TJ) after treatment with SPI-8811. Pretreatment with the ClC-2 inhibitor ZnCl2, but not the selective CFTR inhibitor 172, attenuated SPI-8811-mediated mucosal protection, suggesting a role for ClC-2. Prostone may serve both protective and reparative roles in injured tissues. CONCLUSION: ClC-2 agonist SPI-8811 stimulated enhancement of mucosal barrier function by protecting TJ protein occludin in porcine gastric mucosa and thus protected the gastric acid injury in porcine stomach.
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