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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 51496 matches for " Christie Y Jeon "
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Correction: Diabetes Mellitus Increases the Risk of Active Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review of 13 Observational Studies
Christie Y Jeon,Megan B Murray
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050181
Abstract:
Diabetes Mellitus Increases the Risk of Active Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review of 13 Observational Studies
Christie Y Jeon ,Megan B Murray
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050152
Abstract: Background Several studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). The rising prevalence of DM in TB-endemic areas may adversely affect TB control. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the association of DM and TB in order to summarize the existing evidence and to assess methodological quality of the studies. Methods and Findings We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify observational studies that had reported an age-adjusted quantitative estimate of the association between DM and active TB disease. The search yielded 13 observational studies (n = 1,786,212 participants) with 17,698 TB cases. Random effects meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that DM was associated with an increased risk of TB (relative risk = 3.11, 95% CI 2.27–4.26). Case-control studies were heterogeneous and odds ratios ranged from 1.16 to 7.83. Subgroup analyses showed that effect estimates were higher in non-North American studies. Conclusion DM was associated with an increased risk of TB regardless of study design and population. People with DM may be important targets for interventions such as active case finding and treatment of latent TB and efforts to diagnose, detect, and treat DM may have a beneficial impact on TB control.
Shortcomings of Vitamin D-Based Model Simulations of Seasonal Influenza
Jeffrey Shaman, Christie Y. Jeon, Edward Giovannucci, Marc Lipsitch
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020743
Abstract: Seasonal variation in serum concentration of the vitamin D metabolite 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D], which contributes to host immune function, has been hypothesized to be the underlying source of observed influenza seasonality in temperate regions. The objective of this study was to determine whether observed 25(OH)D levels could be used to simulate observed influenza infection rates. Data of mean and variance in 25(OH)D serum levels by month were obtained from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and used to parameterize an individual-based model of influenza transmission dynamics in two regions of the United States. Simulations were compared with observed daily influenza excess mortality data. Best-fitting simulations could reproduce the observed seasonal cycle of influenza; however, these best-fit simulations were shown to be highly sensitive to stochastic processes within the model and were unable consistently to reproduce observed seasonal patterns. In this respect the simulations with the vitamin D forced model were inferior to similar modeling efforts using absolute humidity and the school calendar as seasonal forcing variables. These model results indicate it is unlikely that seasonal variations in vitamin D levels principally determine the seasonality of influenza in temperate regions.
The Role of Pre-Operative and Post-Operative Glucose Control in Surgical-Site Infections and Mortality
Christie Y. Jeon, E. Yoko Furuya, Mitchell F. Berman, Elaine L. Larson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045616
Abstract: Background and Objective The impact of glucose control on surgical-site infection (SSI) and death remains unclear. We examined how pre- and post-operative glucose levels and their variability are associated with the risk of SSI or in-hospital death. Methods This retrospective cohort study employed data on 13,800 hospitalized patients who underwent a surgical procedure at a large referral hospital in New York between 2006 and 2008. Over 20 different sources of electronic data were used to analyze how thirty-day risk of SSI and in-hospital death varies by glucose levels and variability. Maximum pre- and post-operative glucose levels were determined for 72 hours before and after the operation and glucose variability was defined as the coefficient of variation of the glucose measurements. We employed logistic regression to model the risk of SSI or death against glucose variables and the following potential confounders: age, sex, body mass index, duration of operation, diabetes status, procedure classification, physical status, emergency status, and blood transfusion. Results While association of pre- and post-operative hyperglycemia with SSI were apparent in the crude analysis, multivariate results showed that SSI risk did not vary significantly with glucose levels. On the other hand, in-hospital deaths were associated with pre-operative hypoglycemia (OR = 5.09, 95% CI (1.80, 14.4)) and glucose variability (OR = 1.14, 95% CI (1.03, 1.27) for 10% increase in coefficient of variation). Conclusion In-hospital deaths occurred more often among those with pre-operative hypoglycemia and higher glucose variability. These findings warrant further investigation to determine whether stabilization of glucose and prevention of hypoglycemia could reduce post-operative deaths.
Acid suppressive drugs and gastric cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies
Jeong Soo Ahn,Chun-Sick Eom,Christie Y Jeon,Sang Min Park
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2013, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i16.2560
Abstract: AIM: To evaluate the association between acid suppressive drug use and the development of gastric cancer. METHODS: A systematic search of relevant studies that were published through June 2012 was conducted using the MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. The search included observational studies on the use of histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) or proton pump inhibitors and the associated risk of gastric cancer, which was measured using the adjusted odds ratio (OR) or the relative risk and 95%CI. An independent extraction was performed by two of the authors, and a consensus was reached. RESULTS: Of 4595 screened articles, 11 observational studies (n = 94558) with 5980 gastric cancer patients were included in the final analyses. When all the studies were pooled, acid suppressive drug use was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer risk (adjusted OR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.29-1.56, I2 = 48.9%, P = 0.034). The overall risk of gastric cancer increased among H2RA users (adjusted OR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.24-1.59, I2 = 59.5%, P = 0.008) and PPI users (adjusted OR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.19-1.64, I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.377). CONCLUSION: Acid suppressive drugs are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Further studies are needed to test the effect of acid suppressive drugs on gastric cancer.
The impact of diabetes on tuberculosis treatment outcomes: A systematic review
Meghan A Baker, Anthony D Harries, Christie Y Jeon, Jessica E Hart, Anil Kapur, Knut L?nnroth, Salah-Eddine Ottmani, Sunali D Goonesekera, Megan B Murray
BMC Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-9-81
Abstract: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize evidence for the impact of diabetes on tuberculosis outcomes.We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the World Health Organization Regional Indexes from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2010 and references of relevant articles for reports of observational studies that included people with diabetes treated for tuberculosis. We reviewed the full text of 742 papers and included 33 studies of which 9 reported culture conversion at two to three months, 12 reported the combined outcome of failure and death, 23 reported death, 4 reported death adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, 5 reported relapse, and 4 reported drug resistant recurrent tuberculosis.Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of failure and death during tuberculosis treatment. Patients with diabetes have a risk ratio (RR) for the combined outcome of failure and death of 1.69 (95% CI, 1.36 to 2.12). The RR of death during tuberculosis treatment among the 23 unadjusted studies is 1.89 (95% CI, 1.52 to 2.36), and this increased to an effect estimate of 4.95 (95% CI, 2.69 to 9.10) among the 4 studies that adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors. Diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of relapse (RR, 3.89; 95% CI, 2.43 to 6.23). We did not find evidence for an increased risk of tuberculosis recurrence with drug resistant strains among people with diabetes. The studies assessing sputum culture conversion after two to three months of tuberculosis therapy were heterogeneous with relative risks that ranged from 0.79 to 3.25.Diabetes increases the risk of failure and death combined, death, and relapse among patients with tuberculosis. This study highlights a need for increased attention to treatment of tuberculosis in people with diabetes, which may include testing for suspected diabetes, improved glucose control, and increased clinical and therapeutic monitoring.Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major
Development of a free boundary Tokamak Equilibrium Solver (TES) for Advanced Study of Tokamak Equilibria
Y. M. Jeon
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.3938/jkps.67.843
Abstract: A free-boundary Tokamak Equilibrium Solver (TES), developed for advanced study of tokamak equilibra, is described with two distinctive features. One is a generalized method to resolve the intrinsic axisymmetric instability, which is encountered after all in equilibrium calculation with a free-boundary condition. The other is an extension to deal with a new divertor geometry such as snowflake or X divertors. For validations, the uniqueness of a solution is confirmed by the independence on variations of computational domain, the mathematical correctness and accuracy of equilibrium profiles are checked by a direct comparison with an analytic equilibrium known as a generalized Solovev equilibrium, and the governing force balance relation is tested by examining the intrinsic axisymmetric instabilities. As a valuable application, a snowflake equilibrium that requires a second order zero of the poloidal magnetic field is discussed in the circumstance of KSTAR coil system.
Autonomous stochastic resonance in fully frustrated Josephson-junction ladders
Gun Sang Jeon,M. Y. Choi
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.064514
Abstract: We investigate autonomous stochastic resonance in fully frustrated Josephson-junction ladders, which are driven by uniform constant currents. At zero temperature large currents induce oscillations between the two ground states, while for small currents the lattice potential forces the system to remain in one of the two states. At finite temperatures, on the other hand, oscillations between the two states develop even below the critical current; the signal-to-noise ratio is found to display array-enhanced stochastic resonance. It is suggested that such behavior may be observed experimentally through the measurement of the staggered voltage.
p38 MAPK-Mediated Bmi-1 Down-Regulation and Defective Proliferation in ATM-Deficient Neural Stem Cells Can Be Restored by Akt Activation
Jeesun Kim,Jeon Hwangbo,Paul K. Y. Wong
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016615
Abstract: A-T (ataxia telangiectasia) is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the Atm (A-T mutated) gene that leads to neurodegeneration. Despite an increase in the numbers of studies in this area in recent years, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in human A-T are still poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Atm-/- mouse brains show defective self-renewal and proliferation, which is accompanied by activation of chronic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and a lower level of the polycomb protein Bmi-1. However, the mechanism underlying Bmi-1 down-regulation and its relevance to defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs remained unclear. Here, we show that over-expression of Bmi-1 increases self-renewal and proliferation of Atm-/- NSCs to normal, indicating that defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs is a consequence of down-regulation of Bmi-1. We also demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced Akt phosphorylation renders Bmi-1 resistant to the proteasomal degradation, leading to its stabilization and accumulation in the nucleus. However, inhibition of the Akt-dependent Bmi-1 stabilizing process by p38 MAPK signaling reduces the levels of Bmi-1. Treatment of the Atm-/- NSCs with a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 extended Bmi-1 posttranscriptional turnover and H2A ubiquitination in Atm-/- NSCs. Our observations demonstrate the molecular basis underlying the impairment of self-renewal and proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs through the p38 MAPK-Akt-Bmi-1-p21 signaling pathway.
Robust Crop and Weed Segmentation under Uncontrolled Outdoor Illumination
Hong Y. Jeon,Lei F. Tian,Heping Zhu
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110606270
Abstract: An image processing algorithm for detecting individual weeds was developed and evaluated. Weed detection processes included were normalized excessive green conversion, statistical threshold value estimation, adaptive image segmentation, median filter, morphological feature calculation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The developed algorithm was validated for its ability to identify and detect weeds and crop plants under uncontrolled outdoor illuminations. A machine vision implementing field robot captured field images under outdoor illuminations and the image processing algorithm automatically processed them without manual adjustment. The errors of the algorithm, when processing 666 field images, ranged from 2.1 to 2.9%. The ANN correctly detected 72.6% of crop plants from the identified plants, and considered the rest as weeds. However, the ANN identification rates for crop plants were improved up to 95.1% by addressing the error sources in the algorithm. The developed weed detection and image processing algorithm provides a novel method to identify plants against soil background under the uncontrolled outdoor illuminations, and to differentiate weeds from crop plants. Thus, the proposed new machine vision and processing algorithm may be useful for outdoor applications including plant specific direct applications (PSDA).
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