Abstract:
A measurement scheme of atomic qubits pinned at given positions is studied by analyzing the interference pattern obtained when they emit photons spontaneously. In the case of two qubits, a well-known relation is revisited, in which the interference visibility is equal to the concurrence of the state in the infinite spatial separation limit of the qubits. By taking into account the super-radiant and sub-radiant effects, it is shown that a state tomography is possible when the qubit spatial separation is comparable to the wavelength of the atomic transition. In the case of three qubits, the relations between various entanglement measures and the interference visibility are studied, where the visibility is defined from the two-qubit case. A qualitative correspondence among these entanglement relations is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the interference visibility is directly related to the maximal bipartite negativity.

Abstract:
We investigate a spinless Fermi gas trapped in a honeycomb optical lattice with attractive nearest-neighbor interactions. At zero temperature, mean-field theory predicts three quantum phase transitions, two being topological. At low interactions, the system is semi-metallic. Increasing the interaction further, the semi-metal destabilizes into a fully gapped superfluid. At larger interactions, a topological transition occurs and this superfluid phase becomes gapless, with Dirac-like dispersion relations. Finally, increasing again the interaction, a second topological transition occurs and the gapless superfluid is replaced by a different fully gapped superfluid phase. We analyze these different quantum phases as the temperature and the lattice filling are varied.

Abstract:
The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

Abstract:
We consider a strongly interacting one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Fermi mixture confined in a harmonic trap. It consists of a Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas (1D Bose gas with repulsive hard-core interactions) and of a non-interacting Fermi gas (1D spin-aligned Fermi gas), both species interacting through hard-core repulsive interactions. Using a generalized Bose-Fermi mapping, we determine the exact particle density profiles, momentum distributions and behaviour of the mixture under 1D expansion when opening the trap. In real space, bosons and fermions do not display any phase separation: the respective density profiles extend over the same region and they both present a number of peaks equal to the total number of particles in the trap. In momentum space the bosonic component has the typical narrow TG profile, while the fermionic component shows a broad distribution with fermionic oscillations at small momenta. Due to the large boson-fermion repulsive interactions, both the bosonic and the fermionic momentum distributions decay as $C p^{-4}$ at large momenta, like in the case of a pure bosonic TG gas. The coefficient $C$ is related to the two-body density matrix and to the bosonic concentration in the mixture. When opening the trap, both momentum distributions "fermionize" under expansion and turn into that of a Fermi gas with a particle number equal to the total number of particles in the mixture.

Abstract:
On the basis of exact numerical simulations and analytical calculations, we describe qualitatively and quantitatively the interference processes at the origin of the photonic Hall effect for resonant Rayleigh (point-dipole) scatterers in a magnetic field. For resonant incoming light, the induced giant magneto-optical effects result in relative Hall currents in the percent range, three orders of magnitude larger than with classical scatterers. This suggests that the observation of the photonic Hall effect in cold atomic vapors is within experimental reach.

Abstract:
We propose a simple experimental scheme to generate spin textures in the ground state of interacting ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in a two-dimensional harmonic trap. Our scheme is based on two co-propagating Laguerre-Gauss laser beams illuminating the atoms and coupling two of their internal ground state Zeeman sublevels. Using a Gross-Pitaevskii description, we show that the ground state of the atomic system has different topological properties depending on the interaction strength and the laser beam intensity. A half-skyrmion state develops at low interactions while a meron pair develops at large interactions.

Abstract:
We show that the momentum distribution of a nonlinear matter wave suddenly released with a finite velocity in a speckle potential converges, after an out-of-equilibrium evolution, to a universal Rayleigh-Jeans thermal distribution. By exploring the complete phase diagram of the equilibrated wave, we discover that for low but nonzero values of the disorder strength, a large-scale structure -a condensate- appears in the equilibrium distribution.

Abstract:
Since the work of Anderson on localization, interference effects for the propagation of a wave in the presence of disorder have been extensively studied, as exemplified in coherent backscattering (CBS) of light. In the multiple scattering of light by a disordered sample of thermal atoms, interference effects are usually washed out by the fast atomic motion. This is no longer true for cold atoms where CBS has recently been observed. However, the internal structure of the atoms strongly influences the interference properties. In this paper, we consider light scattering by an atomic dipole transition with arbitrary degeneracy and study its impact on coherent backscattering. We show that the interference contrast is strongly reduced. Assuming a uniform statistical distribution over internal degrees of freedom, we compute analytically the single and double scattering contributions to the intensity in the weak localization regime. The so-called ladder and crossed diagrams are generalized to the case of atoms and permit to calculate enhancement factors and backscattering intensity profiles for polarized light and any closed atomic dipole transition.

Abstract:
As recently discovered [PRL ${\bf 109}$ 190601(2012)], Anderson localization in a bulk disordered system triggers the emergence of a coherent forward scattering (CFS) peak in momentum space, which twins the well-known coherent backscattering (CBS) peak observed in weak localization experiments. Going beyond the perturbative regime, we address here the long-time dynamics of the CFS peak in a 1D random system and we relate this novel interference effect to the statistical properties of the eigenfunctions and eigenspectrum of the corresponding random Hamiltonian. Our numerical results show that the dynamics of the CFS peak is governed by the logarithmic level repulsion between localized states, with a time scale that is, with good accuracy, twice the Heisenberg time. This is in perfect agreement with recent findings based on the nonlinear $\sigma$-model. In the stationary regime, the width of the CFS peak in momentum space is inversely proportional to the localization length, reflecting the exponential decay of the eigenfunctions in real space, while its height is exactly twice the background, reflecting the Poisson statistical properties of the eigenfunctions. Our results should be easily extended to higher dimensional systems and other symmetry classes.

Abstract:
We study the repulsive Hubbard model on an anisotropic honeycomb lattice within a mean-field and a slave-rotor treatment. In addition to the known semi-metallic and band-insulating phases, obtained for very weak interactions, and the anti-ferromagnetic phase at large couplings, various insulating spin-liquid phases develop at intermediate couplings. Whereas some of these spin liquids have gapless spinon excitations, a gapped one occupies a large region of the phase diagram and becomes the predominant phase for large hopping anisotropies. This phase can be understood in terms of weakly-coupled strongly dimerized states.