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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 308261 matches for " Christopher J. Graham "
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The Effects of Stabilized Urea and Split-Applied Nitrogen on Sunflower Yield and Oil Content  [PDF]
Christopher J. Graham, Jac J. Varco
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.88125
Abstract: Sunflower is an efficient nitrogen (N) accumulator due to its aggressive taproot and extensive root system. While N rate studies in sunflower have shown a yield response, the response is often highly variable and difficult to predict in many instances. Additionally, since most sunflower production is intended for the oil market, surplus nitrogen tends to decrease oil content. Therefore, it is critical to hone nitrogen rates to maximize both yield and oil production and to incorporate alternative approaches to fertilizer application, which includes timing and method of application. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a split-application of N at either the V4 or R1 growth stage to increase yield and/or oil content in sunflower. A second objective was to examine whether a urease inhibitor could be used to retain soil N longer and achieve a similar effect as a split-application. Studies were conducted at two locations over two growing seasons in South Dakota, USA. A target rate of 90 kg·ha-1 was applied as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) either as an at-planting application or split-applied. Overall, N additions did significantly increase yield over a control. On average, the urease inhibitor tended to increase grain yields over split-applying N at either growth stage, however, there was no statistical effect on either grain yield or oil content. Based on 15N analysis, approximately 27% of the N in the grain was derived from the UAN fertilizer, which indicates a relatively large reliance upon soil N for grain N content. The addition of a urease inhibitor significantly increased average fertilizer uptake by nearly 6% to 32.7%.
Enhanced recovery programme in colorectal surgery: Does one size fit all?
Alison Lyon,Christopher J Payne,Graham J MacKay
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i40.5661
Abstract: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) employs a multimodal perioperative care pathway with the aim of attenuating the stress response to surgery and accelerating recovery. It has been difficult to determine the relative importance of some of the individual components of these pathways such as epidural analgesia and laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Some argue that only a rigid adherence to the published ERAS protocol can achieve the proposed benefits of fast-track surgery. In this article, we explore some of the areas where the evidence base may be changing and ask whether a more flexible and individualised approach should be considered.
The Key to Unlocking the Chemotherapeutic Potential of PPARγ Ligands: Having the Right Combination
Graham Skelhorne-Gross,Christopher J. B. Nicol
PPAR Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/946943
Abstract: Despite extensive preclinical evidence that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ activation protects against tumourigenesis, results from a few clinical trials using PPARγ ligands as monotherapy show modest success. In spite of this, several groups reported exciting results with therapeutic regimens that combine PPARγ ligands with other compounds: chemotherapeutic agents, retinoid x receptor (RXR)α agonists, statins, or cell-to-cell signaling molecules in preclinical cancer models and human trials. Here we have compiled an extensive review, consolidating the existing literature, which overwhelmingly supports a beneficial effect of treating with PPARγ ligands in combination with existing chemotherapies versus their monotherapy in cancer. There are many examples in which combination therapy resulted in synergistic/additive effects on apoptosis, differentiation, and the ability to reduce cell growth and tumour burden. There are also studies that indicate that PPARγ ligand pretreatment overcomes resistance and reduces toxicities. Several mechanisms are explored to explain these protective effects. This paper highlights each of these studies that, collectively, make a very strong case for the use of PPARγ ligands in combination with other agents in the treatment and management of several cancers. 1. Introduction Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, with the projected number of associated deaths continuing to rise to an estimated 13.1 million people by 2030 [1]. For any given tumour, a concerted evaluation of type, stage, location, and size at the time of diagnosis influence the selection of one or more available treatment interventions, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or combinations as appropriate. Accordingly, improved understanding of how chemotherapeutic interventions can be optimized will assist with cancer prevention, as well as treatment and care of cancer patients. Though many single agent treatments of solid or hematologic tumours are effective, they often select for resistant cells, and ultimately recurrent tumours, which no longer respond to the initial therapy [2]. To minimize the development of resistance, researchers and clinicians have expanded the use of combination drug therapies for some time. This approach favours combining individual classic chemotherapeutic agents aimed at forming new optimized regimens with additive/synergistic protective effects [3–5]. Of course, these combinations must also be chosen wisely to avoid similar synergism in toxicity. To achieve maximal chemotherapeutic potential and
Contractile and Elastic Ankle Joint Muscular Properties in Young and Older Adults
Christopher J. Hasson,Ross H. Miller,Graham E. Caldwell
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015953
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related differences in contractile and elastic properties of both dorsi- (DF) and plantarflexor (PF) muscles controlling the ankle joint in young and older adults. Experimental data were collected while twelve young and twelve older male and female participants performed maximal effort isometric and isovelocity contractions on a dynamometer. Equations were fit to the data to give torque-angle (Tθ) and torque-angular velocity (Tω) relations. Muscle series-elasticity was measured during ramped dynamometer contractions using ultrasonography to measure aponeurosis extension as a function of torque; second order polynomials were used to characterize the torque-extension (TΔL) relation. The results showed no age differences in DF maximal torque and none for female PF; however, older males had smaller maximal PF torques compared to young males. In both muscle groups and genders, older adults had decreased concentric force capabilities. Both DF and PF TΔL relations were more nonlinear in the older adults. Older PF, but not DF muscles, were stiffer compared to young. A simple antagonism model suggested age-related differences in Tθ and Tω relations would be magnified if antagonistic torque contributions were included. This assessment of static, dynamic, and elastic joint properties affords a comprehensive view of age-related modifications in muscle function. Although many clinical studies use maximal isometric strength as a marker of functional ability, the results demonstrate that there are also significant age-related modifications in ankle muscle dynamic and elastic properties.
Binding Sites Analyser (BiSA): Software for Genomic Binding Sites Archiving and Overlap Analysis
Matloob Khushi, Christopher Liddle, Christine L. Clarke, J. Dinny Graham
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087301
Abstract: Genome-wide mapping of transcription factor binding and histone modification reveals complex patterns of interactions. Identifying overlaps in binding patterns by different factors is a major objective of genomic studies, but existing methods to archive large numbers of datasets in a personalised database lack sophistication and utility. Therefore we have developed transcription factor DNA binding site analyser software (BiSA), for archiving of binding regions and easy identification of overlap with or proximity to other regions of interest. Analysis results can be restricted by chromosome or base pair overlap between regions or maximum distance between binding peaks. BiSA is capable of reporting overlapping regions that share common base pairs; regions that are nearby; regions that are not overlapping; and average region sizes. BiSA can identify genes located near binding regions of interest, genomic features near a gene or locus of interest and statistical significance of overlapping regions can also be reported. Overlapping results can be visualized as Venn diagrams. A major strength of BiSA is that it is supported by a comprehensive database of publicly available transcription factor binding sites and histone modifications, which can be directly compared to user data. The documentation and source code are available on http://bisa.sourceforge.net
Gold catalysis: helping create a sustainable future
Nikolaos Dimitratos,Jennifer K. Edwards,Christopher J. Kiely,Graham J. Hutchings
Applied Petrochemical Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13203-012-0011-9
Abstract: In recent years there has been a general realisation that supported gold and gold bimetallic nanoparticles can be very effective for a broad range of redox reactions. In this paper we review the preparation of gold palladium nanoparticles using a sol-immobilisation methodology and show their effectiveness for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide.
Positive Selection by Purified MHC Class II / Thymic Epithelial Cells In Vitro: Costimulatory Signals Mediated by B7 Are Not Involved
Eric J. Jenkinson,Graham Anderson,Nel C. Moore,Christopher A. Smith
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 1994, DOI: 10.1155/1994/75434
BNIP3 Regulates AT101 [(-)-Gossypol] Induced Death in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Cells
Niroop Kaza, Latika Kohli, Christopher D. Graham, Barbara J. Klocke, Steven L. Carroll, Kevin A. Roth
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096733
Abstract: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive Schwann cell-derived sarcomas and are the leading cause of mortality in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Current treatment modalities have been largely ineffective, resulting in a high rate of MPNST recurrence and poor five-year patient survival. This necessitates the exploration of alternative chemotherapeutic options for MPNST patients. This study sought to assess the cytotoxic effect of the BH3-mimetic AT101 [(-)-gossypol] on MPNST cells in vitro and to identify key regulators of AT101-induced MPNST cell death. We found that AT101 caused caspase-independent, non-apoptotic MPNST cell death, which was accompanied by autophagy and was mediated through HIF-1α induced expression of the atypical BH3-only protein BNIP3. These effects were mediated by intracellular iron chelation, a previously unreported mechanism of AT101 cytotoxicity.
Orexin antagonists for neuropsychiatric disease: progress and potential pitfalls
Jiann Wei Yeoh,Erin J. Campbell,Morgan H. James,Brett A. Graham,Christopher V. Dayas
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00036
Abstract: The tight regulation of sleep/wake states is critical for mental and physiological wellbeing. For example, dysregulation of sleep/wake systems predisposes individuals to metabolic disorders such as obesity and psychiatric problems, including depression. Contributing to this understanding, the last decade has seen significant advances in our appreciation of the complex interactions between brain systems that control the transition between sleep and wake states. Pivotal to our increased understanding of this pathway was the description of a group of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) that express the neuropeptides orexin A and B (hypocretin, Hcrt-1 and Hcrt-2). Orexin neurons were quickly placed at center stage with the demonstration that loss of normal orexin function is associated with the development of narcolepsy—a condition in which sufferers fail to maintain normal levels of daytime wakefulness. Since these initial seminal findings, much progress has been made in our understanding of the physiology and function of the orexin system. For example, the orexin system has been identified as a key modulator of autonomic and neuroendocrine function, arousal, reward and attention. Notably, studies in animals suggest that dysregulation of orexin function is associated with neuropsychiatric states such as addiction and mood disorders including depression and anxiety. This review discusses the progress associated with therapeutic attempts to restore orexin system function and treat neuropsychiatric conditions such as addiction, depression and anxiety. We also highlight potential pitfalls and challenges associated with targeting this system to treat these neuropsychiatric states.
A Brassica Exon Array for Whole-Transcript Gene Expression Profiling
Christopher G. Love,Neil S. Graham,Seosamh ó Lochlainn,Helen C. Bowen,Sean T. May,Philip J. White,Martin R. Broadley,John P. Hammond,Graham J. King
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012812
Abstract: Affymetrix GeneChip? arrays are used widely to study transcriptional changes in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. GeneChip? arrays comprise multiple 25-mer oligonucleotide probes per gene and retain certain advantages over direct sequencing. For plants, there are several public GeneChip? arrays whose probes are localised primarily in 3′ exons. Plant whole-transcript (WT) GeneChip? arrays are not yet publicly available, although WT resolution is needed to study complex crop genomes such as Brassica, which are typified by segmental duplications containing paralogous genes and/or allopolyploidy. Available sequence data were sampled from the Brassica A and C genomes, and 142,997 gene models identified. The assembled gene models were then used to establish a comprehensive public WT exon array for transcriptomics studies. The Affymetrix GeneChip? Brassica Exon 1.0 ST Array is a 5 μM feature size array, containing 2.4 million 25-base oligonucleotide probes representing 135,201 gene models, with 15 probes per gene distributed among exons. Discrimination of the gene models was based on an E-value cut-off of 1E?5, with ≤98% sequence identity. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array was validated by quantifying transcriptome differences between leaf and root tissue from a reference Brassica rapa line (R-o-18), and categorisation by Gene Ontologies (GO) based on gene orthology with Arabidopsis thaliana. Technical validation involved comparison of the exon array with a 60-mer array platform using the same starting RNA samples. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array is a robust platform. All data relating to the array design and probe identities are available in the public domain and are curated within the BrassEnsembl genome viewer at http://www.brassica.info/BrassEnsembl/in?dex.html.
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