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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 212943 matches for " Christine L. Knott "
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Elucidating the Kinetics of Expression and Immune Cell Infiltration Resulting from Plasmid Gene Delivery Enhanced by Surface Dermal Electroporation
Janess M. Mendoza,Dinah H. Amante,Gleb Kichaev,Christine L. Knott,William B. Kiosses,Trevor R. F. Smith,Niranjan Y. Sardesai,Kate E. Broderick
Vaccines , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/vaccines1030384
Abstract: The skin is an attractive tissue for vaccination in a clinical setting due to the accessibility of the target, the ease of monitoring and most importantly the immune competent nature of the dermal tissue. While skin electroporation offers an exciting and novel future methodology for the delivery of DNA vaccines in the clinic, little is known about the actual mechanism of the approach and the elucidation of the resulting immune responses. To further understand the mechanism of this platform, the expression kinetics and localization of a reporter plasmid delivered via a surface dermal electroporation (SEP) device as well as the effect that this treatment would have on the resident immune cells in that tissue was investigated. Initially a time course (day 0 to day 21) of enhanced gene delivery with electroporation (EP) was performed to observe the localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression and the kinetics of its appearance as well as clearance. Using gross imaging, GFP expression was not detected on the surface of the skin until 8 h post treatment. However, histological analysis by fluorescent microscopy revealed GFP positive cells as early as 1 h after plasmid delivery and electroporation. Peak GFP expression was observed at 24 h and the expression was maintained in skin for up to seven days. Using an antibody specific for a keratinocyte cell surface marker, reporter gene positive keratinocytes in the epidermis were identified. H&E staining of treated skin sections demonstrated an influx of monocytes and granulocytes at the EP site starting at 4 h and persisting up to day 14 post treatment. Immunological staining revealed a significant migration of lymphocytic cells to the EP site, congregating around cells expressing the delivered antigen. In conclusion, this study provides insights into the expression kinetics following EP enhanced DNA delivery targeting the dermal space. These findings may have implications in the future to design efficient DNA vaccination strategies for the clinic.
Effects of Aerobic Fitness and Adiposity on Coagulation Biomarkers in Men vs. Women with Elevated Blood Pressure
Kathleen L. Wilson,Lianne Tomfohr,Kate Edwards,Cindy Knott
European Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: ABSTRACTA hypercoagulable state is a potential mechanism linking elevated blood pressure (BP), adiposity and a sedentary lifestyle to development of coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined relationships among aerobic fitness and adiposity in 76 sedentary subjects with elevated BP. Blood levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), D-dimer, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and thrombomodulin were assessed as biomarkers of coagulation. In individuals with elevated BP, percent body fat and fitness were associated with biomarkers indicative of a hypercoagulable state, even after demographic and metabolic factors were considered. D-dimer was positively associated with percent body fat (beta=0.37, p=0.003). PAI-1 was higher in men than in women (beta=-0.31, p=0.015) and associated with lower VO2peak (beta=-0.35, p=0.024). Thrombomodulin was positively associated with VO2peak (beta=0.56, p< 0.01). vWF was not significantly associated with fitness or adiposity. Our results emphasise that both percent body fat and physical fitness are important in the maintenance of haemostatic balance.
Space
Kim Knott
REVER : Revista de Estudos da Religi?o , 2005,
Abstract: Two issues are explored in this article: the way in which "space" has been theorized in relation to the "sacred", and the use of contemporary cultural and social theories of space in the development of a methodology for locating religion in places, objects, bodies and groups open to investigation. After a brief recollection of the spatial contributions of van der Leeuw and Eliade, attention is given to the theoretical and methodological insights of Jonathan Z. Smith, Veikko Anttonen, and Kim Knott.
Quantitative trait loci for variation in immune response to a Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus peptide
Richard J Leach, Susan C Craigmile, Sara A Knott, John L Williams, Elizabeth J Glass
BMC Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-11-107
Abstract: Considerable variability in the immune responses across time was observed and sire, dam and age had significant effects on responses at specific time points. There were significant correlations within traits across time, and between IgG1 and IgG2 traits, also some weak correlations were detected between T cell and IgG2 responses. The whole genome scan detected 77 quantitative trait loci (QTL), on 22 chromosomes, including clusters of QTL on BTA 4, 5, 6, 20, 23 and 25. Two QTL reached 5% genome wide significance (on BTA 6 and 24) and one on BTA 20 reached 1% genome wide significance.A proportion of the variance in the T cell and antibody response post immunisation with an FDMV peptide has a genetic component. Even though the antigen was relatively simple, the humoral and cell mediated responses were clearly under complex genetic control, with the majority of QTL located outside the MHC locus. The results suggest that there may be specific genes or loci that impact on variation in both the primary and secondary immune responses, whereas other loci may be specifically important for early or later phases of the immune response. Future fine mapping of the QTL clusters identified has the potential to reveal the causal variations underlying the variation in immune response observed.Infectious disease of livestock continues to be a cause of substantial economic loss and has adverse welfare consequences, even in well managed agricultural systems [1]. In addition, even with stringent bio-security, there are incursions of "exotic" diseases (e.g. the recent Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreaks within the E.U. [2]). Current interventions against infectious disease include anthelminthics, antibiotics and other chemicals as well as vaccination, although for many endemic and exotic diseases there are limited appropriate and effective controls. Thus alternative solutions for disease control are needed. Breeding for disease resistance together with more effective vaccines have the
When morphology and molecular markers conflict: A case history of subterranean amphipods from the Pilbara, Western Australia
Finston, T. L.,Johnson, M. S.,Knott, B.,Bradbury, J. H.
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation , 2004,
Abstract: Fifteen species of groundwater amphipods in the genus Chydaekata have been described from the Pilbara, Western Australia, each restricted to a single bore. Dewatering at a local mine site was halted while a second survey was undertaken. Newly collected samples were identified using the existing key, and allozyme analysis was used to test species boundaries. Allozymic diversity was not associated with single bores, and only two distinctgenetic groups (one of which was very rare), were identified. Based on these results, and the finding that species were found to be more widespread, the Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority recommended that dewatering continue with caution at the site. This study provides an example of the problems associated with incongruent data sets, and the difficulties inherent in working with rare species, namely, interpreting the results of studies based on small samples or incomplete collections.
Non-volant mammals of the Estación Biológica Allpahuayo: Assessment of the natural history and community ecology of a proposed reserve
Christine L. Hice
Mastozoolog?-a neotropical , 2004,
Abstract:
Nicotine, Auditory Sensory Memory, and sustained Attention in a Human Ketamine Model of Schizophrenia: Moderating Influence of a Hallucinatory Trait
Verner Knott,Derek Fisher
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2012.00172
Abstract: Background: The procognitive actions of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine are believed, in part, to motivate the excessive cigarette smoking in schizophrenia, a disorder associated with deficits in multiple cognitive domains, including low-level auditory sensory processes and higher-order attention-dependent operations. Objectives: As N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has been shown to contribute to these cognitive impairments, the primary aims of this healthy volunteer study were to: (a) to shed light on the separate and interactive roles of nAChR and NMDAR systems in the modulation of auditory sensory memory (and sustained attention), as indexed by the auditory event-related brain potential – mismatch negativity (MMN), and (b) to examine how these effects are moderated by a predisposition to auditory hallucinations/delusions (HD). Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving a low intravenous dose of ketamine (0.04 mg/kg) and a 4 mg dose of nicotine gum, MMN, and performance on a rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task of sustained attention were examined in 24 healthy controls psychometrically stratified as being lower (L-HD, n = 12) or higher (H-HD) for HD propensity. Results: Ketamine significantly slowed MMN, and reduced MMN in H-HD, with amplitude attenuation being blocked by the co-administration of nicotine. Nicotine significantly enhanced response speed [reaction time (RT)] and accuracy (increased % hits and d′ and reduced false alarms) on the RVIP, with improved performance accuracy being prevented when nicotine was administered with ketamine. Both % hits and d′, as well as RT were poorer in H-HD (vs. L-HD) and while hit rate and d′ was increased by nicotine in H-HD, RT was slowed by ketamine in L-HD. Conclusions: Nicotine alleviated ketamine-induced sensory memory impairment and improved attention, particularly in individuals prone to HD.
Modeling Brain Circuitry over a Wide Range of Scales
Pascal Fua,Graham Knott
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: If we are ever to unravel the mysteries of brain function at its most fundamental level, we will need a precise understanding of how its component neurons connect to each other. Electron Microscopes (EM) can now provide the nanometer resolution that is needed to image synapses, and therefore connections, while Light Microscopes (LM) see at the micrometer resolution required to model the 3D structure of the dendritic network. Since both the topology and the connection strength are integral parts of the brain's wiring diagram, being able to combine these two modalities is critically important. In fact, these microscopes now routinely produce high-resolution imagery in such large quantities that the bottleneck becomes automated processing and interpretation, which is needed for such data to be exploited to its full potential. In this paper, we briefly review the Computer Vision techniques we have developed at EPFL to address this need. They include delineating dendritic arbors from LM imagery, segmenting organelles from EM, and combining the two into a consistent representation.
携带抗秆锈病基因的小麦近等基因系
D.,R.,Knott,华国
麦类作物学报 , 1991, DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1009-1041.1991.02.031
Abstract: 携带抗秆锈病(Pucciniagraminisf.sp.trticiEriks.&Henn)单基因的小麦(Triticumaestivum.)近等基因系(NIL),在遗传学、植物病理学和生理学研究中很有用途。培育出一种感染秆锈病、对日照长度不敏感的基因型,在培育近等基因系时,用作轮回亲本。共产生38个近等基因系,并用9个秆锈病菌生理小种进行测试。其中19个近等基因系携带在鉴定位点上已编码的抗秆锈(Sr)基因,另19个近等基因系所携带的基因,与鉴定位点的关系尚不清楚。在后面这组中,已有7个基因与已编码的那些基因表现不同。剩下的12个近等基因系,要么就表现出携带有已编码基因的反应,要么就是鉴定试验还未完成,其中7个近等基因系对所有9个秆锈病菌小种表现抗性。除1个以外,所有近等基因系均携带有从其亲缘材料中转育到普通小麦上的基因。
Comparison of Barefoot vs. Shod Gait on Spinal Dynamics Using DIERS Formetric 4D and DIERS Pedoscan Systems  [PDF]
Carolyn Draus, David Moravec, Adam Kopiec, Patrick Knott
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2015.33010
Abstract: Barefoot running is increasing in popularity within the running community, yet the biomechanical differences compared to traditional shod running are not well understood. This study investigates the changes in spinal dynamics during the gait cycle of runners wearing traditional running shoes (shod) compared to those wearing no shoes (barefoot). Pedal force distribution, kyphotic angle, lordotic angle, and trunk inclination were measured during shod and barefoot gait at three different speeds on a treadmill. Subjects were examined using the DIERS Formetric 4D system and DIERS Pedoscan system. While running barefoot, pedal force distribution analysis showed that 21.0% more force load goes through the forefoot vs. a 10.2% increase in forefoot force with shod (p = 0.0006). At 8.0 km·h-1 the average kyphotic angle was 1.6 degrees greater under barefoot conditions vs. shod conditions (p = 0.008). At 8.0 km·h-1 the average lordotic angle was 0.8 degrees greater under barefoot conditions vs. shod conditions (p = 0.05). Trunk inclination was 0.6 degrees and 0.8 degrees greater under barefoot conditions compared to shod conditions at natural speeds (p = 0.005) and 8.0 km·h-1 (p = 0.015), respectively. Barefoot runners show an increased force load in the forefoot, eliciting a forefoot strike pattern while running barefoot compared to shod running, and it was also found that barefoot runners have reduced trunk inclination. These dynamic changes allow for a more spring-like effect for barefoot runners creating a less transient and slower rise in force. In contrast, a heel strike pattern yields a rapid and high impact collision between heel and ground. As a result, barefoot running translates into less stress on the joints of the lower extremity and back and therefore less risk of injury.
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