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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 102650 matches for " Chun-I Sze "
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Downregulation of CREB expression in Alzheimer's brain and in Aβ-treated rat hippocampal neurons
Subbiah Pugazhenthi, Maorong Wang, Serena Pham, Chun-I Sze, Christopher B Eckman
Molecular Neurodegeneration , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-6-60
Abstract: Laser Capture Microdissection of hippocampal neurons from Tg2576 mouse brain revealed decreases in the mRNA levels of CREB and its target, BDNF. Immunohistochemical analysis of Tg2576 mouse brain showed decreases in CREB levels in hippocampus and cortex. Markers of oxidative stress were detected in transgenic mouse brain and decreased CREB staining was observed in regions showing abundance of astrocytes. There was also an inverse correlation between SDS-extracted Aβ and CREB protein levels in Alzheimer's post-mortem hippocampal samples. The levels of CREB-regulated BDNF and BIRC3, a caspase inhibitor, decreased and the active cleaved form of caspase-9, a marker for the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, was elevated in these samples. Exposure of rat primary hippocampal neurons to Aβ fibrils decreased CREB promoter activity. Decrease in CREB mRNA levels in Aβ-treated neurons was reversed by the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Overexpression of CREB by adenoviral transduction led to significant protection against Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis.Our findings suggest that chronic downregulation of CREB-mediated transcription results in decrease of CREB content in the hippocampal neurons of AD brain which may contribute to exacerbation of disease progression.Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a constitutively expressed nuclear transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in neuronal survival and function [1-3]. CREB is essential for the formation and retention of memory in several species [4,5]. CREB-mediated gene expression is increased in the hippocampus during LTP [6]. Spatial learning deficits in rats are observed after intra-hippocampal infusion of CREB antisense oligos [7]. CREB is also an important nuclear target that couples neurotrophin-mediated signaling to neuronal survival [8]. CREB undergoes phosphorylation at serine 133 in response to multiple signaling pathways [9,10]. The phosphorylated form of CREB binds to the coact
The Role of Glucocorticoid Receptors in Dexamethasone-Induced Apoptosis of Neuroprogenitor Cells in the Hippocampus of Rat Pups
Chun-I Sze,Yung-Chieh Lin,Yuh-Jyh Lin,Ting-Hui Hsieh
Mediators of Inflammation , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/628094
Abstract:
Assessing Current Therapeutic Approaches to Decode Potential Resistance Mechanisms in Glioblastomas
Chun-I Sze,Ming-Fu Chiang,Nan-Shan Chang
Frontiers in Oncology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2013.00059
Abstract: Unique astrocytic cell infiltrating growth and glial tumor growth in the confined skull make human glioblastoma (GBM) one of the most difficult cancers to treat in modern medicine. Prognosis for patients is very poor, as they die more or less within 12 months. Patients either die of the cancer itself, or secondary complications such as cerebral edema, herniations, or hemorrhages. GBMs rarely metastasize to other organs. However, GBM recurrence associated with resistance to therapeutic drugs is common. Patients die shortly after relapse. GBM is indeed an outstanding cancer model to search for potential mechanisms for drug resistance. Here, we reviewed the current cancer biology of gliomas and their pathophysiological events that contribute to the development of therapeutic resistance. We have addressed the potential roles of cancer stem cells, epigenetic modifications, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the development of resistance to inhibitor drugs in GBMs. The potential role of TIAF1 (TGF-β-induced antiapoptotic factor) overexpression and generation of intratumor amyloid fibrils for conferring drug resistance in GBMs is discussed.
Design Aspects of Scoring Systems in Game  [PDF]
Chun-I Lee, I-Ping Chen, Chi-Min Hsieh, Chia-Ning Liao
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2017.51003
Abstract: Scoring systems are a key component of game mechanics, and provide a mechanism whereby players are rewarded with point value whenever they accomplish a task in the game. The growing complexity of scoring systems underlines the importance of determining the degree to which the design of a scoring system affects player satisfaction. However, this requires a comprehensive understanding of the functions and design aspects of scoring systems. This study interviewed experts in the field of gaming to identify the 20 most important functions of scoring systems with the aim of elucidating current trends. The researchers then conducted a questionnaire survey among game designers and avid game players to evaluate each of the 20 functions in 12 representative games. Finally, multidimensional scaling (MDS) was employed to identify the main dimensions associated with the design of scoring systems. Our results indicate that perceivability, controllability, and relation to achievement are the primary aspects of design in the scoring systems commonly found in games.
Complement C1q Activates Tumor Suppressor WWOX to Induce Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells
Qunying Hong, Chun-I Sze, Sing-Ru Lin, Ming-Hui Lee, Ruei-Yu He, Lori Schultz, Jean-Yun Chang, Shean-Jen Chen, Robert J. Boackle, Li-Jin Hsu, Nan-Shan Chang
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005755
Abstract: Background Tissue exudates contain low levels of serum complement proteins, and their regulatory effects on prostate cancer progression are largely unknown. We examined specific serum complement components in coordinating the activation of tumor suppressors p53 and WWOX (also named FOR or WOX1) and kinases ERK, JNK1 and STAT3 in human prostate DU145 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings DU145 cells were cultured overnight in 1% normal human serum, or in human serum depleted of an indicated complement protein. Under complement C1q- or C6-free conditions, WOX1 and ERK were mainly present in the cytoplasm without phosphorylation, whereas phosphorylated JNK1 was greatly accumulated in the nuclei. Exogenous C1q rapidly restored the WOX1 activation (with Tyr33 phosphorylation) in less than 2 hr. Without serum complement C9, p53 became activated, and hyaluronan (HA) reversed the effect. Under C6-free conditions, HA induced activation of STAT3, an enhancer of metastasis. Notably, exogenous C1q significantly induced apoptosis of WOX1-overexpressing DU145 cells, but not vehicle-expressing cells. A dominant negative and Y33R mutant of WOX1 blocked the apoptotic effect. C1q did not enhance p53-mediated apoptosis. By total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, it was determined that C1q destabilized adherence of WOX1-expressing DU145 cells by partial detaching and inducing formation of clustered microvilli for focal adhesion particularly in between cells. These cells then underwent shrinkage, membrane blebbing and death. Remarkably, as determined by immunostaining, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer were shown to have a significantly reduced expression of tissue C1q, compared to age-matched normal prostate tissues. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that complement C1q may induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating WOX1 and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q enhances prostate hyperplasia and cancerous formation due to failure of WOX1 activation.
Dramatic Co-Activation of WWOX/WOX1 with CREB and NF-κB in Delayed Loss of Small Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons upon Sciatic Nerve Transection in Rats
Meng-Yen Li,Feng-Jie Lai,Li-Jin Hsu,Chen-Peng Lo,Ching-Li Cheng,Sing-Ru Lin,Ming-Hui Lee,Jean-Yun Chang,Dudekula Subhan,Ming-Shu Tsai,Chun-I Sze,Subbiah Pugazhenthi,Nan-Shan Chang,Shur-Tzu Chen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007820
Abstract: Tumor suppressor WOX1 (also named WWOX or FOR) is known to participate in neuronal apoptosis in vivo. Here, we investigated the functional role of WOX1 and transcription factors in the delayed loss of axotomized neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rats.
Classification and Analysis of Pathology of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon in Complete Rotator Cuff Tears
Chien-Hao Chen,Chih-Hwa Chen,Chih-Hsiang Chang,Chun-I Su
Chang Gung Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Pathology of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHB) is commonly associated with rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions can also occur with RCTs. The purpose of this study was to include SLAP lesions as part of LHB pathology in surgical cases of RCT and define the role of SLAP lesions in RCTs.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated clinical data from 176 cases of complete RCT undergoing surgery. During surgery, the LHB was arthroscopically examined. A modified 6-type classification was used to describe the LHB pathology in these cases: tendinitis, subluxation, dislocation, partial tear, complete rupture and SLAP lesions. The relationship of LHB pathology to different characteristics of RCTs was statistically analyzed.Results: Of RCT cases, 33% had Type 1 (tendinitis), 11% had Type 2 (subluxation), 9% had Type 3 (dislocation), 16% had Type 4 (partial tear), 7% had Type 5 (complete rupture) and 6% had Type 6 (SLAP) lesions. The remaining 18% of cases had no obvious LHB pathology. LHB pathology were associated with RCTs of a long duration (> 3 months), large area (> 5 cm2), and multiple or subscapularis tendon involvement. Seventy four percent of patients with affected shoulders underwent simultaneous surgery for both LHB pathology and RCTs.Conclusion: Most patient with RCTs with chronic, massive, and multiple or subscapularis tendon involvement also had LHB injury. SLAP lesions, which we classified as a subgroup of LHB pathology, should be identified during rotator cuff surgery and treated appropriately.
Dynamic Encoding of Natural Luminance Sequences by LGN Bursts
Nicholas A. Lesica,Chong Weng,Jianzhong Jin,Chun-I Yeh,Jose-Manuel Alonso,Garrett B. Stanley
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040209
Abstract: In the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, visual stimulation produces two distinct types of responses known as tonic and burst. Due to the dynamics of the T-type Ca2+ channels involved in burst generation, the type of response evoked by a particular stimulus depends on the resting membrane potential, which is controlled by a network of modulatory connections from other brain areas. In this study, we use simulated responses to natural scene movies to describe how modulatory and stimulus-driven changes in LGN membrane potential interact to determine the luminance sequences that trigger burst responses. We find that at low resting potentials, when the T channels are de-inactivated and bursts are relatively frequent, an excitatory stimulus transient alone is sufficient to evoke a burst. However, to evoke a burst at high resting potentials, when the T channels are inactivated and bursts are relatively rare, prolonged inhibitory stimulation followed by an excitatory transient is required. We also observe evidence of these effects in vivo, where analysis of experimental recordings demonstrates that the luminance sequences that trigger bursts can vary dramatically with the overall burst percentage of the response. To characterize the functional consequences of the effects of resting potential on burst generation, we simulate LGN responses to different luminance sequences at a range of resting potentials with and without a mechanism for generating bursts. Using analysis based on signal detection theory, we show that bursts enhance detection of specific luminance sequences, ranging from the onset of excitatory sequences at low resting potentials to the offset of inhibitory sequences at high resting potentials. These results suggest a dynamic role for burst responses during visual processing that may change according to behavioral state.
Dynamic Encoding of Natural Luminance Sequences by LGN Bursts
Nicholas A Lesica ,Chong Weng,Jianzhong Jin,Chun-I Yeh,Jose-Manuel Alonso,Garrett B Stanley
PLOS Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040209
Abstract: In the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, visual stimulation produces two distinct types of responses known as tonic and burst. Due to the dynamics of the T-type Ca2+ channels involved in burst generation, the type of response evoked by a particular stimulus depends on the resting membrane potential, which is controlled by a network of modulatory connections from other brain areas. In this study, we use simulated responses to natural scene movies to describe how modulatory and stimulus-driven changes in LGN membrane potential interact to determine the luminance sequences that trigger burst responses. We find that at low resting potentials, when the T channels are de-inactivated and bursts are relatively frequent, an excitatory stimulus transient alone is sufficient to evoke a burst. However, to evoke a burst at high resting potentials, when the T channels are inactivated and bursts are relatively rare, prolonged inhibitory stimulation followed by an excitatory transient is required. We also observe evidence of these effects in vivo, where analysis of experimental recordings demonstrates that the luminance sequences that trigger bursts can vary dramatically with the overall burst percentage of the response. To characterize the functional consequences of the effects of resting potential on burst generation, we simulate LGN responses to different luminance sequences at a range of resting potentials with and without a mechanism for generating bursts. Using analysis based on signal detection theory, we show that bursts enhance detection of specific luminance sequences, ranging from the onset of excitatory sequences at low resting potentials to the offset of inhibitory sequences at high resting potentials. These results suggest a dynamic role for burst responses during visual processing that may change according to behavioral state.
An Herbal Nasal Drop Enhanced Frontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity
Agnes S. Chan,Mei-chun Cheung,Sophia L. Sze,Winnie W. Leung,Dejian Shi
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep198
Abstract: The present study examined the neuro-electrophysiological activity of the brain associated with the application of a herbal remedy developed by a Shaolin monk based upon the Chan healing principle of clearing the orifices (i.e., the nasal cavities). A repeated-measures design was used. Fourteen normal adults were administered herbal remedy and saline solution intranasally on separate sessions. Two intervals of eyes-closed resting EEG data were obtained individually before and after each administration. Results showed that only the herbal remedy but not the saline solution induced elevation in cordance, an index correlated with cerebral perfusion, in the anterior brain region. In addition, the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as examined by the LORETA analysis, was also increased after the application of the herbal remedy but not saline solution. The present study provided some preliminary evidence suggesting that the herbal nasal drop enhanced the activity of the frontal lobe and ACC. Implications for the potential clinical application of the herbal remedy to treat patients with frontal lobe disorders were discussed.
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