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Previous research has demonstrated a considerable amount of negative consequences resulting from psychological reactance. The purpose of this study was to explore opportunities to reduce the amount of reactance. Using the method of perspective taking as an intervention, the current study of 196 Austrians and 198 Filipinos examined whether reactance could be reduced and whether individualists and collectivists differ concerning reactance and their perspective taking abilities. Our results indicated that participants who took the perspective of the person who threatened them experienced less reactance than participants who did not take this approach. This was the case for people from both cultural backgrounds. Nevertheless, comparisons among the two cultural groups yielded different reactions to restrictions. This indicates that individualists are more sensitive to a self-experienced restriction than collectivists, but less sensitive to a restriction of another person. Consequently, we consider culture to be a crucial determinant in predicting the amount of reactance.
carcinoma in-situ DCIS is a
heterogeneous entity in breast neoplasm with unpredictable biological behavior.
This poses challenge in the management of DCIS. Various trials on DCIS have
shown good outcome with integral treatment of adequate surgery, radiotherapy
and hormonal therapy. Identification of subgroup of DCIS for radiotherapy and
hormonal therapy could improve recurrence rate, contralateral tumours incidence
and perhaps overall survival. Various risk score calculations could help to
direct radiotherapy and hormonal treatment verses surgery alone and to avoid
over treatment. Oncotype DX
assay could be a new way of risk calculation to direct types of DCIS treatment.
The recent increased use of MRI could increase the detection of DCIS and a more
accurate extent of disease estimation. This article is a summary of major
literatures and major trials result for DCIS.
In the present work, we
examined a phenomenon highly relevant in the educational field for assessing or
judging performance, that is, the question how the second examiner’s marking is
influenced by the evaluation of the first examiner. This phenomenon is known as
anchoring in cognitive psychology. In general, in anchoring effects numeric
information (i.e., the anchor) pulls estimations or judgments towards the
anchor. One domain which is highly important in real life has been investigated
only occasionally, that is, the marking of examinations. In three experiments,
participants were asked to evaluate a written assignment. The mark (either good
or bad) of a ficticious first examiner was used as the anchor. We found clear anchoring effects that were unaffected by feedback in a
preceding task (positive, neutral, negative) or the expert status of the
presumed first examiner. We discussed the problems related to this effect.