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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14740 matches for " Christian Kakisingi "
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Peripheral Lymphadenopathy: A Descriptive Study from a Tertiary Care Centre in Lubumbashi (D.R.C)  [PDF]
Christian Kakisingi, Olivier Mukuku, Michel Manika, Marc Kashal, Veronique Kyabu, Eric Kasamba, Beya Tshikuluila, Claude Mwamba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102771
Abstract:
Introduction: The causes of superficial lymphadenopathy are diverse and their prognosis is often unknown. The diagnosis of superficial lymphadenopathy remains a challenge because, alone, its clinical picture doesn’t allow differentiating between an infectious disease and a non-transmissible disease. The aim of this study is to describe epidemiological, clinical and pathologic aspects of superficial lymphadenopathy observed in the internal medicine department at the University of Lubumbashi Clinics (DR Congo). Patients, Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and transversal study on superficial lymphadenopathy observed over a period of 24 months from November 2013 to October 2015 at the University of Lubumbashi Clinics. Parameters studied were gender, age, clinical particular of superficial lymphadenopathy and associated patient clinical signs and pathology of these lymph nodes biopsy. Results: 36 patients’ data were identified with a sex ratio M/F = 1.76 and a mean age of 42.47 ± 15.64 years. 75% of patients had lymph nodes tumefaction as the main complaint during consultation and 61.1% had a poor general condition marked by fever. 27.8% were HIV positive and cervical lymphadenopathy was the most frequent. As for the pathologic diagnosis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequent diagnosis (47.2%) followed by reactive hyperplasia (27.8%) and infectious lymphadenopathy (19.4%). Conclusion: The most frequent cause of lymphadenopathy in our study was non-Hodgkin lymphoma (47.2%) followed by lymph nodes reactive hyperplasia (27.8%) and infectious lymphadenitis. Lymph nodes biopsy plays an important role in confirming superficial lymphadenopathy diagnosis. It should be the basic procedure to diagnose extra pulmonary tuberculosis in the DRC National Program against TB.
Immunological, Virological, Parasitic and Biological Profile of Malaria/HIV Co-Infection in 18 Years Old and Above Patients in Lubumbashi (DR Congo)  [PDF]
Christian Kakisingi, Olivier Mukuku, Michel Manika, Augustin Mutombo, Eric Kasamba, Beya Tshikuluila, Paul Mawaw, Claude Mwamba, Oscar Luboya
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102647
Abstract: Introduction: Malaria infection and HIV infection are major public health issues in several parts of the world. Together they have caused more than a million deaths per year. Africa, and Sub-Saharan in particular are the most affected. Our study objective is to determine the prevalence of Malaria/HIV co-infection and describe its immunological, virological, parasitic and biological characteristics. Methodology: This is a descriptive, transversal and multi centric study done on 18 years old and above HIV positive patients, for a period extending from December 2008 to October 2009 in 5 different HIV treatment centres. Parameters studied were gender, age, CD4 count, viral load, parasite density and haemoglobin level. The HIV diagnosis was made according to the AIDS National Program and malaria according to the Malaria National Program. Statistic analyses were done using Epi Info 7 software and the Yates corrected Chi Square test or the Fischer Exact test (when recommended) was used to check any link between different parameters studied. Statistical significance was fixed at <0.05. Results: 405 HIV seropositive patients were compiled. The malaria prevalence in these patients was 6.9%. Majority of co-infected patients were aged between 26 and 49 years (67.9%), and had a CD4 count <200 μl (67.9%), a parasitic density <10,000 trophozoites/μl (75%) and an Hb level <11 g/dl. With regards to correlations between co-infected patients parasitic density and the CD4 count, viral load and Hb level, none of the studied parameters showed any statistic significance difference. Conclusion: A prevalence of 6.9% among HIV/malaria co-infected patients and 67.7% of these patients had a CD4 count less than 200 cells/μl. Thus, both national programs must promote an early testing for HIV infected patients and reinforce preventive measures in the management of malaria.
Clinical and Biological Approach to Peripheral Lymphadenopathy in Adults from a Tertiary Care Centre in Lubumbashi (D. R Congo)  [PDF]
Christian Kakisingi, Olivier Mukuku, Michel Manika, Placide Kakoma, Marc Kashal, Véronique Kyabu, Eric Kasamba, Beya Tshikuluila, Emmanuel Muyumba, Claude Mwamba
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102852
Abstract:
Introduction: Superficial lymphadenopathy is a frequent reason for consultation in Internal Medicine. The diagnosis approach even done by a meticulous clinical examination has to be completed with investigations such as medical imagery and pathologic study. In low-income countries like Democratic Republic of Congo, means for proper diagnosis remain hardly accessible for some classes of the society. Thus, our study aims to describe socio-economic, clinical and biologic parameter that can give diagnosis orientation in patients with superficial lymphadenopathy as observed in the department of internal medicine at the University of Lubumbashi Clinics (DR Congo). Patients, Material and Method: This is a descriptive, transversal study on superficial lymphadenopathy observed for a period of 24 months from November 2013 to October 2015 at the University of Lubumbashi Clinics. Parameters studied included gender, age, localization and clinical characteristics of superficial lymphadenopathy; biologic parameters and pathologic diagnosis were determined by lymph nodes biopsy. Results: 36 patients data were captured and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most frequent pathologic diagnosis (47.20%) followed by reactive hyperplasia (27.80%) and infectious lymphadenitis (19.40%). Some of the variables studied presented a significant statistical association and included age ≥ 50 years old (p = 0.0247), inguinal location (p = 0.0053), multifocal location (p = 0.0063), sensible character (p = 0.0391) and leukocytosis (p = 0.0022) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and variables like age below 50 years (p = 0.0345), inguinal location (p = 0.0299) and sensible character (p = 0.394) for reactive hyperplasia. Conclusion: The most frequent aetiology seen in this very is non-Hodgkin lymphoma (47.2%) followed by lymph node reactive hyperplasia (27.8%) and infectious lymphadenitis. The emergence of non-communicable diseases in both developed countries as low income is growing and special emphasis should be given to this growing scourge. Cancer is one of the most frequent pathologies and non-Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the deadliest cancer types. And having epidemioclinic and biological parameters in the absence of appropriate diagnosis means could contribute to improving the prognosis of lymphadenopathy patients in low-income countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Role of Estradiol, Progestins, Insulines and Adipocytokines in Breast Cancer Promotion in Post-Menopausal Women  [PDF]
Christian Jamin
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.11007
Abstract: Estrogens and artificial progestins used in hormone replacement therapy increase breast cancer risk. This seems to bedue to a promoting and not initiating effect. A synergic effect of estradiol and hyperinsulinism has been shown. Insulinplays a role in the increase of breast cancer risk when associated with android obesity, sedentariness, type II diabetes,and high glycemic index food, alcohol and trans fatty acids intake. Natural menopause induces insulin resistance anddoes not induce a risk decrease. The role of insulin gives a new outlook on the influence of HRT in breast cancer promotion:estradiol alone, which improves insulin-sensitivity, does not increase breast cancer risk. Artificial progestinsassociated with estrogens increase the risk, whereas estrogens associated with progesterone do not. This could be dueto the fact that artificial progestins increase insulin resistance, whereas natural progesterone does not. Adipose tissue,which is an endocrine gland, is insulin dependant. Breast cancer and its seriousness are correlated to adipocytokincirculating levels such as resistin, leptin, interleukin 1, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and are inversely correlatedto the level of adiponectin. Insulin could play a synergic role with sexual steroids by a direct effect and by increasingadipose tissue secretions.
The Timeliness of Direct Democracy in the EU—The Example of Nuclear Energy in the EU and the Institutionalisation of the European Citizens’ Initiative in the Lisbon Treaty  [PDF]
Christian Joerges
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.31001
Abstract: The catastrophic nuclear incident in Fukushima in March 2011 has shocked Europe. Its impact was particularly strong in Germany with its decade-old anti-nuclear movements. Political and technological re-orientations were initiated in that country without considering at any depth the potential of European law and politics to control or obstruct such moves. Somewhat paradoxically, the Euratom Treaty of 1957 and also the new Treaty of Lisbon confirm the right of each Member State to decide upon the use of nuclear energy autonomously. This means that European citizens remain exposed to the risks of that technology until the highly unlikely consent of all Member States to abstain from its further use. That constellation poses a dilemma for democracy because it implies that each political decision taken within parts of the Union exerts external pan-European effects. The article considers the chances for an inclusive democratic process which would lead to a legitimated European decision. It examines the possibilities offered by the new European Citizens Initiative which the Lisbon Treaty has institutionalized in its Article 12 and concludes that this instrument could indeed be used to instigate a European-wide debate which may eventually lead to pertinent changes in the Treaties.
The Methodological Implications of the Schutz-Parsons Debate  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31006
Abstract:

The aim of this paper is an analysis of the different standpoints of Parsons and Schutz concerning Weber’s suggestion that sociological explanations have to include the subjective point of view of the actors, the Cartesian Dilemma that the actor’s consciousness is not accessible to the researcher, and the Kantian Problem that theories are necessary in order to interpret sensory data, but that there is no guarantee that these theories are true. The comparison of Schutz’s and Parsons’s positions shows that Parsons’s methodology is na?ve and unsuitable for a sociological analysis. But although Schutz’s methodological standpoint is much more reasonable, it is also problematic, because it excludes highly abstract social “facts” such as social systems from the research agenda. Parsons can deal with such highly abstract facts, despite the drawback that with his methodology the truth content of theories cannot be judged.

Psychodynamic Positive Psychotherapy Emphasizes the Impact of Culture in the Time of Globalization  [PDF]
Christian Henrichs
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A169
Abstract:

The emphasis of Positive Psychotherapy on culture is a specific contribution to psychodynamic psycho- therapy and to contemporary psychological reasoning and intervention in general. In this article, it is argued that a consistent psycho-cultural perspective as introduced by the founder of Positive Psychotherapy, the Persian-German psychiatrist and psychotherapist Nossrat Peseschkian (1933-2010), is beneficial for humanity’s psychological needs in the time of globalization. Also elementary concepts and the style of intervention in Positive Psychotherapy are described.


Conservation of Gravitational Energy-Momentum and Inner Diffeomorphism Group Gauge Invariance  [PDF]
Christian Wiesendanger
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.48A006
Abstract:

Viewing gravitational energy momentum \"\" as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energy-momentum \"\" requires two different symmetries to account for their independent conservations—spacetime and inner translation invariance. Gauging the latter a generalization of non-Abelian gauge theories of compact Lie groups is developed resulting in the gauge theory of the non-compact group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of an inner Minkowski space M4. As usual the gauging requires the introduction of a covariant derivative, a gauge field and a field strength operator. An invariant and minimal gauge field Lagrangian is derived. The classical field dynamics and the conservation laws for the new gauge theory are developed. Finally, the theorys Hamiltonian in the axial gauge is expressed by two times six unconstrained independent canonical variables obeying the usual Poisson brackets and the positivity of the Hamiltonian is related to a condition on the support of the gauge fields.

Conservation of Gravitational Energy Momentum and Renormalizable Quantum Theory of Gravitation  [PDF]
Christian Wiesendanger
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.48A013
Abstract:

Viewing gravitational energy-momentum as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energymomentum \"\" naturally leads to the gauge theory of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of an inner Minkowski space \"\" which can describe gravitation at the classical level. This theory is quantized in the path integral formalism starting with a non-covariant Hamiltonian formulation with unconstrained canonical field variables and a manifestly positive Hamiltonian. The relevant path integral measure and weight are then brought into a Lorentz- and gauge-covariant form allowing to express correlation functions—applying the De Witt-Faddeev-Popov approach—in any meaningful gauge. Next the Feynman rules are developed and the quantum effective action at one loop in a background field approach is renormalized which results in an asymptotically free theory without presence of other fields and in a theory without asymptotic freedom including the Standard Model (SM) fields. Finally the BRST apparatus is developed as preparation for the renormalizability proof to all orders and a sketch of this proof is given.

General Relativity as the Classical Limit of the Renormalizable Gauge Theory of Volume Preserving Diffeomorphisms  [PDF]
Christian Wiesendanger
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.510098
Abstract:

The different roles and natures of spacetime appearing in a quantum field theory and in classical physics are analyzed implying that a quantum theory of gravitation is not necessarily a quantum theory of curved spacetime. Developing an alternative approach to quantum gravity starts with the postulate that inertial energy-momentum and gravitational energy-momentum need not be the same for virtual quantum states. Separating their roles naturally leads to the quantum gauge field theory of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of an inner four-dimensional space. The classical limit of this theory coupled to a quantized scalar field is derived for an on-shell particle where inertial energy-momentum and gravitational energy-momentum coincide. In that process the symmetry under volume-preserving diffeomorphisms disappears and a new symmetry group emerges: the group of coordinate transformations of four-dimensional spacetime and with it General Relativity coupled to a classical relativistic point particle.

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