Abstract:
Gender inequality in Malaysian labour market can be observed through labour force participation, unemployment, occupational distribution, top management employment involving decision making, and average monthly salary. Such an inequality generally works to the disadvantage of females, notwithstanding their outperformance of educational attainment over their males’ counterparts. Case study in the ICT services subsector points to the importance of imparting employability skills among females to have its bearing on wagedetermination. As such, future research is expected to analyse gender wage decomposition taking into considerations of different types of labour market discrimination, occupational preferences, and gender differences in employability skills.

Abstract:
This paper attempts to investigate if the undergraduates’ core competencies are able to meet with the requirements set by the employers and to analyse the effectiveness of personal qualities and employability skills development in private university in Malaysia. Questionnaires survey, mean score comparison, and independent sample t-test are used to capture the perception differential between 30 employers and 600 undergraduates from a local private university on the importance of employability skills. Our results show that the undergraduates are all highly competent in possessing the said personal qualities and skills. However, such skills as critical analysis, planning, problem solving, oral communication, decision making, and negotiating report a slightly higher level of mismatch between employers’ and undergraduates’ perception on their importance and development in the University.

Abstract:
We consider dense rapid shear flow of inelastically colliding hard disks. Navier-Stokes granular hydrodynamics is applied accounting for the recent finding \cite{Luding,Khain} that shear viscosity diverges at a lower density than the rest of constitutive relations. New interpolation formulas for constitutive relations between dilute and dense cases are proposed and justified in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A linear stability analysis of the uniform shear flow is performed and the full phase diagram is presented. It is shown that when the inelasticity of particle collision becomes large enough, the uniform sheared flow gives way to a two-phase flow, where a dense "solid-like" striped cluster is surrounded by two fluid layers. The results of the analysis are verified in event-driven MD simulations, and a good agreement is observed.

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: It is widely claimed that racial and ethnic minorities, especially in the US, are less willing than non-minority individuals to participate in health research. Yet, there is a paucity of empirical data to substantiate this claim. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify all published health research studies that report consent rates by race or ethnicity. We found 20 health research studies that reported consent rates by race or ethnicity. These 20 studies reported the enrollment decisions of over 70,000 individuals for a broad range of research, from interviews to drug treatment to surgical trials. Eighteen of the twenty studies were single-site studies conducted exclusively in the US or multi-site studies where the majority of sites (i.e., at least 2/3) were in the US. Of the remaining two studies, the Concorde study was conducted at 74 sites in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and France, while the Delta study was conducted at 152 sites in Europe and 23 sites in Australia and New Zealand. For the three interview or non-intervention studies, African-Americans had a nonsignificantly lower overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (82.2% versus 83.5%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.02). For these same three studies, Hispanics had a nonsignificantly higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (86.1% versus 83.5%; OR = 1.37; 95% CI 0.94-1.98). For the ten clinical intervention studies, African-Americans' overall consent rate was nonsignificantly higher than that of non-Hispanic whites (45.3% versus 41.8%; OR = 1.06; 95% CI 0.78-1.45). For these same ten studies, Hispanics had a statistically significant higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (55.9% versus 41.8%; OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.08-1.65). For the seven surgery trials, which report all minority groups together, minorities as a group had a nonsignificantly higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (65.8% versus 47.8%; OR = 1.26; 95% CI 0.89-1.77). Given the preponderance of US sites, the vast majority of these individuals from minority groups were African-Americans or Hispanics from the US. CONCLUSIONS: We found very small differences in the willingness of minorities, most of whom were African-Americans and Hispanics in the US, to participate in health research compared to non-Hispanic whites. These findings, based on the research enrollment decisions of over 70,000 individuals, the vast majority from the US, suggest that racial and ethnic minorities in the US are as willing as non-Hispanic w

Abstract:
Symmetry-breaking instability of a laterally uniform granular cluster (strip state) in a prototypical driven granular gas is investigated. The system consists of smooth hard disks in a two-dimensional box, colliding inelastically with each other and driven, at zero gravity, by a "thermal" wall. The limit of nearly elastic particle collisions is considered, and granular hydrodynamics with the Jenkins-Richman constitutive relations is employed. The hydrodynamic problem is completely described by two scaled parameters and the aspect ratio of the box. Marginal stability analysis predicts a spontaneous symmetry breaking instability of the strip state, similar to that predicted recently for a different set of constitutive relations. If the system is big enough, the marginal stability curve becomes independent of the details of the boundary condition at the driving wall. In this regime, the density perturbation is exponentially localized at the elastic wall opposite to the thermal wall. The short- and long-wavelength asymptotics of the marginal stability curves are obtained analytically in the dilute limit. The physics of the symmetry-breaking instability is discussed.

Abstract:
The Navier-Stokes granular hydrodynamics is employed for determining the threshold of thermal convection in an infinite horizontal layer of granular gas. The dependence of the convection threshold, in terms of the inelasticity of particle collisions, on the Froude and Knudsen numbers is found. A simple necessary condition for convection is formulated in terms of the Schwarzschild's criterion, well-known in thermal convection of (compressible) classical fluids. The morphology of convection cells at the onset is determined. At large Froude numbers, the Froude number drops out of the problem. As the Froude number goes to zero, the convection instability turns into a recently discovered phase separation instability.

Abstract:
We discovered an oscillatory instability in a system of inelastically colliding hard spheres, driven by two opposite "thermal" walls at zero gravity. The instability, predicted by a linear stability analysis of the equations of granular hydrodynamics, occurs when the inelasticity of particle collisions exceeds a critical value. Molecular dynamic simulations support the theory and show a stripe-shaped cluster moving back and forth in the middle of the box away from the driving walls. The oscillations are irregular but have a single dominating frequency that is close to the frequency at the instability onset, predicted from hydrodynamics.

Abstract:
We investigate parametric autoresonance: a persisting phase locking which occurs when the driving frequency of a parametrically excited nonlinear oscillator slowly varies with time. In this regime, the resonant excitation is continuous and unarrested by the oscillator nonlinearity. The system has three characteristic time scales, the fastest one corresponding to the natural frequency of the oscillator. We perform averaging over the fastest time scale and analyze the reduced set of equations analytically and numerically. Analytical results are obtained by exploiting the scale separation between the two remaining time scales which enables one to use the adiabatic invariant of the perturbed nonlinear motion.

Abstract:
We investigate shear-induced crystallization in a very dense flow of mono-disperse inelastic hard spheres. We consider a steady plane Couette flow under constant pressure and neglect gravity. We assume that the granular density is greater than the melting point of the equilibrium phase diagram of elastic hard spheres. We employ a Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics with constitutive relations all of which (except the shear viscosity) diverge at the crystal packing density, while the shear viscosity diverges at a smaller density. The phase diagram of the steady flow is described by three parameters: an effective Mach number, a scaled energy loss parameter, and an integer number m: the number of half-oscillations in a mechanical analogy that appears in this problem. In a steady shear flow the viscous heating is balanced by energy dissipation via inelastic collisions. This balance can have different forms, producing either a uniform shear flow or a variety of more complicated, nonlinear density, velocity and temperature profiles. In particular, the model predicts a variety of multi-layer two-phase steady shear flows with sharp interphase boundaries. Such a flow may include a few zero-shear (solid-like) layers, each of which moving as a whole, separated by fluid-like regions. As we are dealing with a hard sphere model, the granulate is fluidized within the "solid" layers: the granular temperature is non-zero there, and there is energy flow through the boundaries of the "solid" layers. A linear stability analysis of the uniform steady shear flow is performed, and a plausible bifurcation diagram of the system, for a fixed m, is suggested. The problem of selection of m remains open.

Abstract:
The position of a reaction front, propagating into a metastable state, fluctuates because of the shot noise of reactions and diffusion. A recent theory [B. Meerson, P.V. Sasorov, and Y. Kaplan, Phys. Rev. E 84, 011147 (2011)] gave a closed analytic expression for the front diffusion coefficient in the weak noise limit. Here we test this theory in stochastic simulations involving reacting and diffusing particles on a one-dimensional lattice. We also investigate a small noise-induced systematic shift of the front velocity compared to the prediction from the spatially continuous deterministic reaction-diffusion equation.