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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14773 matches for " Christian Etzrodt "
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The Methodological Implications of the Schutz-Parsons Debate  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31006
Abstract:

The aim of this paper is an analysis of the different standpoints of Parsons and Schutz concerning Weber’s suggestion that sociological explanations have to include the subjective point of view of the actors, the Cartesian Dilemma that the actor’s consciousness is not accessible to the researcher, and the Kantian Problem that theories are necessary in order to interpret sensory data, but that there is no guarantee that these theories are true. The comparison of Schutz’s and Parsons’s positions shows that Parsons’s methodology is na?ve and unsuitable for a sociological analysis. But although Schutz’s methodological standpoint is much more reasonable, it is also problematic, because it excludes highly abstract social “facts” such as social systems from the research agenda. Parsons can deal with such highly abstract facts, despite the drawback that with his methodology the truth content of theories cannot be judged.

Max Weber’s Methodology: The Method of Falsification Applied to Text Interpretations  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43038
Abstract:

Text interpretations are usually leading to ambiguous results. This is especially the case for the interpretation of Max Weber’s methodology. I discuss Thomas Burger’s interpretation that Weber applied Rickert’s methodology and that he never developed his own standpoint regarding the methodological problems. In contrast to this view, I propose an alternative interpretation based on the Methodenstreitin economics and the philosophies of Kant and Rickert. In my opinion Weber offered a very unique solution to an old philosophical problem, which resulted in a complete break with the Platonic and Aristotelian tradition. His solution is what I call the postulate of internal consistency (a logical consistent application of an arbitrary scheme of interpretation). I will use Popper’s method of deductive falsification to decide if Burger’s or my interpretation produces fewer contradictions.

Modern Sovereign Money—Part I: The Moral Hazard of Fractional Reserve Banking  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.69007
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show that problems in financial markets are not the result of unethical behaviour of specific individuals, but instead are caused by a fundamental conflict of interests between the private banks and society. By inflating bubbles through fractional reserve banking and securitization the private banks can increase profits but also increase the risks for the society at large. I will discuss why the most common proposals for reducing the risk for society are very likely not solving the problem, because they do not resolve the fundamental conflict of interest.
Modern Sovereign Money—Part II: A Synthesis of the Chicago Plan, Sovereign Money, and the Modern Money Theory  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.69008
Abstract: In the first part of this series, I demonstrated that the current fractional reserve banking system produces a fundamental conflict of interest between private banks and society. The aim of this second part is to describe three radical solutions to this interest conflict. The Chicago Plan and the Sovereign Money approach propose to prohibit private banks to create money by abolishing fractional reserve banking. The Modern Money Theory on the other hand tries to challenge the current economic systems as a whole based on chartalist ideas. All three approaches have serious deficits. However, they are complementing each other well. The Modern Money Theory solves the main problem of the Chicago Plan and the Sovereign Money proposal, whereas the latter two solve the major issues of the former. I will outline a synthesis of those three theories in order to overcome the interest conflict between the private banks and society.
Expression of classic cadherins and δ-protocadherins in the developing ferret retina
Johannes Etzrodt, K Krishna-K, Christoph Redies
BMC Neuroscience , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-10-153
Abstract: All cadherins investigated by us are expressed differentially by restricted populations of retinal cells during specific periods of the ferret retinogenesis. For example, during embryonic development, some cadherins are exclusively expressed in the outer, proliferative zone of the neuroblast layer, whereas other cadherins mark the prospective ganglion cell layer or cells in the prospective inner nuclear layer. These expression patterns anticipate histogenetic changes that become visible in Nissl or nuclear stainings at later stages. In parallel to the ongoing development of retinal circuits, cadherin expression becomes restricted to specific subpopulations of retinal cell types, especially of ganglion cells, which express most of the investigated cadherins until adulthood. A comparison to previous results in chicken and mouse reveals overall conserved expression patterns of some cadherins but also species differences.The spatiotemporally restricted expression patterns of 7 classic cadherins and 8 δ-protocadherins indicate that cadherins provide a combinatorial adhesive code that specifies developing retinal cell populations and intraretinal as well as retinofugal neural circuits in the developing ferret retina.The vertebrate retina develops as a ventral outgrowth of the forebrain vesicle; invagination of the primary optic vesicle leads to a two-layered optic cup that differentiates into an outer, pigmented epithelium and an inner, multilayered, neural epithelium, which is the focus of our study. The mature neural retina comprises distinct sets of neurons, each with a characteristic morphology, location and connectivity. Together, they form a highly sophisticated network, arranged in distinct layers [reviewed in [1,2]]. Retinal development involves the processes of cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation. These processes are mediated by molecular mechanisms similar to those in the rest of the brain.Many studies have investigated the organization and dev
Role of Estradiol, Progestins, Insulines and Adipocytokines in Breast Cancer Promotion in Post-Menopausal Women  [PDF]
Christian Jamin
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.11007
Abstract: Estrogens and artificial progestins used in hormone replacement therapy increase breast cancer risk. This seems to bedue to a promoting and not initiating effect. A synergic effect of estradiol and hyperinsulinism has been shown. Insulinplays a role in the increase of breast cancer risk when associated with android obesity, sedentariness, type II diabetes,and high glycemic index food, alcohol and trans fatty acids intake. Natural menopause induces insulin resistance anddoes not induce a risk decrease. The role of insulin gives a new outlook on the influence of HRT in breast cancer promotion:estradiol alone, which improves insulin-sensitivity, does not increase breast cancer risk. Artificial progestinsassociated with estrogens increase the risk, whereas estrogens associated with progesterone do not. This could be dueto the fact that artificial progestins increase insulin resistance, whereas natural progesterone does not. Adipose tissue,which is an endocrine gland, is insulin dependant. Breast cancer and its seriousness are correlated to adipocytokincirculating levels such as resistin, leptin, interleukin 1, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and are inversely correlatedto the level of adiponectin. Insulin could play a synergic role with sexual steroids by a direct effect and by increasingadipose tissue secretions.
The Timeliness of Direct Democracy in the EU—The Example of Nuclear Energy in the EU and the Institutionalisation of the European Citizens’ Initiative in the Lisbon Treaty  [PDF]
Christian Joerges
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.31001
Abstract: The catastrophic nuclear incident in Fukushima in March 2011 has shocked Europe. Its impact was particularly strong in Germany with its decade-old anti-nuclear movements. Political and technological re-orientations were initiated in that country without considering at any depth the potential of European law and politics to control or obstruct such moves. Somewhat paradoxically, the Euratom Treaty of 1957 and also the new Treaty of Lisbon confirm the right of each Member State to decide upon the use of nuclear energy autonomously. This means that European citizens remain exposed to the risks of that technology until the highly unlikely consent of all Member States to abstain from its further use. That constellation poses a dilemma for democracy because it implies that each political decision taken within parts of the Union exerts external pan-European effects. The article considers the chances for an inclusive democratic process which would lead to a legitimated European decision. It examines the possibilities offered by the new European Citizens Initiative which the Lisbon Treaty has institutionalized in its Article 12 and concludes that this instrument could indeed be used to instigate a European-wide debate which may eventually lead to pertinent changes in the Treaties.
Psychodynamic Positive Psychotherapy Emphasizes the Impact of Culture in the Time of Globalization  [PDF]
Christian Henrichs
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A169
Abstract:

The emphasis of Positive Psychotherapy on culture is a specific contribution to psychodynamic psycho- therapy and to contemporary psychological reasoning and intervention in general. In this article, it is argued that a consistent psycho-cultural perspective as introduced by the founder of Positive Psychotherapy, the Persian-German psychiatrist and psychotherapist Nossrat Peseschkian (1933-2010), is beneficial for humanity’s psychological needs in the time of globalization. Also elementary concepts and the style of intervention in Positive Psychotherapy are described.


Conservation of Gravitational Energy-Momentum and Inner Diffeomorphism Group Gauge Invariance  [PDF]
Christian Wiesendanger
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.48A006
Abstract:

Viewing gravitational energy momentum \"\" as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energy-momentum \"\" requires two different symmetries to account for their independent conservations—spacetime and inner translation invariance. Gauging the latter a generalization of non-Abelian gauge theories of compact Lie groups is developed resulting in the gauge theory of the non-compact group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of an inner Minkowski space M4. As usual the gauging requires the introduction of a covariant derivative, a gauge field and a field strength operator. An invariant and minimal gauge field Lagrangian is derived. The classical field dynamics and the conservation laws for the new gauge theory are developed. Finally, the theorys Hamiltonian in the axial gauge is expressed by two times six unconstrained independent canonical variables obeying the usual Poisson brackets and the positivity of the Hamiltonian is related to a condition on the support of the gauge fields.

Conservation of Gravitational Energy Momentum and Renormalizable Quantum Theory of Gravitation  [PDF]
Christian Wiesendanger
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.48A013
Abstract:

Viewing gravitational energy-momentum as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energymomentum \"\" naturally leads to the gauge theory of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of an inner Minkowski space \"\" which can describe gravitation at the classical level. This theory is quantized in the path integral formalism starting with a non-covariant Hamiltonian formulation with unconstrained canonical field variables and a manifestly positive Hamiltonian. The relevant path integral measure and weight are then brought into a Lorentz- and gauge-covariant form allowing to express correlation functions—applying the De Witt-Faddeev-Popov approach—in any meaningful gauge. Next the Feynman rules are developed and the quantum effective action at one loop in a background field approach is renormalized which results in an asymptotically free theory without presence of other fields and in a theory without asymptotic freedom including the Standard Model (SM) fields. Finally the BRST apparatus is developed as preparation for the renormalizability proof to all orders and a sketch of this proof is given.

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