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Endemic and epidemic dynamics of cholera: the role of the aquatic reservoir
Cláudia Code?o
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-1-1
Abstract: The reproduction rate of cholera in a community is defined by the product of social and environmental factors. The importance of the aquatic reservoir depends on the sanitary conditions of the community. Seasonal variations of contact rates force a cyclical pattern of cholera outbreaks, as observed in some cholera-endemic communities.Further development on cholera modeling requires a better understanding of V. cholerae ecology and epidemiology. We need estimates of the prevalence of V. cholerae infection in endemic populations as well as a better description of the relationship between dose and virulence.Since Snow's seminal work (1855), when cholera epidemics were first associated with a contaminated water supply, this disease has been the focus of intense study. Cholera is a waterborne disease characterized by severe diarrhea. The etiological agent is V. cholerae O1 (more recently also V. cholerae O139), which colonizes the small intestine and produces an enterotoxin responsible for a watery diarrhea. Without prompt treatment, a person with cholera may die of dehydration in a matter of hours after infection. Cholera outbreaks are generally associated to contaminated food and water supplies. Appropriate sanitation and safe water are the main weapons against this disease.Until the 19th century, cholera was confined to the Indian sub-continent [1]. There, cholera outbreaks are seasonal with one or two peaks per year [2]. From this region, cholera has spread throughout the world seven times since 1817 [3]. The last pandemics began in 1961 in Indonesia, spread through the Asian continent during the 60's, reached Africa in 1970 [4] and Latin America in 1991. The occurrence of successive cholera outbreaks throughout Africa and Latin America during the 90's raised the concern that cholera had established itself in these regions as an endemic disease.Once cholera arrives into a new region, either carried by an infected person or by contaminated water and food, we may expec
Retratos em diálogo: notas sobre o documentário brasileiro recente
Mesquita, Cláudia;
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-33002010000100006
Abstract: the article discusses four recent brazilian biographical films - jo?o salles' santiago (2007), marília rocha's acácio, carlos nader's pan-cinema permanente (2008) and paula gaitán's vida (2008) - and tries to understand a same dialogical and reflexive stance that characterizes them: the dialogical structure, and the manner by which they treat the depicted character's life story, by associating personal memory and public history, archive footage and present images.
O sexo e o gênero da docência
Vianna, Cláudia Pereira;
Cadernos Pagu , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-83332002000100003
Abstract: in the educacional debate there is a consensus about the predominance of women in the teaching profession. however, reflections concerning the contradictory aspects that generate such a phenomenon are less frequent. the objective of this article is to discuss such aspects, that is, to examine the presence of women in the teaching profession, based on the contributions of gender and its historical, social and cultural construction. the differences between the sexes suggest that there are masculine and feminine meanings associated with teacher's identity and with school relationships; they also point to the articulation between sex and gender in teaching.
A PRODU??O ACADêMICA SOBRE ORGANIZA??O DOCENTE: A??O COLETIVA E RELA??ES DE GêNERO
Vianna, Cláudia;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302001000400006
Abstract: this paper analyzes the academic production about teacher's collective action in brazil, during the 80s and 90s. it presents the most significant trends in the analysis of teacher's collective organizations and their contribution to the investigation of this matter in the county of s?o paulo. it also explores whether these studies investigated the role played by the gender relationships in the teachers' engagement in collective actions.
O imaginário das águas e o aprendizado erótico do corpo
Ribeiro, Cláudia Maria;
Educar em Revista , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-40602009000300009
Abstract: throughout human history, imaginary waters have carried out an overflow of meanings and symbolisms in the cultural universe of human beings, springing as symbols of contradictions. beyond all oppositions, investigating the erotic learning of the body brings forward questions about the occident's civilizing process, such as: in which ways has water pervaded the transformations concerning the individual's relationships with his\her bodies? the relation between water and eros is perceived as an important element for the erotic learning of the body, observed as a set of rules concerning the use of water in bath. therefore, is contact with water one of the possibilities to enjoying intensity of the senses? is proximity with water a possibility of transgression? the article navigates through discussions about the imaginary of the waters as well as through water as a support for the imagination and for bath's (un)pleasures in history.
Para além da ordem: o cotidiano prisional da Bahia oitocentista a partir da correspondência de presos
Trindade, Cláudia Moraes;
História (S?o Paulo) , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-90742009000200013
Abstract: the aim of this article is to discuss the prison community in bahia during the 19th century, using the correspondence written by prisoners. i analyze this documentation in an attempt to reconstruct the daily life of the prisoners, presupposing the existence of a parallel order equal to or more powerful than the official prison order, but that did not end the arbitrariness and the violence of the latter. this parallel order could be broken any moment, whether because of direct confrontation among the prisoners themselves, or due to confrontation between prisoners and prison staff. among different types of protest, writing was widely used by prisoners and, depending on the strategy suggested in the letters, it was possible to obtain gains without breaking the prison order. written appeals were used by prisoners, educated or not, of different legal conditions, slaves, freed and free, independent of the type of sentence they were serving.
Doen?as, alimenta??o e resistência na penitenciária da Bahia, 1861-1865
Trindade, Cláudia Moraes;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702011000400007
Abstract: this study on prisoners' diseases and food conditions in the early days of operation of the casa de pris?o com trabalho (labor penitentiary) in salvador, bahia, analyzes prisoner strategies for obtaining medical treatment and decent food. in their resistance and struggle to achieve more breathing room within the new prison model, which authorities hoped to implement at bahia's first penitentiary, prisoners themselves took advantage of the new official norms. even when deprived of such basic necessities as health and food, prisoners were not passive victims of the new prison system but instead engaged actively in the construction of their own history.
Investiga??o científica e política colonial portuguesa: evolu??o e articula??es, 1936-1974
Castelo, Cláudia;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702012000200003
Abstract: the development of a colonial scientific policy by the portuguese state in the twentieth century is investigated by studying the junta de investiga??es do ultramar. directly subordinated to the ministério das col?nias/do ultramar and based in lisbon, this entity's main attribute was to coordinate the scientific studies to be undertaken in colonial territories under portuguese rule. the aim is to identify the institution's origins and objectives, to understand how its activities tied in with colonial policies, to detect what impacts the international scenario had on its trajectory and its strategic options. special attention is given to the period that started after the second world war, which was aligned with the mirage of development and reacted against the progress of the anti-colonial movement.
A cidade e a morte: a febre amarela e seu impacto sobre os costumes fúnebres no Rio de Janeiro (1849-50)
Rodrigues, Cláudia;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59701999000200003
Abstract: during the summer of 1849-50, a yellow fever epidemic hit the city of rio de janeiro. in analyzing the epidemic?s impact on local funeral customs, the article asks to what extent the subsequent high mortality rate was a catalyst that changed people?s attitudes towards death and the deceased. the central hypothesis is that the epidemic was the final argument physicians needed to convince the imperial government and the population to implement these doctors? project, one which would ?medicalize? death and standardize funeral customs.
Estratégias de pesquisa em contextos de diversidade cultural: entrevistas de listagem livre, entrevistas com informantes-chave e grupos focais
Bisol, Cláudia Alquati;
Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas) , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-166X2012000500008
Abstract: the objective of this article is to present and discuss three research strategies which, when used separately or combined in qualitative or quantiqualitative studies, may facilitate the researcher's understanding of the cultural universe of study participants, especially in contexts of cultural diversity. one understands that there is cultural diversity when the life experience, concepts, values and theoretical presuppositions of the researcher are not the same as those of the participants of a study. the three methods that are presented, as well as their possible combinations, are: free-listing interviews, key-informant and focus group interviews. examples of empirical research in the field of public health and psychology are also presented to demonstrate the applicability of these research strategies.
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