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The excipient usefulness of carbosil and Landolphia owariensis in two oil-based self-emulsifying formulations
Obitte Nicholas,Chukwu Amarauche
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The objective of this work was to improve on the solubility of ibuprofen using two vegetable oil-based self-emulsifying formulations (SEFs) and to evaluate the potential usefulness of Carbosil (CARB) and Landolphia owariensis latex (LOL) in them. Isotropicity, drug solubility, viscosity, emulsification time (EMT), drug release, aqueous dilution, postemulsification drug precipitation and refrigeration tests were carried out on the coconut oil (CO) and shea butter oil (SBO)-based SEFs. Results showed that only four out of nine batches of the SEFs passed the preformulation isotropicity test. A 100-mg quantity proved to be the maximum amount of drug that could be dissolved by the SEFs to form a stable solution. After 72 hrs all the SEFs still retained stability. All of CO SEFs witnessed remarkable phase separation or drug precipitation However, SBO SEFs having oil:surfactant:cosurfactant ratio of 35:45:20 and containing LOL or LOL-CARB blend lost isotropicity or displayed drug precipitation 6 months later. Refrigeration temperature did not introduce any form of instability or phase separation. Similar viscosities were recorded by the two oil-based SEFs. However, little but inconsistent variation in viscosity was observed between SBO SEFS and LOL-containing SEFs. Aqueous dilution and postemulsification drug precipitation test indicated absence of phase separation and drug precipitation, respectively. Drug-release studies showed that the t 50 of SBO SEFs almost ranked equally with SBO SEFs containing LOL. CO SEFs emulsified at a longer time than those of SBO. SEFs distinctly recorded higher EMTs than those with LOL or CARB-LOL blend. In conclusion, solubility of ibuprofen was improved, CARB gelled the SEFs while LOL reduced their EMTs.
Clogs in the Re-Branding Wheel: Images of Leadership in Nigerian Fiction
VO Chukwu
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: According to Randall Frost, place branding determines whether a countrymay be chosen as a tourist destination, a place to invest or a source ofconsumer goods. Rebranding implies that Nigeria s image is inimical toattaining these goals. Sensibly, writers are perceived as stakeholders in thisnew project. This study illustrates the fact that fiction has consistentlymounted the image of a nation drifting under a corrupt leadership. FromAchebe to Adichie, it has been a portrait of a self-centred semi-literatepolitical class brazenly suspicious of the intelligentia, through militarydictatorships, looting the commonwealth and sponsoring a pogrom thatculminated in a civil war, to the woeful breeding of a teeming population ofjobless graduates forced into drug-peddling and violent crimes. Fiction hasbeen faithful in depicting verisimilitude. It seems to be saying that Nigerianleaders do not take heed of its prophetic messages.
A Semiological Irony in the Life of Man: an Assessment of Lawrence’s the Colossus of Rhodes
E Chukwu
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: Language is a channel for expressing literary imagination; without language there will be no literature. Caraline Lawrence’s text, The Colossus of Rhodes, demonstrates this reality via language elements. Making use of linguistic signs – words and sentences -, she gives a picturesque parallel contest between minors, and a gangster kingpin selling kidnapped children into slavery. This kingpin likened with gigantic human material artifact, the Colossus of Rhodes, considers himself invincible past as the erectors of the colossus consider it impregnable. Nevertheless, the kingpin meets his waterloo at the hands of these minors just as the material colossus succumbs to earthquake, a natural disaster. This situational irony forwarded in readable language is laced with some other literary techniques – parallelism, symbolism, paradoxism, reversal of situation, and mode of narration - made possible by words and sentences to elicit pleasing disposition of man. This piece of writing therefore strives to point out that words and sentences (semiotics) encapsulate the associative use of language impossible to be projected without obedience to the linguistic levels of word formation (morphology), of arranging words sequentially (syntax) and of using words meaningfully (semantics); levels fully realized whenever any of these grammatical units – morpheme, word, phrase, clause, sentence - is distributed contextually.
Transformational Relations as Elegant Variation in Writing
EA Chukwu
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: Transformational relations or relations of grammatical paraphrase describecontrasting syntactic structures possessing the same referential object andexpressing the same sense. The grammatical category, voice, exemplifiestransformations through its streamlined active-passive constructions. Thepredominance of the active expression makes many budding scholarsignorant of the alternative passivization. The formation of transformations,the verbs involved in transformation, the reasons for adopting passiveconstructions, the relevance of the expressions in fields of discourse areelucidated in detail as requisite skills for writing and speaking competently.In addition, transformational relations as sentential synonymy examinesentences with different structural frameworks as synonymous for embracingthe same truth conditions: the same referent, the same sense or meaning, and the same event in the real world. Generally, sentences that have the same necessary and sufficient conditions for determining their truth or falsity are paraphrase.
Parallelism: A Semiotic Feature of Belle Lettres
EA Chukwu
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: Parallelism as an expressive feature embellishes graces and endears the well-formedness of sentences elucidating writings and speeches. This paper therefore reintroduces a fundamental feature making utterances rhythmical, rhetorical and elocutionary, qualities severally being misused, overlooked and misinterpreted by many learners, many teachers, and many writers (journalists). It is with regard to the near-neglect of this veritable writing technique that this paper expatiates the concepts of parallelism, the interface between belle lettres (beautiful letters or writings) and belle-lettres (literary writings or studies), and parallelism as a semiotic element of syntactics. It as well juxtaposes well-formed parallel structures and ill-formed ones as exemplary indications of dos and don’ts of making speeches or composing essays. The paper unequivocally underlines the sine qua non of parallelism before effective and enduring speeches and writings can be accomplished.
Histophysiological and basal metabolic responses of albino rat, Rattus norvegicus (L) exposed to aqueous pepper extracts
LO Chukwu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: The effect of oral ingestion of aqueous extracts of two species of pepper, Capsicum annum var fastigatum (Linn) and Capsicum frutescens var minima (Linn) on the basal metabolic rate and histophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract and liver of Rattus norvegicus (L) was investigated. Body weight data was recorded weekly during the period of investigation. The various species of pepper produced a decrease in basal metabolic rate as the concentrations of the extract increased. Gross and histopathological changes observed in the gastrointestinal tract and liver were demonstrated as cellular damage under light microscopy and weight loss. The implications of these findings are discussed
Analysis of Groundwater Pollution from Abattoir Waste in Minna, Nigeria
Ogbonnaya Chukwu
Research Journal of Dairy Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Abattoir wastes are hazardous as many contain small quantities of components which are potentially dangerous to man and the environment. These wastes can seep through the ground and contaminate groundwater with nitrate and bacteria. This study analyzed the effects of pollution on groundwater around an abattoir using Minna abattoir as a case study. Physical, Chemical and Organic parameters of two wells (W1 and W2) around the abattoir were analyzed. The values of the parameters obtained from the analyses were: Turbidity (115.0, 11.0 FTU), electrical conductivity (260.0, 250.0 mg L-1), pH (8.4, 8.4), Hardness (72.0, 113.0 mg L-1), Iron Content (0.44, 0.51 mg L-1), Nitrate (1.0, 0.6 mg L-1), Phosphate (2.04, 0.6 mg L-1), Magnesium (10.5, 16.5 mg L-1), Nitrite (0.152, 0.016 mg L-1), BOD (3.25, 2.41 mg L-1), COD (2.11, 1.92 mg L-1) and DO (1.50, 0.86 mg L-1). The first value in each bracket is for W1 (well1) and the second value is for W2 (well 2). The results of the analyses of the wells when compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water were higher than recommended limits; this implies that the portability of the tested groundwater is not acceptable. The well water should be treated before use.
Predicting the Impact of a Food Processing Industry on Water Quality of its Environment
Ogbonnaya Chukwu
Environmental Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: A 24 full factorial design was used to predict the impact of NAS Foods Nigeria Limited on the water quality of its environment. The factorial, main and interaction effects of four water pollutants, namely, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), sulphide of lead (PbS), Total Nitrates (TNL) and Total Undissolved Solids (TUS) on Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) were obtained statistically. From the sensitive analysis, it was concluded that all the main effects and interactions in the model have significant impacts on the level of BOD of the surface water. However, TDS, TNL and TUS have higher detrimental influences. On the other hand, the interactions TDS/PbS/TUS, TDS/PbS and PbS/TUS all have high incremental influences on Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The statistical analysis of the experimental data showed that the developed model is adequate for obtaining optimum conditions of 2000 mg L-1 for TDS, 0.2 mg L-1 for PbS, 10 mg L-1 for TNL and 2030 mg L-1 for TUS. Validation of the model gave a correlation coefficient of 0.999251 between the measured and predicted values.
Performance Evaluation of Locally Manufactured Rice Threshers in Niger State
O. Chukwu
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: A survey involving type-tests, the use of questionnaires and personal communication during field trips was carried out in Niger State. It was aimed at the performance evaluation of locally manufactured rice threshers in use in Niger State. Details of the performance evaluation and summary report are presented. The performance indices evaluated include threshing intensity, capacity utilization, power requirement, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, grain recovery range, percent total losses, number of adjustments and portability. The threshing intensity, capacity utilization, power requirement, threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, grain recovery range and percent total losses are 0.0098 kw kg-1, 65.7%, 7.5 kW, 95, 92.43, 81.1 and 18.9%, respectively for FATE-RF-450 threshers. They are 0.0103 kw kg-1, 74.5%, 9 kw, 96, 93.45, 84.1 and 15.9% in that order for FATE-5TS-50J threshers.
Prospect of Using Solid Wastes from Food Processing Industries in Livestock Feed Formulation
Ogbonnaya Chukwu
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the prospect of incorporating solid wastes from food processing industries into livestock feeds. Solid wastes from 2 industries were analyzed into their components to determine the possibility of their use as livestock feeds. The results of the analysis showed that the solid wastes could be a good source of livestock feed. It was recommended that the practice of dumping solid wastes on industrial premises, into near-by streams and water bodies, or buried into landfills should be stopped as such practices could lead to environmental degradation, economic losses and poses public health hazards to human, aquatic and land animals.
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