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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 65114 matches for " Christian Y. Mardin "
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Common Genetic Determinants of Intraocular Pressure and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Leonieke M. E. van Koolwijk equal contributor,Wishal D. Ramdas equal contributor,M. Kamran Ikram,Nomdo M. Jansonius,Francesca Pasutto,Pirro G. Hysi,Stuart Macgregor,Sarah F. Janssen,Alex W. Hewitt,Ananth C. Viswanathan,Jacoline B. ten Brink,S. Mohsen Hosseini,Najaf Amin,Dominiek D. G. Despriet,Jacqueline J. M. Willemse-Assink,Rogier Kramer,Fernando Rivadeneira,Maksim Struchalin,Yurii S. Aulchenko,Nicole Weisschuh,Matthias Zenkel,Christian Y. Mardin,Eugen Gramer,Ulrich Welge-Lüssen,Grant W. Montgomery,Francis Carbonaro,Terri L. Young,The DCCT/EDIC Research Group,Céline Bellenguez,Peter McGuffin,Paul J. Foster,Fotis Topouzis,Paul Mitchell,Jie Jin Wang,Tien Y. Wong,Monika A. Czudowska,Albert Hofman,Andre G. Uitterlinden,Roger C. W. Wolfs,Paulus T. V. M. de Jong,Ben A. Oostra,Andrew D. Paterson,Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2,David A. Mackey,Arthur A. B. Bergen,André Reis,Christopher J. Hammond,Johannes R. Vingerling,Hans G. Lemij,Caroline C. W. Klaver,Cornelia M. van Duijn
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002611
Abstract: Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p = 1.4×10?8), and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p = 1.6×10?8). In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases), both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p = 2.4×10?2 for rs11656696 and p = 9.1×10?4 for rs7555523). GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.
Profile of the glaucomas and intervention in a large eye care centre in South-East Nepal
S Sarkar,C Mardin,A Henning
Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/nepjoph.v2i1.3697
Abstract: Introduction: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of glaucoma and modes of therapeutical intervention in a rural population of a developing country. Patients and methods: A single centre-based cross-sectional study was carried out over a seven-month period in Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital (SCEH), Lahan/NEPAL, including the patients with glaucoma. Outcome measurement: The patients' demography, type of the glaucomas, visual acuity, vertical cup-disc ratio, intra-ocular pressure and visual field findings were the parameters studied. Results: A total of 3986 eyes with suspected glaucoma were identified. 53.7 % of the patients were between 41- 60 years of age. 53.9 % were male. 26.5 % were blind or severely visually impaired. 37.2 % had IOP more than 35 mmHg. 46.4 % had vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR) higher than 0.8. Severe visual field defects were found in 28.4 % eyes. 35.3% eyes had primary angle-closure glaucoma, 22.6 % eyes primary open-angle glaucoma, and 14.6 % eyes normaltension glaucoma. 10.2 % eyes suffered from lens induced glaucoma. Only in 9 eyes was pseudoexfoliation syndrome with glaucoma diagnosed. 25.7 % eyes were advised for trabeculectomy. 11.5 % eyes underwent extra-capsular cataract surgery. IOP lowering medication was prescribed in 5.9 % patients. Conclusions: The most common glaucoma seen in the out-patient department of a large eyecare centre in South-East Nepal is primary angle-closure glaucoma. 25 % of the glaucoma patients are visually impaired or blind at the time of presentation. In more than one-fourth of the patients, trabeculectomy is the therapy of choice. Keywords : glaucoma; South-East Nepal; North-East India; Bihar; blindness. DOI: 10.3126/nepjoph.v2i1.3697 Nep J Oph 2010;2(1):3-9
The Status of Core-collapse Supernova Simulations
Christian Y. Cardall
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Core-collapse supernovae can be used to place limits on dark matter candidate particles, but the strength of these limits depends on the depth of our theoretical understanding of these astrophysical events. To date, limitations on computing power have prevented inclusion of all the physics that would constitute a realistic simulation. The TeraScale Supernova Initiative (TSI) will overcome these obstacles in the next few years, elucidating the explosion mechanism and other phenomena closely associated with the core collapse of massive stars.
Coherence of neutrino flavor mixing in quantum field theory
Christian Y. Cardall
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.61.073006
Abstract: In the simplistic quantum mechanical picture of flavor mixing, conditions on the maximum size and minimum coherence time of the source and detector regions for the observation of interference---as well as the very viability of the approach---can only be argued in an ad hoc way from principles external to the formalism itself. To examine these conditions in a more fundamental way, the quantum field theoretical $S$-matrix approach is employed in this paper, without the unrealistic assumption of microscopic stationarity. The fully normalized, time-dependent neutrino flavor mixing event rates presented here automatically reveal the coherence conditions in a natural, self-contained, and physically unambiguous way, while quantitatively describing the transition to their failure.
Theory of Neutrino Flavor Mixing
Christian Y. Cardall
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: The depth of our theoretical understanding of neutrino flavor mixing should match the importance of this phenomenon as a herald of long-awaited empirical challenges to the standard model of particle physics. After reviewing the familiar, simplified quantum mechanical model and its flaws, I sketch the deeper understanding of both vacuum and matter-enhanced flavor mixing that is found in the framework of scattering theory. While the simplified model gives the ``correct answer'' for atmospheric, solar, and accelerator/reactor neutrino phenomena, I argue that a key insight from the deeper picture will simplify the treatment of neutrino transport in astrophysical environments---supernovae, for example---in which neutrinos play a dynamically important role.
Conservative Formulations of General Relativistic Radiative Transfer
Christian Y. Cardall
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: Accurate accounting of particle number and 4-momentum in radiative transfer may be facilitated by the use of transport equations that allow transparent conversion between volume and surface integrals in both spacetime and momentum space. Such conservative formulations of general relativistic radiative transfer in multiple spatial dimensions are presented, and their relevance to core-collapse supernova simulations described.
Towards neutrino transport with flavor mixing in supernovae: the Liouville operator
Christian Y. Cardall
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2009.02.060
Abstract: The calculation of neutrino decoupling from nuclear matter requires a transport formalism capable of handling both collisions and flavor mixing. The first steps towards such a formalism are the construction of neutrino and antineutrino "distribution matrices," and a determination of the Liouville equations they satisfy in the noninteracting case. These steps are accomplished through study of a Wigner-transformed "density function," the mean value of paired neutrino quantum field operators.
Inference for the limiting cluster size distribution of extreme values
Christian Y. Robert
Statistics , 2008, DOI: 10.1214/07-AOS551
Abstract: Any limiting point process for the time normalized exceedances of high levels by a stationary sequence is necessarily compound Poisson under appropriate long range dependence conditions. Typically exceedances appear in clusters. The underlying Poisson points represent the cluster positions and the multiplicities correspond to the cluster sizes. In the present paper we introduce estimators of the limiting cluster size probabilities, which are constructed through a recursive algorithm. We derive estimators of the extremal index which plays a key role in determining the intensity of cluster positions. We study the asymptotic properties of the estimators and investigate their finite sample behavior on simulated data.
Estimating the multivariate extremal index function
Christian Y. Robert
Statistics , 2008, DOI: 10.3150/08-BEJ145
Abstract: The multivariate extremal index function relates the asymptotic distribution of the vector of pointwise maxima of a multivariate stationary sequence to that of the independent sequence from the same stationary distribution. It also measures the degree of clustering of extremes in the multivariate process. In this paper, we construct nonparametric estimators of this function and prove their asymptotic normality under long-range dependence and moment conditions. The results are illustrated by means of a simulation study.
Conservative formulations of general relativistic kinetic theory
Christian Y. Cardall,Anthony Mezzacappa
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.68.023006
Abstract: Experience with core-collapse supernova simulations shows that accurate accounting of total particle number and 4-momentum can be a challenge for computational radiative transfer. This accurate accounting would be facilitated by the use of particle number and 4-momentum transport equations that allow transparent conversion between volume and surface integrals in both configuration and momentum space. Such conservative formulations of general relativistic kinetic theory in multiple spatial dimensions are presented in this paper, and their relevance to core-collapse supernova simulations is described.
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