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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 159 matches for " Christoforos Anagnostopoulos "
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Information-Theoretic Data Discarding for Dynamic Trees on Data Streams
Christoforos Anagnostopoulos,Robert B. Gramacy
Entropy , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/e15125510
Abstract: Ubiquitous automated data collection at an unprecedented scale is making available streaming, real-time information flows in a wide variety of settings, transforming both science and industry. Learning algorithms deployed in such contexts often rely on single-pass inference, where the data history is never revisited. Learning may also need to be temporally adaptive to remain up-to-date against unforeseen changes in the data generating mechanism. Online Bayesian inference remains challenged by such transient, evolving data streams. Nonparametric modeling techniques can prove particularly ill-suited, as the complexity of the model is allowed to increase with the sample size. In this work, we take steps to overcome these challenges by porting information theoretic heuristics, such as exponential forgetting and active learning, into a fully Bayesian framework. We showcase our methods by augmenting a modern non-parametric modeling framework, dynamic trees, and illustrate its performance on a number of practical examples. The end product is a powerful streaming regression and classification tool, whose performance compares favorably to the state-of-the-art.
A better Beta for the H measure of classification performance
David J. Hand,Christoforos Anagnostopoulos
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: The area under the ROC curve is widely used as a measure of performance of classification rules. However, it has recently been shown that the measure is fundamentally incoherent, in the sense that it treats the relative severities of misclassifications differently when different classifiers are used. To overcome this, Hand (2009) proposed the $H$ measure, which allows a given researcher to fix the distribution of relative severities to a classifier-independent setting on a given problem. This note extends the discussion, and proposes a modified standard distribution for the $H$ measure, which better matches the requirements of researchers, in particular those faced with heavily unbalanced datasets, the $Beta(\pi_1+1,\pi_0+1)$ distribution. [Preprint submitted at Pattern Recognition Letters]
Dynamic trees for streaming and massive data contexts
Christoforos Anagnostopoulos,Robert B. Gramacy
Statistics , 2012,
Abstract: Data collection at a massive scale is becoming ubiquitous in a wide variety of settings, from vast offline databases to streaming real-time information. Learning algorithms deployed in such contexts must rely on single-pass inference, where the data history is never revisited. In streaming contexts, learning must also be temporally adaptive to remain up-to-date against unforeseen changes in the data generating mechanism. Although rapidly growing, the online Bayesian inference literature remains challenged by massive data and transient, evolving data streams. Non-parametric modelling techniques can prove particularly ill-suited, as the complexity of the model is allowed to increase with the sample size. In this work, we take steps to overcome these challenges by porting standard streaming techniques, like data discarding and downweighting, into a fully Bayesian framework via the use of informative priors and active learning heuristics. We showcase our methods by augmenting a modern non-parametric modelling framework, dynamic trees, and illustrate its performance on a number of practical examples. The end product is a powerful streaming regression and classification tool, whose performance compares favourably to the state-of-the-art.
When does Active Learning Work?
Lewis Evans,Niall M. Adams,Christoforos Anagnostopoulos
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Active Learning (AL) methods seek to improve classifier performance when labels are expensive or scarce. We consider two central questions: Where does AL work? How much does it help? To address these questions, a comprehensive experimental simulation study of Active Learning is presented. We consider a variety of tasks, classifiers and other AL factors, to present a broad exploration of AL performance in various settings. A precise way to quantify performance is needed in order to know when AL works. Thus we also present a detailed methodology for tackling the complexities of assessing AL performance in the context of this experimental study.
Learning population and subject-specific brain connectivity networks via Mixed Neighborhood Selection
Ricardo Pio Monti,Christoforos Anagnostopoulos,Giovanni Montana
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: In neuroimaging data analysis, Gaussian graphical models are often used to model statistical dependencies across spatially remote brain regions known as functional connectivity. Typically, data is collected across a cohort of subjects and the scientific objectives consist of estimating population and subject-specific graphical models. A third objective that is often overlooked involves quantifying inter-subject variability and thus identifying regions or sub-networks that demonstrate heterogeneity across subjects. Such information is fundamental in order to thoroughly understand the human connectome. We propose Mixed Neighborhood Selection in order to simultaneously address the three aforementioned objectives. By recasting covariance selection as a neighborhood selection problem we are able to efficiently learn the topology of each node. We introduce an additional mixed effect component to neighborhood selection in order to simultaneously estimate a graphical model for the population of subjects as well as for each individual subject. The proposed method is validated empirically through a series of simulations and applied to resting state data for healthy subjects taken from the ABIDE consortium.
Targeting Optimal Active Learning via Example Quality
Lewis P. G. Evans,Niall M. Adams,Christoforos Anagnostopoulos
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In many classification problems unlabelled data is abundant and a subset can be chosen for labelling. This defines the context of active learning (AL), where methods systematically select that subset, to improve a classifier by retraining. Given a classification problem, and a classifier trained on a small number of labelled examples, consider the selection of a single further example. This example will be labelled by the oracle and then used to retrain the classifier. This example selection raises a central question: given a fully specified stochastic description of the classification problem, which example is the optimal selection? If optimality is defined in terms of loss, this definition directly produces expected loss reduction (ELR), a central quantity whose maximum yields the optimal example selection. This work presents a new theoretical approach to AL, example quality, which defines optimal AL behaviour in terms of ELR. Once optimal AL behaviour is defined mathematically, reasoning about this abstraction provides insights into AL. In a theoretical context the optimal selection is compared to existing AL methods, showing that heuristics can make sub-optimal selections. Algorithms are constructed to estimate example quality directly. A large-scale experimental study shows these algorithms to be competitive with standard AL methods.
Estimating Optimal Active Learning via Model Retraining Improvement
Lewis P. G. Evans,Niall M. Adams,Christoforos Anagnostopoulos
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: A central question for active learning (AL) is: "what is the optimal selection?" Defining optimality by classifier loss produces a new characterisation of optimal AL behaviour, by treating expected loss reduction as a statistical target for estimation. This target forms the basis of model retraining improvement (MRI), a novel approach providing a statistical estimation framework for AL. This framework is constructed to address the central question of AL optimality, and to motivate the design of estimation algorithms. MRI allows the exploration of optimal AL behaviour, and the examination of AL heuristics, showing precisely how they make sub-optimal selections. The abstract formulation of MRI is used to provide a new guarantee for AL, that an unbiased MRI estimator should outperform random selection. This MRI framework reveals intricate estimation issues that in turn motivate the construction of new statistical AL algorithms. One new algorithm in particular performs strongly in a large-scale experimental study, compared to standard AL methods. This competitive performance suggests that practical efforts to minimise estimation bias may be important for AL applications.
Graph embeddings of dynamic functional connectivity reveal discriminative patterns of task engagement in HCP data
Ricardo Pio Monti,Romy Lorenz,Peter Hellyer,Robert Leech,Christoforos Anagnostopoulos,Giovanni Montana
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: There is increasing evidence to suggest functional connectivity networks are non-stationary. This has lead to the development of novel methodologies with which to accurately estimate time-varying functional connectivity networks. Many of these methods provide unprecedented temporal granularity by estimating a functional connectivity network at each point in time; resulting in high-dimensional output which can be studied in a variety of ways. One possible method is to employ graph embedding algorithms. Such algorithms effectively map estimated networks from high-dimensional spaces down to a low dimensional vector space; thus facilitating visualization, interpretation and classification. In this work, the dynamic properties of functional connectivity are studied using working memory task data from the Human Connectome Project. A recently proposed method is employed to estimate dynamic functional connectivity networks. The results are subsequently analyzed using two graph embedding methods based on linear projections. These methods are shown to provide informative embeddings that can be directly interpreted as functional connectivity networks.
Streaming regularization parameter selection via stochastic gradient descent
Ricardo Pio Monti,Romy Lorenz,Robert Leech,Christoforos Anagnostopoulos,Giovanni Montana
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: We propose a framework to perform streaming covariance selection. Our approach employs regularization constraints where a time-varying sparsity parameter is iteratively estimated via stochastic gradient descent. This allows for the regularization parameter to be efficiently learnt in an online manner. The proposed framework is developed for linear regression models and extended to graphical models via neighbourhood selection. We demonstrate the capabilities of such an approach using both synthetic data as well as neuroimaging data.
Estimating Time-varying Brain Connectivity Networks from Functional MRI Time Series
Ricardo Pio Monti,Peter Hellyer,David Sharp,Robert Leech,Christoforos Anagnostopoulos,Giovanni Montana
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: Understanding the functional architecture of the brain in terms of networks is becoming increasingly common. In most fMRI applications functional networks are assumed to be stationary, resulting in a single network estimated for the entire time course. However recent results suggest that the connectivity between brain regions is highly non-stationary even at rest. As a result, there is a need for new brain imaging methodologies that comprehensively account for the dynamic (i.e., non-stationary) nature of the fMRI data. In this work we propose the Smooth Incremental Graphical Lasso Estimation (SINGLE) algorithm which estimates dynamic brain networks from fMRI data. We apply the SINGLE algorithm to functional MRI data from 24 healthy patients performing a choice-response task to demonstrate the dynamic changes in network structure that accompany a simple but attentionally demanding cognitive task. Using graph theoretic measures we show that the Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus, frequently reported as playing an important role in cognitive control, dynamically changes with the task. Our results suggest that the Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus plays a fundamental role in the attention and executive function during cognitively demanding tasks and may play a key role in regulating the balance between other brain regions.
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