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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 466825 matches for " Christina G. S. Palmer "
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Evidence for Maternal-Fetal Genotype Incompatibility as a Risk Factor for Schizophrenia
Christina G. S. Palmer
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/576318
Abstract: Prenatal/obstetric complications are implicated in schizophrenia susceptibility. Some complications may arise from maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility, a term used to describe maternal-fetal genotype combinations that produce an adverse prenatal environment. A review of maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility studies suggests that schizophrenia susceptibility is increased by maternal-fetal genotype combinations at the RHD and HLA-B loci. Maternal-fetal genotype combinations at these loci are hypothesized to have an effect on the maternal immune system during pregnancy which can affect fetal neurodevelopment and increase schizophrenia susceptibility. This article reviews maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility studies and schizophrenia and discusses the hypothesized biological role of these ‘‘incompatibility genes’’. It concludes that research is needed to further elucidate the role of RHD and HLA-B maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility in schizophrenia and to identify other genes that produce an adverse prenatal environment through a maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility mechanism. Efforts to develop more sophisticated study designs and data analysis techniques for modeling maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility effects are warranted.
Differences and discrepancies between 2005 and 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale versions - time to standardise
Kjetil G Ringdal, Morten Hestnes, Cameron S Palmer
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-11
Abstract: In order for trauma registry data to be comparable across institutions and trauma systems, the injury classification systems which underpin them must be comparable and consistent. In most trauma registries, injuries are classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) [1,2]. AIS-derived scores such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS) [3] and New Injury Severity Score [4] are used to quantify the severity of (and compare) multiply injured patients; to select patients for inclusion in registries; and as part of the definitions used to describe major trauma. Consequently, consistency of the AIS codesets used is pivotal to the purpose and validity of trauma registries.The Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM) has updated and maintained the AIS since the early 1970s. Since its initial publication, the AIS codeset has expanded and evolved over several editions. The current version of the AIS (AIS08) [2] is a 2008 update of the greatly expanded 2005 edition (AIS05) [1]. The changes implemented between AIS05 and AIS08 are known to be comparatively minor [5,6]. However, the effect of these changes on actual datasets has not been assessed.Between the 2005 and 2008 AIS releases, the AAAM released an unknown number of periodic updates. These contained individual AIS dictionary pages on which one or more AIS codes had been updated, with the intent that they could replace earlier versions of the pages in users' AIS05 dictionaries. However, it was not always clear which codes were updated on each page, despite this being crucial for users of electronic versions of the AIS. Also, if users purchased AIS dictionaries during this gradual update process or did not update their dictionaries over time, it is possible that not all AIS05 or AIS08 dictionaries in use contain the same codesets or coding instructions.Consequently, we aimed to identify all of the changes made to the AIS codeset since 2005. We therefore evaluated all of the codeset updates (additions,
Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: A Review of the Current State
Patel VR,Palmer KJ,Samavedi S,Coughlin G
Journal für Urologie und Urogyn?kologie , 2008,
Abstract: Cancer of the prostate is the most common malignancy diagnosed in the male genitourinary tract. Although a number of treatment options are available for early prostate cancer, the gold standard of treatment remains retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP). However, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) has become a forerunner in treatment options, yielding comparable medium-term perioperative and functional outcomes. For this our team utilized MEDLINE searching for publications on perioperative and functional outcomes related to robotic prostatectomy. Robotic-assisted prostatectomy has allowed urologists to enter the realm of minimally invasive surgery by incorporating open surgery manoeuvres to a laparoscopic environment. To date RALP perioperative and functional outcomes are comparable to the gold standard. Collection of long-term data is needed in order to establish its true efficacy.
Star formation and accretion in the circumnuclear disks of active galaxies
Stephanie Wutschik,Dominik R. G. Schleicher,Thomas S. Palmer II
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201321895
Abstract: We explore the evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBH) centered in a circumnuclear disk (CND) as a function of the mass supply from the host galaxy and considering different star formation laws, which may give rise to a self-regulation via the injection of supernova-driven turbulence. A system of equations describing star formation, black hole accretion and angular momentum transport was solved for an axisymmetric disk in which the gravitational potential includes contributions from the black hole, the disk and the hosting galaxy. Our model extends the framework provided by Kawakatu et al. (2008) by separately considering the inner and outer part of the disk, and by introducing a potentially non-linear dependence of the star formation rate on the gas surface density and the turbulent velocity. The star formation recipes are calibrated using observational data for NGC 1097, while the accretion model is based on turbulent viscosity as a source of angular momentum transport in a thin viscous accretion disk. We find that current data provide no strong constraint on the star formation recipe, and can in particular not distinguish between models entirely regulated by the surface density, and models including a dependence on the turbulent velocity. The evolution of the black hole mass, on the other hand, strongly depends on the applied star formation law, as well as the mass supply from the host galaxy. We suggest to explore the star formation process in local AGN with high-resolution ALMA observations to break the degeneracy between different star formation models.
Email Spam Filtering using Supervised Machine Learning Techniques
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: E-mail spam, known as unsolicited bulk Email (UBE), junk mail, or unsolicited commercial email (UCE), is the practice of sending unwanted e-mail messages, frequently with commercial content, in large quantities to an indiscriminate set of recipients. Spam is prevalent on the Internet because the transaction cost of electronic communications is radically less than any alternate form of communication. There are many spam filters using different approaches to identify the incoming message as spam, ranging from white list / black list, Bayesian analysis, keyword matching, mail header analysis, postage, legislation, and content scanning etc. Even though we are still flooded with spam emails everyday. This is not because the filters are not powerful enough, it is due to the swift adoption of new techniques by the spammers and the inflexibility of spamfilters to adapt the changes. In our work, we employed supervised machine learning techniques to filter the email spam messages. Widely used supervised machine learning techniques namely C 4.5 Decision tree classifier, Multilayer Perceptron, Na ve Bayes Classifier are used for learning the features of spam emails and the model is built by training with known spam emails and legitimate emails. The results of the models are discussed.
Combinatorial coding in neural populations
L. C. Osborne,S. E. Palmer,S. G. Lisberger,W. Bialek
Quantitative Biology , 2008,
Abstract: To evaluate the nature of the neural code in the cerebral cortex, we have used a combination of theory and experiment to assess how information is represented in a realistic cortical population response. We have shown how a sensory stimulus could be estimated on a biologically-realistic time scale, given brief individual responses from a population of neurons with similar response properties. For neurons in extrastriate motion area MT, a combinatorial code, one that keeps track of the cell identity of action potentials and silences in individual neurons across the population, carries twice as much information about visual motion as does spike count averaged over the same group of cells. The combinatorial code is more informative because of the diverse firing rate dynamics of MT neurons in response to constant motion stimuli, and is robust to neuron-neuron correlations. We provide a theoretical motivation for these observations that challenges commonly held ideas about the nature of cortical coding at the level of single neurons and neural populations.
The association of polar mesosphere summer echo layers with tial modes
P. J. S. Williams,G. O. L. Jones,J. R. Palmer,H. Rishbeth
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: The occurrence of PMSEs with time of day shows a semi-diurnal variation with minima at 8 and 20 h LT. PMSE layers observed for more than 30 min show an average rate of descent of 2 km h–1. These characteristics suggest the influence of tidal winds. When the observed steady wind and diurnal and semi-diurnal tides at EISCAT are added, the overall magnitude shows a time-variation which matches the occurrence of PMSEs, and the observed rate of descent, approximately 2 km h–1. Atmospheric gravity waves also contribute to the velocity of the neutral wind. When the wave reinforces the background wind, the PMSEs are stronger and descend more rapidly, but when the wave-related velocity opposes the background wind the PMSE is weaker and it descends more slowly.
Tsunami vulnerability of buildings and people in South Java – field observations after the July 2006 Java tsunami
S. Reese,W. J. Cousins,W. L. Power,N. G. Palmer
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2007,
Abstract: A team of scientists from New Zealand and Indonesia undertook a reconnaissance mission to the South Java area affected by the tsunami of 17 July 2006. The team used GPS-based surveying equipment to measure ground profiles and inundation depths along 17 transects across affected areas near the port city of Cilacap and the resort town of Pangandaran. The purpose of the work was to acquire data for calibration of models used to estimate tsunami inundations, casualty rates and damage levels. Additional information was gathered from interviews with eyewitnesses. The degree of damage observed was diverse, being primarily dependant on water depth and the building construction type. Water depths were typically 2 to 4 m where housing was seriously damaged. Damage levels ranged from total for older brick houses, to about 50% for newer buildings with rudimentary reinforced-concrete beams and columns, to 5–20% for engineered residential houses and multi-storey hotels with heavier RC columns. "Punchout" of weak brick walls was widespread. Despite various natural warning signs very few people were alerted to the impending tsunami. Hence, the death toll was significant, with average death and injury rates both being about 10% of the people exposed, for water depths of about 3 m.
Protease-Sensitive Synthetic Prions
David W. Colby,Rachel Wain,Ilia V. Baskakov,Giuseppe Legname,Christina G. Palmer,Hoang-Oanh B. Nguyen,Azucena Lemus,Fred E. Cohen,Stephen J. DeArmond,Stanley B. Prusiner
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000736
Abstract: Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrPC) undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrPSc. Frequently, PrPSc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s) prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec) PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164), denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174) did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrPSc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600–750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrPSc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrPSc.
Marine natural seaweed products as potential antiviral drugs against Bovine viral diarrhea virus
Pinto, Ana Maria Viana;Leite, José Paulo G.;Ferreira, Wilton J.;Cavalcanti, Diana N.;Villa?a, Roberto C.;Giongo, Viveca;Teixeira, Valéria L.;Paix?o, Izabel Christina Nunes de Palmer;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000060
Abstract: bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is an etiologic agent that causes important economic losses in the world. it is endemic in cattle herds in most parts of the world. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effect and antiviral properties of several marine natural products obtained from seaweeds: the indole alkaloid caulerpin (cav, 1) and three diterpenes: 6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (da, 2), 10,18-diacetoxy-8-hydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (db1, 3) and 8,10,18-trihydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (db3, 4). the screening to evaluate the cytotoxicity of compounds did not show toxic effects to mdbk cells. the antiviral activity of the compounds was measured by the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on infected cells by plaque assay (pa) and ec50 values were calculated for cav (ec=2,0± 5.8), da (ec 2,8± 7.7), db1 (ec 2,0±9.7), and db3 (ec 2,3±7.4). acyclovir (ec50 322± 5.9) was used in all experiments as the control standard. although the results of the antiviral activity suggest that all compounds are promising as antiviral agents against bvdv, the selectivity index suggests that db1 is the safest of the compounds tested.
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