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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 201674 matches for " Christopher G. Schultz "
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Osteoporotic Characteristics Persist in the Spine of Ovariectomized Sheep after Withdrawal of Corticosteroid Administration
Mohammad-Reza Zarrinkalam,Christopher G. Schultz,Ian H. Parkinson,Robert J. Moore
Journal of Osteoporosis , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/182509
Abstract: A validated ovine model of osteoporosis achieves severe bone loss in a relatively short period. This study investigated if osteoporotic features persist in this model after cessation of corticosteroid administration. Methods. Osteoporosis was induced in nine ewes by chronic corticosteroid injection, ovariectomy, and low calcium diet. Six ewes were used as controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (LS) and body weight were assessed at regular intervals. After five months, corticosteroid treatment was withdrawn systematically over one month. Three months later, all animals were euthanised, and the LS was collected for histomorphometric analysis. Results. BMD in the LS of osteoporotic sheep was 25% lower than control sheep. Body weight of osteoporotic sheep was reduced in the first month of the corticosteroid withdrawal period but returned to baseline level thereafter. Trabecular bone volume of LS in osteoporotic sheep was 27% lower than controls and showed a heterogeneous structure. Conclusions. Osteoporotic characteristics remain in the vertebra after ceasing corticosteroid administration providing an opportunity to evaluate potential systemic or local treatments in vivo under realistic physiological conditions. The microstructural arrangement of vertebral trabecular bone in sheep is similar to humans demonstrating further relevance of this model for preclinical investigations.
Osteoporotic Characteristics Persist in the Spine of Ovariectomized Sheep after Withdrawal of Corticosteroid Administration
Mohammad-Reza Zarrinkalam,Christopher G. Schultz,Ian H. Parkinson,Robert J. Moore
Journal of Osteoporosis , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/182509
Abstract: A validated ovine model of osteoporosis achieves severe bone loss in a relatively short period. This study investigated if osteoporotic features persist in this model after cessation of corticosteroid administration. Methods. Osteoporosis was induced in nine ewes by chronic corticosteroid injection, ovariectomy, and low calcium diet. Six ewes were used as controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (LS) and body weight were assessed at regular intervals. After five months, corticosteroid treatment was withdrawn systematically over one month. Three months later, all animals were euthanised, and the LS was collected for histomorphometric analysis. Results. BMD in the LS of osteoporotic sheep was 25% lower than control sheep. Body weight of osteoporotic sheep was reduced in the first month of the corticosteroid withdrawal period but returned to baseline level thereafter. Trabecular bone volume of LS in osteoporotic sheep was 27% lower than controls and showed a heterogeneous structure. Conclusions. Osteoporotic characteristics remain in the vertebra after ceasing corticosteroid administration providing an opportunity to evaluate potential systemic or local treatments in vivo under realistic physiological conditions. The microstructural arrangement of vertebral trabecular bone in sheep is similar to humans demonstrating further relevance of this model for preclinical investigations. 1. Introduction Osteoporosis is a generalised condition of decreased bone mass that is characterised by a significant increase in the likelihood of skeletal fractures [1, 2]. Of all the fractures associated with osteoporosis, just under 50% occur in the spine with the remainder fairly evenly distributed between the hips, wrists, and other skeletal sites [3]. According to the World Health Organisation, osteoporosis is a “silent epidemic” [4] which is increasing as the population ages. It is estimated that 10 million people in the USA and 1.9 million people in Australia already have osteoporosis, and it is expected that these numbers will double over the next decade [5]. Various animal models have been utilised to investigate the osteoporotic condition in order to facilitate preclinical testing of pharmaceutical agents and to evaluate other treatment options. The ovariectomised rat is recognised by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a suitable animal model [6] but due to limitations, such as lack of true lamellar bone and Haversian systems and being relatively small, there is still a need for a complementary large animal model to improve orthopaedic procedures
On the use of ATSR fire count data to estimate the seasonal and interannual variability of vegetation fire emissions
M. G. Schultz
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2002,
Abstract: Biomass burning has long been recognised as an important source of trace gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. The burning of vegetation has a repeating seasonal pattern, but the intensity of burning and the exact localisation of fires vary considerably from year to year. Recent studies have demonstrated the high interannual variability of the emissions that are associated with biomass burning. In this paper I present a methodology using active fire counts from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensor on board the ERS-2 satellite to estimate the seasonal and interannual variability of global biomass burning emissions in the time period 1996--2000. From the ATSR data, I compute relative scaling factors of burning intensity for each month, which are then applied to a standard inventory for carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning. The new, time-resolved inventory is evaluated using the few existing multi-year burned area observations on continental scales.
On the use of ATSR fire count data to estimate the seasonal and interannual variability of vegetation fire emissions
M. G. Schultz
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2002,
Abstract: Biomass burning has long been recognised as an important source of trace gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. The burning of vegetation has a repeating seasonal pattern, but the intensity of burning and the exact localisation of fires vary considerably from year to year. Recent studies have demonstrated the high interannual variability of the emissions that are associated with biomass burning. In this paper we present a methodology using active fire counts from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensor on board the ERS-2 satellite to estimate the seasonal and interannual variability of global biomass burning emissions in the time period 1996--2000. From the ATSR data, we compute relative scaling factors of burning intensity for each month, which are then applied to a standard inventory for carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning. The new, time-resolved inventory is evaluated using the few existing multi-year burned area observations on continental scales.
Quantum transport through single-molecule junctions with orbital degeneracies
Maximilian G. Schultz
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.155408
Abstract: We consider electronic transport through a single-molecule junction where the molecule has a degenerate spectrum. Unlike previous transport models, and theories a rate-equations description is no longer possible, and the quantum coherences between degenerate states have to be taken into account. We present the derivation and application of a master equation that describes the system in the weak-coupling limit and give an in-depth discussion of the parameter regimes and the new phenomena due to coherent on-site dynamics.
Tayler instability of toroidal magnetic fields in MHD Taylor-Couette flows
G. Ruediger,M. Schultz
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1002/asna.200911249
Abstract: The nonaxisymmetric 'kink-type' Tayler instability (TI) of toroidal magnetic fields is studied for conducting incompressible fluids of uniform density between two infinitely long cylinders rotating around the same axis. It is shown that for resting cylinders the critical Hartmann number for the unstable modes does not depend on Pm. By rigid rotation the instability is suppressed where the critical ratio of the rotation velocity and the Alfven velocity of the field (only) slightly depends on the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. For Pm=1 the rotational quenching of TI takes its maximum. Rotation laws with negative shear (i.e. d\Omega/dR<0) strongly destabilize the toroidal field if the rotation is not too fast. For sufficiently high Reynolds numbers of rotation the suppression of the nonaxisymmetric magnetic instability always dominates. The angular momentum transport of the instability is anticorrelated with the shear so that an eddy viscosity can be defined which proves to be positive. For negative shear the Maxwell stress of the perturbations remarkably contributes to the angular momentum transport. We have also shown the possibility of laboratory TI experiments with a wide-gap container filled with fluid metals like sodium or gallium. Even the effect of the rotational stabilization can be reproduced in the laboratory with electric currents of only a few kAmp.
A Single-Season Irrigated Rice Soil Presents Higher Iron Toxicity Risk in Tropical Savannah Valley Bottoms  [PDF]
Amadou Keita, Hamma Yacouba, Laszlo G. Hayde, Bart Schultz
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.37036
Abstract:

With the aim of finding the geochemical differences and helping to build alleviating strategies against iron toxicity, two hematite dominant valley bottoms irrigating rice soils were investigated in the Tropical Savannah region of Burkina Faso. The first site was Tiefora, a 15-ha modern double-season irrigated rice system and moderately affected by iron toxicity (10% of the area with a toxicity score of 4). The second site was Moussodougou, a 35-ha traditional singleseason irrigated rice valley-bottom, with 50% facing more severe iron toxicity (score 7). Nine soil extracts were taken from three depths—30, 50 and 100 cm—i.e. 27 at Tiefora and 27 at Moussodogou. Five techniques were used to measure the data: 1) the ferrous iron concentration was determined using a reflectometer, 2) a pH-meter yielded the pH, 3) clay-proportions were obtained by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) grain size analysis and densitometry, 4) the organic matter was determined by oven drying (900℃) and v) the dry bulk density was determined by using undisturbed soil samples. Statistical hypothesis testing of One-way ANOVA and Welch t-test was applied to the data to isolate the similarities and the differences between the two sites. A geochemical analysis followed to find the causes of these differences. The results showed that while oxidation of pyrite leads to a simultaneous increase in Fe2+ concentrations and acidity in the soils of coastal floodplains and mangroves, the oxidation of hematite in Tropical savannah valley bottoms decreases Fe2+ but also increases acidity during the dry season. As a consequence, it was found that the single-season irrigation scheme Moussodougou is significantly (p-value 0.4%) more acidic (pH 5.7) than the double-season system of Tiefora (6.4) with also 750 - 1800 mg/l higher

CXCR4 Expression in Prostate Cancer Progenitor Cells
Anna Dubrovska, Jimmy Elliott, Richard J. Salamone, Gennady D. Telegeev, Alexander E. Stakhovsky, Ihor B. Schepotin, Feng Yan, Yan Wang, Laure C. Bouchez, Sumith A. Kularatne, James Watson, Christopher Trussell, Venkateshwar A. Reddy, Charles Y. Cho, Peter G. Schultz
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031226
Abstract: Tumor progenitor cells represent a population of drug-resistant cells that can survive conventional chemotherapy and lead to tumor relapse. However, little is known of the role of tumor progenitors in prostate cancer metastasis. The studies reported herein show that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, a key regulator of tumor dissemination, plays a role in the maintenance of prostate cancer stem-like cells. The CXCL4/CXCR12 pathway is activated in the CD44+/CD133+ prostate progenitor population and affects differentiation potential, cell adhesion, clonal growth and tumorigenicity. Furthermore, prostate tumor xenograft studies in mice showed that a combination of the CXCR4 receptor antagonist AMD3100, which targets prostate cancer stem-like cells, and the conventional chemotherapeutic drug Taxotere, which targets the bulk tumor, is significantly more effective in eradicating tumors as compared to monotherapy.
A Device that can Produce Net Impulse Using Rotating Masses  [PDF]
Christopher G. Provatidis
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.28083
Abstract: This paper describes a device capable of producing net impulse, through two synchronized masses, which move along a figure-eight-shaped orbit. In addition to the detailed description of the mechanical components of this device, particular attention is paid to the theoretical treatment of the innovative principle on which the device is based. In more details, the mechanical system consists of two independent but simultaneous rotations, the former being related to the formation of the figure-eight-shaped path and the latter to an additional spinning. Based on the parametric equations of motion of the lumped masses, and considering semi-static tensile deformation of the connecting rods carrying them, it was found that the resultant impulse towards the direction of the spin vector includes a non-vanishing term that is linearly proportional to the time. In addition, reduced but encouraging experimental results are reported. These findings sustain the capability of the proposed mechanism to achieve propulsion.
Rotational Dynamics and Light-scattering in Super-cooled Molecular Liquids
Maximilian G. Schultz,Thomas Franosch
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: Constitutive equations for the long-wavelength behaviour of the orientational dynamics of a super-cooled liquid are derived using a projection-operator technique and resulting expressions for light-scattering spectra are formulated. We thus extend recent studies for axially symmetric molecules to the general case of arbitrarily shaped rigid molecules. The second part of the discussion considers hydrodynamic energy-fluctuations and thus arrives at expressions for light-scattering spectra which also include a Rayleigh-line. The role of the memory-kernels in the theory is treated in detail. In particular, the derivation of a theory that formally resembles earlier approaches to the problem is presented using a mathematically rigorous description of the Laplace-transforms of correlation-functions.
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