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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18761 matches for " Christian Schneider "
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On the Temperature Behavior of Pulse Propagation and Relaxation in Worms, Nerves and Gels
Christian Fillafer, Matthias F. Schneider
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066773
Abstract: The effect of temperature on pulse propagation in biological systems has been an important field of research. Environmental temperature not only affects a host of physiological processes e.g. in poikilotherms but also provides an experimental means to investigate the thermodynamic phenomenology of nerves and muscle. In the present work, the temperature dependence of blood vessel pulsation velocity and frequency was studied in the annelid Lumbriculus variegatus. The pulse velocity was found to vary linearily between 0°C and 30°C. In contrast, the pulse frequency increased non-linearly in the same temperature range. A heat block ultimately resulted in complete cessation of vessel pulsations at 37.2±2.7°C (lowest: 33°C, highest: 43°C). However, quick cooling of the animal led to restoration of regularly propagating pulses. This experimentally observed phenomenology of pulse propagation and frequency is interpreted without any assumptions about molecules in the excitable membrane (e.g. ion channels) or their temperature-dependent behaviour. By following Einstein’s approach to thermodynamics and diffusion, a relation between relaxation time τ and compressibility κ of the excitable medium is derived that can be tested experimentally (for κT ~ κS). Without fitting parameters this theory predicts the temperature dependence of the limiting (i.e. highest) pulse frequency in good agreement with experimental data. The thermodynamic approach presented herein is neither limited to temperature nor to worms nor to living systems. It describes the coupling between pulse propagation and relaxation equally well in nerves and gels. The inherent consistency and universality of the concept underline its potential to explain the dependence of pulse propagation and relaxation on any thermodynamic observable.
Can [125I]-Iodocyanopindolol Label β3-Adrenoceptors in Rat Urinary Bladder?
Tim Schneider,Martin Christian Michel
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2010.00128
Abstract: β3-Adrenoceptors have been demonstrated to mediate urinary bladder smooth muscle relaxation but proof of their expression at the protein level has been missing because of lack of suitable antibodies or radioligands. As among various available radioligands [125I]-iodocyanopindolol ([125I]-ICYP) exhibited the smallest problems in labeling cloned human β3-adrenoceptors in previous studies, we have explored its suitability to label β3-adrenoceptors in rat urinary bladder in saturation and competition radioligand binding experiments. Rat lung was used as an internal control and exhibited all characteristics expected from this tissue with regard to β1/β2-adrenoceptor labeling. Saturation and competition binding studies with [125I]-ICYP in rat bladder yielded saturable binding sites with an affinity compatible with β3-adrenoceptors. In competition experiments various agonists and antagonists largely exhibited a profile compatible with a population consisting largely of β3-adrenoceptors. However, the binding competition properties of ICI 118,551 and SR 59,230A were not easily explained by the idea of labeling a homogeneous β3-adrenoceptor population but interpretation of the data was limited by a high degree of non-specific binding in [125I]-ICYP concentrations required to label the receptors. We conclude that [125I]-ICYP can be used to label tissue β3-adrenoceptors but results obtained with this ligand have to be interpreted with caution.
Electronic Dynamics Due to Exchange Interaction with Holes in Bulk GaAs
Hans Christian Schneider,Michael Krauss
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1117/12.842193
Abstract: We present an investigation of electron-spin dynamics in p-doped bulk GaAs due to the electron-hole exchange interaction, aka the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism. We discuss under which conditions a spin relaxation times for this mechanism is, in principle, accessible to experimental techniques, in particular to 2-photon photoemission, but also Faraday/Kerr effect measurements. We give numerical results for the spin relaxation time for a range of p-doping densities and temperatures. We then go beyond the relaxation time approximation and calculate numerically the spin-dependent electron dynamics by including the spin-flip electron-hole exchange scattering and spin-conserving carrier Coulomb scattering at the level of Boltzmann scattering integrals. We show that the electronic dynamics deviates from the simple spin-relaxation dynamics for electrons excited at high energies where the thermalization does not take place faster than the spin relaxation time. We also present a derivation of the influence of screening on the electron-hole exchange scattering and conclude that it can be neglected for the case of GaAs, but may become important for narrow-gap semiconductors.
Electron-phonon-scattering dynamics in ferromagnetic metals and its influence on ultrafast demagnetization processes
Sven Essert,Hans Christian Schneider
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.224405
Abstract: We theoretically investigate spin-dependent carrier dynamics due to the electron-phonon interaction after ultrafast optical excitation in ferromagnetic metals. We calculate the electron-phonon matrix elements including the spin-orbit interaction in the electronic wave functions and the interaction potential. Using the matrix elements in Boltzmann scattering integrals, the momentum-resolved carrier distributions are obtained by solving their equation of motion numerically. We find that the optical excitation with realistic laser intensities alone leads to a negligible magnetization change, and that the demagnetization due to electron-phonon interaction is mostly due to hole scattering. Importantly, the calculated demagnetization quenching due to this Elliot-Yafet type depolarization mechanism is not large enough to explain the experimentally observed result. We argue that the ultrafast demagnetization of ferromagnets does not occur exclusively via an Elliott-Yafet type process, i.e., scattering in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction, but is influenced to a large degree by a dynamical change of the band structure, i.e., the exchange splitting.
Electron-phonon scattering dynamics in ferromagnets on ultrafast timescales: Influence of the phonon temperature
Sven Essert,Hans Christian Schneider
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3676611
Abstract: The magnetization response of bulk ferromagnets after excitation by an ultrashort optical pulse is calculated using a dynamical model of the Elliott-Yafet type that includes the effects of the spin-orbit interaction in the ab-initio ferromagnetic band structure, the electron-phonon interaction at the level of Boltzmann scattering integrals, and dynamical changes in the temperature of the phonon bath. Using realistic parameters for the ultrashort optical pulse, the computed maximum magnetization quenching achievable with electron-phonon scattering in a fixed band structure is much smaller than the quenching observed in experiments. Heating of the phonon bath is found to not appreciably change the magnetization dynamics on ultrashort timescales.
Magnetic switching dynamics in a ferrimagnetic two sub-lattice model including ultrafast exchange scattering
Alexander Baral,Hans Christian Schneider
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.100402
Abstract: We study the heat-induced magnetization dynamics in a toy model of a ferrimagnetic alloy, which includes localized spins antiferromagnetically coupled to an itinerant carrier system with a Stoner gap. We determine the one-particle spin-density matrix including exchange scattering between localized and itinerant bands as well as scattering with phonons. While a transient ferromagnetic-like state can always be achieved by a sufficiently strong excitation, this transient ferromagnetic-like state only leads to magnetization switching for model parameters that also yield a compensation point in the equilibrium M(T) curve.
Spin Dependent Lifetimes and Spin-orbit Hybridization Points in Heusler Compounds
Steffen Kaltenborn,Hans Christian Schneider
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.115127
Abstract: We present an ab initio calculation of the k and spin-resolved electronic lifetimes in the half-metallic Heusler compounds Co(2)MnSi and Co(2)FeSi. We determine the spin-flip and spin-conserving contributions to the lifetimes and study in detail the behavior of the lifetimes around states that are strongly spin-mixed by spin-orbit coupling. We find that, for non-degenerate bands, the spin mixing alone does not determine the energy dependence of the (spin-flip) lifetimes. Qualitatively, the lifetimes reflect the lineup of electron and hole bands. We predict that different excitation conditions lead to drastically different spin-flip dynamics of excited electrons and may even give rise to an enhancement of the non-equilibrium spin polarization.
Spin-orbit coupling effects on spin-dependent inelastic electronic lifetimes in ferromagnets
Steffen Kaltenborn,Hans Christian Schneider
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.201104
Abstract: For the 3d ferromagnets iron, cobalt and nickel we compute the spin-dependent inelastic electronic lifetimes due to carrier-carrier Coulomb interaction including spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-dependent density-of-states at the Fermi energy does not, in general, determine the spin dependence of the lifetimes because of the effective spin-flip transitions allowed by the spin mixing. The majority and minority electron lifetimes computed including spin-orbit coupling for these three 3-d ferromagnets do not differ by more than a factor of 2, and agree with experimental results.
On the excitation of action potentials by protons and its potential implications for cholinergic transmission
Christian Fillafer,Matthias F. Schneider
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s00709-015-0815-4
Abstract: One of the most conserved mechanisms for transmission of a nerve pulse across a synapse relies on acetylcholine. Ever since the Nobel-prize winning works of Dale and Loewi, it has been assumed that acetylcholine - subsequent to its action on a postsynaptic cell - is split into inactive by-products by acetylcholinesterase. Herein, this widespread assumption is falsified. Excitable cells (Chara australis internodes), which had previously been unresponsive to acetylcholine, became acetylcholine-sensitive in presence of acetylcholinesterase. The latter was evidenced by a striking difference in cell membrane depolarisation upon exposure to 10 mM intact acetylcholine (deltaV=-2plus/minus5 mV) and its hydrolysate respectively (deltaV=81plus/minus19 mV) for 60 sec. This pronounced depolarization, which also triggered action potentials, was clearly attributed to one of the hydrolysis products: acetic acid (deltaV=87plus/minus9 mV at pH 4.0; choline ineffective in range 1-10 mM). In agreement with our findings, numerous studies in the literature have reported that acids excite gels, lipid membranes, plant cells, erythrocytes as well as neurons. Whether excitation of the postsynaptic cell in a cholinergic synapse is due to protons or due to intact acetylcholine is a most fundamental question that has not been addressed so far.
Plasmon dispersions in simple metals and Heusler compounds
Steffen Kaltenborn,Hans Christian Schneider
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.045124
Abstract: We present a comprehensive study of plasmon dispersions in simple metals and Heusler compounds based on an accurate ab-initio evaluation of the momentum and frequency dependent dielectric function in the random-phase approximation. Using a momentum-dependent tetrahedron method for the computation of the dielectric function, we extract and analyze "full" and "intraband" plasmon dispersions: The "full" plasma dispersion is obtained by including all bands, the intraband plasma dispersion by including only intraband transitions. For the simple metals silver and alu- minum, we show that the intraband plasmon dispersion has an unexpected downward slope and is therefore markedly different from the results of an effective-mass electron-gas model and the full plasmon dispersion. For the two Heusler compounds Co2FeSi and Co2MnSi, we present spectra for the dielectric function, their loss functions and plasmon dispersions. The latter exhibit the same negative intraband plasmon dispersion as found in the simple metals. We also discuss the influence of spin-mixing on the plasmon dispersion.
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