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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12588 matches for " Christopher Bismarck Eke "
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Vaccination Coverage and Its Determinants in Children Aged 11 - 23 Months in an Urban District of Nigeria  [PDF]
Beckie Nnenna Tagbo, Christopher Bismarck Eke, Babatunde Ishola Omotowo, Chika Nwanma Onwuasigwe, Edelu Benedict Onyeka, Ukoha Oluchi Mildred
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2014.44020
Abstract: Background/Objectives: Performance of the vaccination programme in Nigeria is lower than the regional average as well the 95% target necessary for sustained control of vaccine preventable diseases. This study is aimed at assessing the vaccination coverage and its associated factors in children aged 11 - 23 months in Enugu Metropolis. Methods: A cross sectional study in which caregivers and their children pair, aged 11 - 23 months attending children’s outpatient clinics in Enugu metropolis was undertaken. Respondents were selected consecutively while data were collected using pretested interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 while level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of full vaccination. Results: Of 351 subjects studied, 84.9% (298) were fully immunized according to the national programme on immunization schedule using both vaccination cards and history. The OPV0, OPV3, pentavalent-1, pentavalent-3 and measles coverage at the time of survey were 100.0%, 97.2%, 98.0%, 98.6%, 96.9% and 95.4%, respectively. On logistic regression: maternal occupation (government employees), children born in government hospitals and knowledge of when to start and complete vaccinations in a child were the likely predictors for completion of full vaccination in the children. Conclusion: The vaccination coverage among the study group was adjudged to be relatively high. Delivery of a child in a government hospital and the knowledge of the age when routine vaccinations should begin and end in a child were the independent predictors of the high vaccination coverage rate observed. Awareness and health education efforts in government tertiary hospitals should be extended to private and other hospitals to improve and sustain national vaccination coverage in Nigeria.
Determinants of Breast-Feeding Initiation Time among Newborns Delivered in a Tertiary Baby Friendly Health Facility in Enugu, Nigeria  [PDF]
Christopher Bismarck Eke, Israel Odutola Odetunde, Samuel Nkachukwu Uwaezuoke, Uzoamaka Vivian Muoneke, Nnamdi Benson Onyire, Uchenna Ekwochi, Chika Nwanma Onwasigwe
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2019.91006
Abstract: Background: The importance of early breastfeeding initiation to both the mother and infant is enormous as it reduces the likelihood of neonatal mortality as well as maternal postpartum haemorrhage. The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence and determinants of correct breastfeeding initiation time among newborns delivered at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study. Relevant maternal and new-born birth characteristics were obtained using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors that are significantly associated with correct breastfeeding initiation time with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Results: A total of 321 mother-newborn pairs were studied. 86 (26.8%) of the respondents correctly initiated breastfeeding within 1 hour of delivery. Planned pregnancy, pre-pregnancy decision on infant feeding options, primiparity, vaginal delivery and breast milk as first food given to the neonate post-delivery were associated with increased likelihood of correct breastfeeding initiation time. Conclusion: Correct breastfeeding initiation time among respondents is low. Planned pregnancy, pre-pregnancy decision on infant feeding option before pregnancy, primiparity, vaginal delivery and breast milk as first food given to the neonate after delivery were associated with having correct breastfeeding initiation time among respondents. Efforts should be made to
Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration among Mothers Attending Immunization Clinic in a Tertiary Health Facility in Enugu, Nigeria  [PDF]
Christopher Bismarck Eke, Vina Okafor, Beckie N. Tagbo, Nnamdi Benson Onyire, Francis Ikechukwu Ukekwe, Uzoamaka Vivian Muoneke
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2019.91007
Abstract: Background: Breastfeeding is cost effective means towards the realization of some key United Nations Sustainable Development Goals by the year 2030 particularly in resource limited settings. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the predictors of exclusive breastfeeding duration among mother and child pairs utilizing a tertiary immunization clinic facility. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Respondents were mother-and-child pairs who were recruited consecutively. Relevant maternal and child characteristics were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 (p < 0.05). Results: Four hundred and twenty seven mother-child pairs were studied. Majority of the mothers have at least secondary education, 383 (80.7%). 407 (95.3%) of the mothers fully understood the actual meaning of EBF. 189 (42.7%) reported practicing EBF in their index child for six months. Maternal perception of insufficient milk production, 52/99 (52.5%) was the most common reason for practicing EBF for <6 months among respondents. Maternal education and occupation and gender of the child were significantly associated with completion of EBF for 6
Prevalence and Correlates of Microalbuminuria in Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia: Experience in a Tertiary Health Facility in Enugu, Nigeria
Christopher Bismarck Eke,Henrietta Uche Okafor,Bede Chidozie Ibe
International Journal of Nephrology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/240173
Abstract: Microalbuminuria is a pre-clinical marker of renal damage in children with sickle cell anaemia and can predict renal failure. Reported prevalence rates increased with age. In Nigeria, burden of disease and prevailing poor health facilities necessitate its screening, determination of prevalence and associated risk factors. It is a cross-sectional as well as descriptive study. Screening microalbuminuria used subjects’ early morning urine. Socio-demographic as well as clinical details were ascertained using semi-structured questionnaires and case files. Associations and statistical relationship of prevalence rates and clinical/epidemiological data were ascertained using chi-squared and multivariate analysis . Two hundred children with sickle cell anaemia (4–17 years) in steady state and 200 age/gender-matched controls were enrolled. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was ,respectively, 18.5% and 2.5% for subjects and controls . Microalbuminuria was commoner in females (19.8%) than males (17.4%) , increased with age , significantly associated with haemoglobin level and hospitalizations (0.001). Subjects had normal renal function. Hospitalizations and haemoglobin levels showed statistical significance on multivariate analysis. Prevalence of microalbuminuria is 18.5%. Age, haemoglobin concentrations, and higher hospitalizations influenced microalbuminuria among subjects. Screening for microalbuminuria should be incorporated in the case management of subjects with identified risk factors. 1. Introduction Sickle cell nephropathy is a major complication of sickle cell disease and results from recurrent renal vasoocclusion, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and loss of renal mass [1]. It is characterized by glomerular hypertrophy and focal glomerulosclerosis [2, 3]. Proteinuria is one of the most common clinical manifestations of sickle cell nephropathy [4, 5]. Lowest level of albuminuria (20–200?mg/L) known as microalbuminuria [6] is a preclinical marker of glomerular damage predicting progressive renal failure in conditions like diabetes mellitus also associated with hyperfiltration, and hyperperfusion [7]. Microalbuminuria has been defined as an abnormally or supranormal urinary excretion of albumin in the absence of clinical proteinuria (i.e., proteinuria detectable by use of conventional dipstick like Albustix) [8]. Marshall et al. [9] defined microalbuminuria in terms of timed overnight urine collection as an albumin excretion rate greater than 20?μg per minute. Various proportional rates of microalbuminuria have been reported in children with sickle cell anaemia
Household Perceptions, Willingness to Pay, Benefit Package Preferences, Health System Readiness for National Health Insurance Scheme in Southern Nigeria  [PDF]
Ishola Babatunde Omotowo, Uchechukwu Enuma Ezeoke, Ikechukwu Emmanuel Obi, Benjamin S. Chudi Uzochukwu, Chike Chuka Agunwa, Christopher Bismarck Eke, Chinedu Arthur Idoko, Ancilla Kate Umeobieri
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.814159
Abstract: Introduction: Several Nigerians are completely denied access to adequate health care because of cultural, temporal and financial factors with inequity. Objectives: To ascertain the household perceptions, willingness to pay, benefit package preferences, and health systems readiness for Insurance Scheme. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 400 heads of households and 43 health workers in Enugu, Southern Nigeria. Results: Awareness of NHIS among the heads of household was 56.8%, while it was 86% among the health workers. Awareness of NHIS among heads of households was significantly associated to both educational level (X2 = 16.083, P = 0.001), and occupation (X2 = 5.694, P = 0.017). More males (61.6%) had correct perceptions of NHIS compared to females (58.6%), but not statistically significant (X2 = 0.336, P = 0.562). Majority of households respondents 89% are willing to pay for NHIS. Willingness to pay was significantly associated to occupation (X2 = 5.169, df = 1, P = 0.023), but willingness to pay mandatory 5% premium was not significantly associated to occupation (X2 = 0.884, P = 347). Only 11.6% of the health facilities are enlisted as providers in the scheme. Conclusion: Willingness to pay was high, but majority are not ready to pay 5% premium of their earnings. Awareness creation programmes should be improved for the public, and more health facilities enlisted for wider coverage.
Immune evasion by Plasmodium falciparum parasites: converting a host protection mechanism for the parasite′s benefit  [PDF]
Bismarck Dinko, Gabriele Pradel
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2016.62011
Abstract: Immune evasion is a strategy used by pathogenic microbes to evade the host immune system in order to ensure successful propagation. Immune evasion is particularly important for the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadly disease malaria tropica. Because Plasmodium blood stage parasites require human erythrocytes for replication, their ability to evade attack by the human immune system is essential for parasite survival. In order to escape immunity-induced killing, the intraerythrocytic parasites have evolved a variety of evasion mechanisms, including expansion of plasmodial surface proteins, organ-specific sequestration of the infected red blood cells and acquisition of immune-regulatory proteins by the parasite. This review aims to highlight recent advances in the molecular understanding of the immune evasion strategies by P. falciparum, including antigenic variation, surface protein polymorphisms and invasion ligand diversification. The review will further discuss new findings on the regulatory mechanisms applied by P. falciparum to avoid lysis by the human complement as well as killing by immune factors of the mosquito vector.
Determinants of Treatment Delays among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Enugu Metropolis, South-East, Nigeria  [PDF]
Omotowo Ishola Babatunde, Eke Christopher Bismark, Nwobi Emmanuel Amaechi, Eyisi Ifeanyi Gabriel, Agwu-Umahi Rebecca Olanike
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.711164
Abstract: Introduction: Globally, the burden of Tuberculosis is escalating. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment are essential to achieve an effective tuberculosis control programme. Objective: To investigate the duration of delay for treatment and assess the determinants of treatment delays among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Enugu metropolis, South-East, Nigeria. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 219 pulmonary tuberculosis patients in six randomly selected DOTS centres in the three LGAs in Enugu metropolis. Data were analysed using SPSS version 17, and statistical significance of association between variables was assessed using Chi-square test at p < 0.05. STATA version 13.1 was used to calculate the positive predictors of TB treatment delays using logistic regression. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Health Research Ethics Committee of UNTH and verbal informed consent was obtained from the participants. Results: Overall, 291 respondents took part in the study, 55.7% were males, 84.4% were aged between 16 to 60 years, while their mean age was 35.4 ± 12.6 years. Most of the participants 32.9%, 26.9%, 15.5% were traders, civil servants, and students respectively. Among the respondents, 3.6% knew that Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the cause of tuberculosis. Among the participants, only 23.3% presented for first appropriate treatment consultation within 1 - 30 days of onset of symptoms. The reasons given by the respondents for the delay are: ignorance of necessity treatment (36.1%), Lack of money (24.2%), no health facility close to the house (13.2%), and other reasons 26.5%. Delay in treatment was found to be significantly associated with HIV status (X2 = 23.412, df = 8, p = 0.003), knowledge of the cause of TB (X2 = 42.322, df = 28, p = 0.040), TB symptoms experienced (X2 = 46.857, df = 20, p = 0.001), occupation (X2 = 34.217, df = 20, p = 0.025), and distance of the health facility from the respondents’ residence (X2 = 34.908, df = 8, p = 0.000). The positive predictors of delayed treatment, using logistic regression, were first presentation at: patent medicine dealer (OR 12.3 CI: 3.22 - 36.23), private hospital (OR 10.6 CI: 5.73 - 17.94), prayer house (OR 7.2 CI: 2.75 - 23.64), and traditional healer (OR 11.9 CI: 6.87 - 32.85). Conclusion: Majority of TB patients in this study did not present early to health facilities. The positive predictors of delayed presentation for appropriate PTB treatment were first presentations at inappropriate treatment centres.
Abolition of Commercial Motorbikes and Its Implication on Transportation and Criminality in Calabar Metropolis
Christopher Eraye Michael,Usman Adekunle Ojedoku,Eke Chijioke Chinwokwu
International Journal of Social Science Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.11114/ijsss.v1i1.103
Abstract: The study examined the abolition of commercial motorbikes and its implications on transportation and criminality in Calabar Metropolis. The main objective of the study was to assess the implications associated with the abolition of commercial motorbikes as a means of transport and its effect on criminality in Calabar Metropolis. To achieve this objective, the study elicited data through questionnaire from 984 randomly selected respondents. Simple percentages and chi-square were employed to analyze elicited data at 0.05 levels of significance. The findings revealed that factors such as upsurge in criminal activities, rise in traffic accidents, traffic congestion and recklessness on the part of the operators of commercial motorbikes among others account for the abolition of motorbikes as a means of transportation in Calabar Metropolis. The study findings also revealed that the abolition of commercial motorbikes resulted in the delay of workers getting vehicles to their workplaces, increased in transportation fare charges and quarrel amongst commuters as they struggle to access few available transport vehicles. Furthermore, the study findings revealed that the abolition has resulted to an increase in criminal activities such as armed robbery, pick-pocketing, theft and snatching of valuables. The study recommends among others: the provision of alternative jobs for the displaced youths who have been affected by the government action, government should partner with private sectors to establish avoidable transport system for the masses and government should ensure that urban taxi cabs maintained approved standard transport fares in all routes to avoid arbitrary and unavoidable charges.
Caregivers’ Perception of Unintentional Child and Adolescent Injuries in Enugu, Nigeria  [PDF]
Christopher B. Eke, Obianuju O. Igbokwe, Vivian O. Onukwuli
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2019.93021
Abstract: Background: Injury is an increasing cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate caregivers’ perception of unintentional child and adolescent injuries in Enugu. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Data were collected from caregivers of children attending the children’s outpatients’ unit of the hospital during the period of the study, who were selected consecutively using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20.0. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: A total of 728 caregiver-child pairs were interviewed, out of which 526 (72.3%) recalled history of injuries in their wards within the past 12months. Most of the injuries occurred at home (334; 63.5%), in males 329 (62.5%), and in the 1 - 4 years age group 239 (45.4%). On further analysis, age of the child, male sex, residence in rural area and stage of child’s development significantly predicted the risk of having an unintentional injury. Majority of the interviewees had heard of first aid (432; 59.3%) though only a few 23 (5.4%) actually owned well equipped first aid boxes. Most of the respondents felt that injuries in children
Hype about High Internal Phase Emulsion templating: Adding particles makes all the difference
A. Bismarck
eXPRESS Polymer Letters , 2012, DOI: 10.3144/expresspolymlett.2012.100
Abstract: editorial
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