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Bevacizumab vs. Ranibizumab in Preserving or Improving Vision in Patients with Wet, Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Cost-effectiveness Review
Chukwuemeka C. Nwanze, Abumere Akinwale and Ron A. Adelman
Clinical Medicine Insights: Therapeutics , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CMT.S7439
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of monthly and as-needed dosing protocols using ranibizumab or bevacizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), when the treatment costs of severe ocular and systemic adverse events are considered. Methods: A Markov model was developed to assess the cost effectiveness of each of the following protocols: monthly ranibizumab, monthly bevacizumab, as-needed ranibizumab and as-needed bevacizumab. Direct costs and utilities were assessed from the perspective of a third-party payer or an insurance company. Cost effectiveness was evaluated in 2011 US dollars per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results: Considering the treatment costs of severe medical and ocular adverse events, the cost effectiveness of each protocol is as follows: monthly ranibizumab $63,333/QALY, ranibizumab as needed $18,571/QALY, bevacizumab monthly $2,676/QALY and bevacizumab as needed $3,333/QALY. Sensitivity analysis of the treatment costs of medical and ocular adverse events demonstrated minimal impact on relative cost-effectiveness. Conclusion: At current prices, monthly bevacizumab is the most cost-effective anti-VEGF AMD treatment protocol. Ranibizumab is as cost effective as bevacizumab at a maximum price of $158 per dose.
Bevacizumab vs. Ranibizumab in Preserving or Improving Vision in Patients with Wet, Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Cost-effectiveness Review
Chukwuemeka C. Nwanze,Abumere Akinwale,Ron A. Adelman
Clinical Medicine Insights: Therapeutics , 2012,
Abstract:
Synthesis of N-Benzyl-3-anilinopropanamides and Cyclization to 4-Hydroxy-4-N-benzylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline  [PDF]
Lami A. Nnamonu, Vincent C. Agwada, Chukwuemeka A. Nwadinigwe
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2013.34032
Abstract:

Substituted 3-anilinopropanamides were converted to N-benzyl derivatives via uncatalyzed amine exchange reaction with benzylamine in up to 41% yield. Unprotected aniline nitrogen had been observed to inhibit facile cyclization. An attempt was therefore made to protect the N by acetylation prior to cyclization. During this process, facile ring closure occurred in the methoxy series to give 4-hydroxy-4-N-benzylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines in up to 69% yield.

 

 

Antihyperglycemic Studies on the Leaf Extract and Active Fractions of Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniaceae)  [PDF]
Chinyelu C. Osigwe, Peter A. Akah, Chukwuemeka S. Nworu, Theophine C. Okoye, Michel K. Tchimene
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2015.611054
Abstract: Optimal control of chronic hyperglycemia prevents both micro and macro vascular complications—a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic subjects. This study was undertaken to give credence to the traditional use of Newbouldia laevis leaves in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). Dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract (DME) of N. laevis leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Separation of DME into column chromatographic fractions yielded the n-hexane fraction (HF), ethylacetate fraction (EF) and methanol fraction (MF). The extract and fractions were evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity in alloxanized diabetic rats. The results showed that the oral administration of extract and fractions (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) caused a significant (P < 0.5) and dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose level in diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic potency after 24 h was in the order MF (methanol fraction; 56.31%) > DME (dichloromethane/methanol extract; 36.19%) > EF (ethylacetate fraction; 20.70%) > HF (n-hexane fraction; 10.09. The methanol fraction, which showed the highest potency in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), was further separated into column chromatographic sub-fractions—F1, F2, F3 and F4 fractions. These sub-fractions were evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity. Sub-fractions F1, F2 and F3 (1000 mg/kg) did produce significant (P
Vandalization of Oil Pipelines in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria and Poverty: An Overview
Oteh, Chukwuemeka Okpo,Eze R. C.
Studies in Sociology of Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.sss.1923018420120302.2950
Abstract: The paper highlights pipeline vandalization and how it affects the oil communities in the Niger Delta, her food production and most importantly is the environmental effects of oil exploration in terms of the socio economy of the people, this paper focuses on how vandalization of pipeline as a manifestation of poverty in the Niger Delta. The act of destroying or bursting of oil pipelines in Niger Delta region is as a result of underdevelopment and fatal negligence of the well fare of the people by the federal and state government, oil pollution which occurs in the form of water contamination through oil spillage which results in very low fish catch, considering that this region has lost her farmland because of environmental; degradation through oil exploration, and oil exploitation. As a result of the complete neglect of these communities, poverty has become endemic in the Niger-Delta and its manifestation is in the incessant vandalization of oil pipelines, the various fire incidence that occurred at Jesse, 1998, Ovirri court 2000, others and their aftermath. Lastly, there is an attempt by this paper to state the federal government palliative programmes like OMPADEC and most recently, the Niger Delta Development commission (NDDC). Key words: Vandalization; Oil pipeline; Poverty; Niger Delta
Culture as Philosophy of the First Order Activity  [PDF]
Celestine Chukwuemeka Mbaegbu
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.44051
Abstract: Any philosophy is closely tied to and truly inseparable from culture. This paper specifically examines the ontological status of any culture. In its full stretch, it focuses on whether or not there is any “philosophy” in a people’s culture and if in the affirmative, what type of philosophy it is, and how it relates to scientific or strictly academic philosophy in vogue of nearly all the academic institutions of higher learning in Africa and in many other foreign nations as well. The method employed in this article is hermeneutics, a method used to mid-wife philosophy from culture since it frames the dialectics between philosophy and non philosophy. The writer concludes that culture is philosophy of some sort or philosophy of the first order activity; it provides the professional philosophers the data base on which to transcend into pure, critical philosophy. The thin line between the two senses of philosophy, namely, philosophy in the strict sense and in the loose sense is thereby clarified, linked and joined in a mutual relationship of bedrock provision.
PHILOSOPHY in the Dialogue of Democracy and Other Political Ideologies in the North African Revolutions  [PDF]
Celestine Chukwuemeka Mbaegbu
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.44056
Abstract: The problems of social and political ideologies in North Africa have reached its apogee in the year 2011 thereby demanding urgent philosophical investigation. What is propelling this current change? What kind of scepter has been haunting North Africa for many decades now? What kind of political system could guarantee their rights since their hard-line monarchies have failed them and they are jostling for liberation? This value is antithetical to the prevailing ideologies that stand against their dream of a new order in that region. Using the method of analysis this paper sets out to unravel the root causes, analyze the consequences and point out the role of dialogue and philosophy in the current change. The conclusion is that the scepter of democracy, peoples’ rights and freedom and clash of civilizations are behind these revolutions and that the most appropriate means of resolving the crisis is dialogue, not by hard power or any resolutions by the super powers.
A Philosophical Investigation of the Nature of God in Igbo Ontology  [PDF]
Celestine Chukwuemeka Mbaegbu
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.52016
Abstract: In its general task, philosophy as an academic or professional exercise is a conscious, critical, personal reflection on human experience, on man, and how he perceives and interprets his world. This article specifically examines the nature of God in Igbo ontology. It is widely accepted by all philosophers that man in all cultures has the ability to philosophize. This was what Plato and Aris- totle would want us to believe, but it is not the same as saying that man has always philosophized in the academic meaning of the word in the sense of a coherent, systematic inquiry, since power and its use are different things altogether. Using the method of analysis and hermeneutics this article sets out to discover, find out the inherent difficulties in the common sense views, ideas and insights of the pre-modern Igbo of Nigeria to redefine, refine and remodel them. The reason is sim- ple: Their concepts and nature of realities especially that of the nature of God were very hazy, inarticulate and confusing. The conclusion is that their concept of the nature of God cannot conform to that in Western Philosophy. Consequently the author concludes that the nature of God among the pre-modern Igbo is monopolytheism which is what was touted as “one” and “many” by pre-modern scholars and scholars of African Traditional Religion. This concept is more acceptable in the light of Igbo Ontology or theory of being, so that the term “One” and “Many”, which, according to Igbo philosophy of language is just a “raw material”, may be dropped since in Igbo philosophy, the term “One” representing one God, and “Many” representing many gods can be made less clumsy since neither of them as in Western thought can fit into Igbo Theism. The solution must be sought in the integration of the “One” and the “Many” in order to distil the true nature of God in Igbo Ontology.
The Effective Power of Music in Africa  [PDF]
Celestine Chukwuemeka Mbaegbu
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.53021
Abstract: This article investigates the role of music in Africa. The study is primarily motivated by the fact that music plays an indispensable role in the being of Africans at work, in politics, in their socio-economic engagements, in religious worship, integral development, in their moral life, etc. The primary objective therefore is to ascertain the influence of music with regard to the integral development of the Africans and the overall acknowledgment of this indispensable role on the active and meaningful behavior of Africans. Using the methods of phenomenology and analysis, the findings reveal that Africans are music lovers and that music features as an indispensable handmaid of any meaningful behavior and sustainability of the being of any African person whether young or old.
An Appraisal of Man’s Essence in Bantu Ontology  [PDF]
Celestine Chukwuemeka Mbaegbu
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.54027
Abstract: With the Socratic injunction: “man know thyself”; the West began a formal search for the nature of man. What is man? What is his essence in real life; what exactly makes him what he is? These questions, apart from dividing philosophers in the West into different warring camps, also portray man as incapable of self knowledge; hence man is described as a paradox. This seemingly insoluble problem among Western philosophers is grounded on their conception of reality as static and dichotomised. In Africa with the understanding of reality as one unitary whole, though distinct and yet complementary, penetrating and interacting with each other, the dualism disappears and there is what we call the “harmony of African conceptions”. In this article, using comparative analysis, the essence of man is critically examined within a particular African culture, namely, Bantu ontology and with their conception of reality as dynamic, a conception in contradistinction to the Western static conception of reality The conclusion is that a new definition of man emerges, a definition which is one of the essential characteristics of who is an African?
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