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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3410 matches for " Christina Funk? "
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Modulation of chloride homeostasis by inflammatory mediators in dorsal root ganglion neurons
Katharina Funk, Anne Woitecki, Christina Franjic-Würtz, Thomas Gensch, Frank M?hrlen, Stephan Frings
Molecular Pain , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-4-32
Abstract: We developed an in vitro assay for testing how inflammatory mediators influence Cl- concentration and the expression of Cl- transporters. Intact DRGs were treated with 100 ng/ml NGF, 1.8 μM ATP, 0.9 μM bradykinin, and 1.4 μM PGE2 for 1–3 hours. Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging with the Cl--sensitive dye MQAE revealed an increase of the intracellular Cl- concentration within 2 hours of treatment. This effect coincided with enhanced phosphorylation of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter NKCC1, suggesting that an increased activity of that transporter caused the early rise of intracellular Cl- levels. Immunohistochemistry of NKCC1 and KCC2, the main neuronal Cl- importer and exporter, respectively, exposed an inverse regulation by the inflammatory mediators. While the NKCC1 immunosignal increased, that of KCC2 declined after 3 hours of treatment. In contrast, the mRNA levels of the two transporters did not change markedly during this time. These data demonstrate a fundamental transition in Cl- homeostasis toward a state of augmented Cl- accumulation, which is induced by a 1–3 hour treatment with inflammatory mediators.Our findings indicate that inflammatory mediators impact on Cl- homeostasis in DRG neurons. Inflammatory mediators raise intracellular Cl- levels and, hence, the driving force for depolarizing Cl- efflux. These findings corroborate current concepts for the role of Cl- regulation in the generation of inflammatory hyperalgesia and allodynia. As the intracellular Cl- concentration rises in DRG neurons, afferent signals can be boosted by excitatory Cl- currents in the presynaptic terminals. Moreover, excitatory Cl- currents in peripheral sensory endings may also contribute to the generation or modulation of afferent signals, especially in inflamed tissue.The regulation of intracellular chloride, [Cl-]i, in DRG neurons has a distinct impact on the detection and transmission of the peripheral nociceptive signals. Measurements with isolated DRG neurons have sh
The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain
Christina Funk,Melanie Ott?,Verena Raschbichler?,Claus-Henning Nagel?,Anne Binz?,Beate Sodeik?,Rudolf Bauerfeind?,Susanne M. Bailer
PLOS Pathogens , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004957
Abstract: Progeny capsids of herpesviruses leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. Two viral proteins, the membrane protein pUL34 and the nucleo-phosphoprotein pUL31 form the nuclear egress complex that is required for capsid egress out of the nucleus. All pUL31 orthologs are composed of a diverse N-terminal domain with 1 to 3 basic patches and a conserved C-terminal domain. To decipher the functions of the N-terminal domain, we have generated several Herpes simplex virus mutants and show here that the N-terminal domain of pUL31 is essential with basic patches being critical for viral propagation. pUL31 and pUL34 entered the nucleus independently of each other via separate routes and the N-terminal domain of pUL31 was required to prevent their premature interaction in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal embedded in this domain was not required for nuclear import of pUL31. In the nucleus, pUL31 associated with the nuclear envelope and newly formed capsids. Viral mutants lacking the N-terminal domain or with its basic patches neutralized still associated with nucleocapsids but were unable to translocate them to the nuclear envelope. Replacing the authentic basic patches with a novel artificial one resulted in HSV1(17+)Lox-UL31-hbpmp1mp2, that was viable but delayed in nuclear egress and compromised in viral production. Thus, while the C-terminal domain of pUL31 is sufficient for the interaction with nucleocapsids, the N-terminal domain was essential for capsid translocation to sites of nuclear egress and a coordinated interaction with pUL34. Our data indicate an orchestrated sequence of events with pUL31 binding to nucleocapsids and escorting them to the inner nuclear envelope. We propose a common mechanism for herpesviral nuclear egress: pUL31 is required for intranuclear translocation of nucleocapsids and subsequent interaction with pUL34 thereby coupling capsid maturation with primary envelopment.
Los efectos psíquicos actuales de la orientación mercantil
Funk,Rainer;
Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92272008000400008
Abstract: the reader gets first briefly acquainted with erich fromm's psychoanalytic approach and concept of human behavior. fromm tried to conceptualize this approach by using freud's dynamic understanding of character and by understanding behavior as determined by conscious and unconscious character traits. in the main part of the paper this approach is applied to the social character formation of the "marketing-orientation". today one can observe this character orientation either as a product-oriented or as a reality enacting marketing of one's own personality. in a third step the respective psycho dynamics are illustrated. finally, the psychic impact of this way to live is discussed: the progredient loss to bear ambivalences
Los efectos psíquicos actuales de la orientación mercantil The psychic impact of present-day marketing-orientation
Rainer Funk
Revista Chilena de Neuro-Psiquiatría , 2008,
Abstract: Al lector se le presenta primero una breve síntesis del concepto psicoanalítico de Erich Fromm y su comprensión de la conducta humana. Fromm trató de aplicar a su propia visión la concepción dinámica de carácter desarrollado por Freud y entendió que la conducta humana está determinada por rasgos caracterológicos conscientes e inconscientes. En la parte principal de este trabajo se utiliza este concepto para mostrar de que manera se forma el carácter social de orientación mercantil. Hoy en día se puede observar esta orientación caracterológica por un lado como marketing orientado al producto y por otro lado como marketing escenificador de realidades de la propia personalidad. En la tercera parte se ilustran las diferentes psicodinámicas de ambas orientaciones mercantiles. Finalmente se discute la pérdida creciente de la capacidad de ambivalencia como secuela psíquica de la forma de vivir orientada al marketing. The reader gets first briefly acquainted with Erich Fromm's psychoanalytic approach and concept of human behavior. Fromm tried to conceptualize this approach by using Freud's dynamic understanding of character and by understanding behavior as determined by conscious and unconscious character traits. In the main part of the paper this approach is applied to the social character formation of the "marketing-orientation". Today one can observe this character orientation either as a product-oriented or as a reality enacting marketing of one's own personality. In a third step the respective psycho dynamics are illustrated. Finally, the psychic impact of this way to live is discussed: the progredient loss to bear ambivalences
A Filosofia Humanista de Fromm como Ciência do Homem
Rainer Funk
Revista Espa?o Acadêmico , 2010,
Abstract: O conjunto da obra de Fromm revela que ele estudou Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, Herbert Spencer, John Stuart Mill e William James, Heidegger, Sartre, Bloch e Habermas, mas nenhum deles marcou seu pensamento de verdade, e nem a filosofia de valores do seu mestre Rickert, em Heidelberg, reflete no seu pensamento. Fromm, porém, se vê profundamente ligado a pensadores como o filósofo judaico Maim nides, como a Cohen e Cassirer, Aristóteles, Espinoza e Marx, mais tarde também a Tomás de Aquino.
“What’s Next?” Jasper Fforde’s Attempts on Jane Eyre What’s Next ? Quand Jasper Fforde s’attaque à Jane Eyre
Wolfgang Funk
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2010, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.3530
Abstract: This article attempts to analyse the interplay of Jane Eyre with one of its most daring re-appropriations, Jasper Fforde’s 2001 novel The Eyre Affair, which will be presented as a ‘parallolotopia’ in this essay. The main focus is on the inter-textual relationship between the two texts and the interplay and entanglement of the two novels will be analysed as a particular form of post-modern pastiche (in the sense of Fredric Jameson), the main characteristic of which is its self-reflective attitude. This pastiche does not only disestablish traditional role allocations in the framework of literary communication (such as author, story and reader), it also might serve as a completely new paradigm in the relation of literature and its perception, who which (as the article attempts to point out) will be grounded in an ‘aesthetics of insolence’ rather than one of diffidence, as was traditionally the case. Cet article entend analyser l’interaction entre Jane Eyre et l’une de ses réécritures les plus audacieuses, celle du roman The Eyre Affair de Jasper Fforde (2001), qui sera présenté comme un parallélotope . Il s’agit de se concentrer essentiellement sur la relation intertextuelle entre les deux textes ; l’interaction et l’imbrication des deux romans seront étudiées comme une forme particulière de pastiche postmoderne (selon la définition de Fredric Jameson), dont la caractéristique principale est l’attitude auto-réflexive. Ce pastiche ne déstabilise pas seulement les attributions traditionnelles de r les dans le cadre de la communication littéraire (auteur, intrigue, lecteur), il pourrait servir également de paradigme absolument nouveau en matière de lien entre la littérature et la manière dont elle est per ue, qui, comme le souligne l’article, sera fondé sur une esthétique de l’insolence plut t que sur celle de la méfiance, comme c’est habituellement le cas.
Labour Market Trends and Problems in the EU’s Central and Eastern European Member States: Is Flexicurity the Answer?
Lothar Funk
Journal of Contemporary European Research , 2009,
Abstract: Throughout the 1990s, international organisations, such as the International Monetary Fund mainly based their policy proposals for transition economies and the high unemployment, low growth countries in Western Europe, on economic “orthodoxy”. This approach predominantly followed neoclassical economics in which market liberal solutions predominate. These suggestions were controversial; the early results of these policies appeared to be disappointing. Policymakers sought alternative reform proposals and the idea of “flexicurity” has gradually emerged to the political buzzword. Flexicurity combines flexibility with security and suggests that rather generous unemployment benefits and spending on active labour market policies can be aligned with a flexible, employment-friendly labour market. Originating in Denmark, the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation have promoted flexicurity more or less independent of specific single country cases, and based their approach on more abstract, generalised relationships between flexibility and security. These bodies argue for an alternative policy to pure orthodox deregulation and liberalisation for the member states of the European Union (EU) and the former transition economies that joined the EU since 2004. After a review of common labour market-related characteristics and problems of the EU’s central and eastern European members, the article summarises and critically evaluates the main elements of flexicurity suggestions. It further compares them to the relevant policy proposals based primarily on more orthodox economic analysis. The analysis shows that several preconditions for a successful flexicurity strategy are still lacking across the new member states. Moreover, the article demonstrates that current proposals by the critics of a single-minded flexicurity approach by no means always disregard potentially positive effects of improving the supposed trade-offs between flexibility and security. At least a limited convergence between flexicurity and a renewed orthodoxy in the economic mainstream can be detected.
“Today There Are No Indigenous People” in Chile?: Connecting the Mapuche Struggle to Anti-Neoliberal Mobilizations in South America “Hoy en día no hay pueblos indígenas” en Chile?: Conectando la lucha Mapuche con las movilizaciones anti-neoliberales en Sudamérica
Kevin Funk
Journal of Politics in Latin America , 2012,
Abstract: The books under review all deal with the same fundamental phenomenon: mobilization against neoliberal policies by South American indigenous groups. These works fall into two groups: those that focus on the Mapuche struggle in Chile, and those that consider anti-neoliberal indigenous mobilization in the region more broadly. Just as literature in the former group fails to draw any linkages between the Mapuche and other South American indigenous struggles, the latter body of literature does not engage with Chile as a case worthy of consideration. This essay delineates the arguments made by scholars from both groups and argues that they must be brought into dialogue with one another in order to develop both a more holistic conceptualization of the Mapuche struggle in Chile and a more complete understanding of indigenous mobilization in the region. Further empirical work is needed on how Mapuche mobilization relates to other indigenous, anti-neoliberal mobilizations in South America. Los libros discutidos en este ensayo tratan del mismo problema fundamental: la movilización contra las políticas neoliberales por los grupos indígenas en Sudamérica. Estas obras se dividen en dos grupos: los que se enfocan en la lucha de los Mapuche en Chile, y los que consideran la movilización anti-neoliberal de los indígenas más ampliamente. Tal como la literatura en el primer grupo no vincula la lucha Mapuche con otras luchas indígenas en Sudamérica, los del segundo grupo no contemplan el caso chileno. Este ensayo delinea los argumentos hechos por ambos grupos, y sostiene que tiene que haber un diálogo entre sí para poder desarrollar una conceptualización más holística de la lucha de los Mapuche en Chile, y una comprensión más completa de la movilización indígena en la región. Se requieren más investigaciones empíricas acerca de cómo la movilización Mapuche se relaciona con otras movilizaciones indígenas y anti-neoliberales en Sudamérica.
The status of gamma-ray astronomy
Stefan Funk
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Gamma-ray studies are an essential tool in our search for the origin of cosmic rays. Instruments like the Fermi-LAT, H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS have revolutionized our understanding of the high energy Universe. This paper describes the status of the very rich field of gamma-ray astrophysics that contains a wealth of data on Galactic and extragalactic particle accelerators. It is the write-up of a rapporteur talk given at the 32nd ICRC in Beijing, China in which new results were presented with an emphasis on the cosmic-ray related studies of the Universe.
Indirect Detection of Dark Matter with gamma rays
Stefan Funk
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1308728111
Abstract: The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today - eighty years after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles - that are weakly interacting and massive (WIMPs for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has so far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. Indirect detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of gamma-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi-LAT, H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS, combined with the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will provide important and complementary constraints to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent tests and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be re-thought. In this sense we are on the "Threshold of Discovery". In this article, I will give a general overview over the current status and the future expectations for indirect searches for dark matter (WIMP) particles.
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