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A Vectorial Capacity Product to Monitor Changing Malaria Transmission Potential in Epidemic Regions of Africa
Pietro Ceccato,Christelle Vancutsem,Robert Klaver,James Rowland,Stephen J. Connor
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/595948
Abstract: Rainfall and temperature are two of the major factors triggering malaria epidemics in warm semi-arid (desert-fringe) and high altitude (highland-fringe) epidemic risk areas. The ability of the mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium spp. is dependent upon a series of biological features generally referred to as vectorial capacity. In this study, the vectorial capacity model (VCAP) was expanded to include the influence of rainfall and temperature variables on malaria transmission potential. Data from two remote sensing products were used to monitor rainfall and temperature and were integrated into the VCAP model. The expanded model was tested in Eritrea and Madagascar to check the viability of the approach. The analysis of VCAP in relation to rainfall, temperature and malaria incidence data in these regions shows that the expanded VCAP correctly tracks the risk of malaria both in regions where rainfall is the limiting factor and in regions where temperature is the limiting factor. The VCAP maps are currently offered as an experimental resource for testing within Malaria Early Warning applications in epidemic prone regions of sub-Saharan Africa. User feedback is currently being collected in preparation for further evaluation and refinement of the VCAP model. 1. Introduction Malaria is a major public health threat to the African continent and its control is critical to achieving the Millennium Development Goals in this region [1]. Although considerable progress has been made to reduce the malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa by introducing control measures such as the provision of insecticide-treated mosquito nets, indoor residual spraying, and easier access to effective antimalarial drugs [2], malaria epidemics continue to occur. Periodic epidemics of malaria are a major public health problem for many sub-Saharan African countries. Populations in epidemic-prone areas have a poorly developed immunity to malaria and the disease remains life threatening to all age groups [3]. The impact of epidemics could be minimized through prediction, improved prevention through timely vector control, and deployment of appropriate control measures. The implementation of a Malaria Early Warning System enables regional health ministries to focus on epidemiological surveillance and be better prepared to take necessary actions. Rainfall and temperature anomalies are two of the major environmental factors triggering epidemics in warm semi-arid and altitude areas. Increases in epidemics often occur in these regions after excessive rains or increases in temperature [4, 5]. The ability
Harmonizing and Combining Existing Land Cover/Land Use Datasets for Cropland Area Monitoring at the African Continental Scale
Christelle Vancutsem,Eduardo Marinho,Fran?ois Kayitakire,Linda See,Steffen Fritz
Remote Sensing , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/rs5010019
Abstract: Mapping cropland areas is of great interest in diverse fields, from crop monitoring to climate change and food security. Recognizing the value of a reliable and harmonized crop mask that entirely covers the African continent, the objectives of this study were to (i) consolidate the best existing land cover/land use datasets, (ii) adapt the Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) for harmonization, (iii) assess the final product, and (iv) compare the final product with two existing datasets. Ten datasets were compared and combined through an expert-based approach in order to create the derived map of cropland areas at 250 m covering the whole of Africa. The resulting cropland mask was compared with two recent cropland extent maps at 1 km: one derived from MODIS and one derived from five existing products. The accuracy of the three products was assessed against a validation sample of 3,591 pixels of 1km regularly distributed over Africa and interpreted using high resolution images, which were collected using the Geo-Wiki tool. The comparison of the resulting crop mask with existing products shows that it has a greater agreement with the expert validation dataset, in particular for places where the cropland represents more than 30% of the area of the validation pixel.
Which Are the Factors Associated to Child Mistreatment? Use of a Routinely Collected Specific Dataset for Surveillance in a Belgian Pediatric Unit  [PDF]
Christelle Senterre, Brigitte Vanthournout
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.612171
Abstract: Introduction: Child abuse is a serious health problem with compelling evidence that the phenomenon is common throughout the world. The Center “SOS enfants ULB” is a specialized team, established in a pediatric ward, which had mission to prevent and to treat the situations of children victims of physical, sexual, psychological abuse or of neglect. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of 439 children hospitalized for (suspicion of) maltreatment and to investigate different factors potentially associated with the children at risk of neglect or maltreatment, the children victims of neglect and the physically maltreated children. Methods: Chi square test and multinomial logistic regression models with clustered robust standard error were applied to assess the relationship between the three types of mistreatment and the potential associated factors. Results: Maltreatment was observed for almost one in two children (48.7%) and approximately four on ten (41.5%) were considered at risk. Physical abuse was the most prevalent (57.9%) among the maltreated children and neglect was the second most prevalent (37.4%) form of maltreatment. Regarding the criteria leading to hospitalisation, at least one protective criterion was observed for a little more than eight children on ten. The parental criteria have shown that social problems and conjugal conflicts were the most prevalent for this category of hospitalisation criteria. Conclusion: These data, concerning the hospitalized children for which there is (suspicion of) mistreatment, collected by this team make important contribution to describing child maltreatment and its associated factors. Despite the fact that these hospitalized cases may be probably more serious than those who were not reported, every event, however small it may be, should be known for better organizing each level of prevention.
Da racializa??o do sexismo ao sexismo identitário entre imigrantes na Fran?a contemporanea
Hamel, Christelle;
Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-73312006000100002
Abstract: this paper analyzes the way racism manipulates accusations of racism, and presents the effects of such discourses on discriminated individuals. it argues that, far from reducing sexist violence, the racist logic concealed by anti-sexism tends to reinforce it. our theses is based on data collected in a survey on experiences of racism, sexuality and hiv-infection risks management, carried out from 1997 to 2003, among 69 young males and females, aged 18-25 years, in france.
L’institut océanographique de Paris
Christelle Inizan
In Situ : Revue de Patrimoines , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/insitu.865
Abstract: Quelques années après la reconstruction de la Sorbonne, l’architecte Henri-Paul Nénot s’est vu confier, dans un proche périmètre, la construction de trois instituts de recherche et d’enseignement. Deux étaient des commandes de l’université : l’institut de géographie et l’institut de chimie, le troisième relevait strictement de l’initiative privée. Albert 1er de Monaco est à l’origine de ce projet de l’institut océanographique, dont on conna t mal la genèse faute d’archives, et qui constituera le fil conducteur de notre étude. Cet article se propose de dégager certaines logiques constructives et décoratives inhérentes à cette typologie d’établissements scientifiques du début du XXe siècle, à laquelle se rattache l’institut de paléontologie humaine de Pontremoli, également création du prince monégasque. Few years after the rebuilding of Sorbonne University, Henri-Paul Nénot, a parisian architect, was trusted to build three research and education institutes closeby. Two were ordered by the university: the geographic institute and the chemistry institute; and the third depended on a strictly private initiative. No one was really able to identify the genesis of this project of oceanographic institute initiated by Albert 1er de Monaco because of the lack of records; this will be the framework of our study. This article will attempt to analyze some constructive and decorative paths inherent to this typology of scientific establishments from the beginning of the twenty century. The human paleontology institute designed by the architect Pontremoli, is also attached to theses twenty century paths, and is a creation of the prince of Monaco.
Découverte à Paris d’un plafond peint à décor de singeries attribué à Claude III Audran, Antoine Watteau et Nicolas Lancret
Christelle Inizan
In Situ : Revue de Patrimoines , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/insitu.805
Abstract: La récente découverte d’un plafond peint à décor de singeries est venue enrichir notre connaissance de l’art décoratif parisien de la fin du règne de Louis XIV. L’étude de cette uvre de grande qualité artistique, admirablement conservée, bien que modeste de proportion, a permis d’identifier deux des peintres : Claude III Audran et Antoine Watteau, et de proposer une troisième main : Nicolas Lancret. La date avancée de 1713 éclaire d’un jour nouveau la période de collaboration de ces artistes et replace cette réalisation décorative dans le contexte politique, culturel et artistique du quartier Saint-Germain, deux ans avant la Régence. The recent discovery of a rare ceiling painting in the way of the décor de singeries has enriched our knowledge of the ornemental Parisian art dating of the end of the Louis XIV’s reign. The study of this work, with great artistic quality, perfectly perserved, though modestly sized, allows us to identify two of the painters: Claude III Audran and Antoine Watteau; and enables us to put forward a third hand: Nicolas Lancret. The suggested date of 1713 provides us with a new theory on the period of theses artistes’ collaboration and replaces this decorative creation in the political, artistic and cultural context of Saint-Germain’s district, two years before Regence.
Une étude phonétique de la résolution du hiatus en anglais langue maternelle et en anglais langue étrangère How do French learners and native English speakers deal with hiatus contexts in English? A phonetic study
Christelle Exare
Recherche et Pratiques Pédagogiques en Langues de Spécialité : Cahiers de l'APLIUT , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/apliut.705
Abstract: Cette étude fournit une typologie des stratégies de onze apprenants francophones et de deux locutrices anglophones pour résoudre le hiatus phonétique en anglais langue seconde et en anglais langue maternelle. Le hiatus est ici défini comme la rencontre entre une voyelle finale de mot et une voyelle initiale de mot, non consécutive à une pause. L’analyse des occurrences produites par les apprenants, agés de quinze ans et évalués au niveau B1 du Cadre Européen Commun de Référence pour les Langues, atteste des difficultés rencontrées par les francophones dans ce domaine, et propose quelques hypothèses concernant la production d’un bruit intrusif per u comme /h/ devant une voyelle initiale de mot. This study provides a typology of the strategies used by eleven French learners and two English native speakers when they have to deal with hiatus contexts. Two adjacent vowels are in hiatus when the last vowel of a word is immediately followed by a word-initial vowel. The analysis of the occurrences produced by the French learners shows that they face serious difficulty in such contexts. This paper suggests a few hypotheses regarding the production of an intrusive sound usually perceived as [h] before a word starting with a vowel.
La mise en place de trois voyelles postérieures en anglais langue étrangère. Analyse acoustique et perspective de quelques interférences pour des pistes de correction phonétique The production of three back vowels in English as a Foreign Language. An acoustic and perceptual analysis of a few typical errors, and some hints at remedial phonetics
Christelle Exare
Recherche et Pratiques Pédagogiques en Langues de Spécialité : Cahiers de l'APLIUT , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/apliut.122
Abstract: Cette contribution propose une analyse acoustique et perceptive de quelques erreurs portant sur les voyelles postérieures de l’anglais des francophones. La lecture de spectrogrammes fait appara tre des phénomènes articulatoires d’antériorisation et de labialisation. Le trait distinctif de la longueur est sacrifié au profit de la centralisation des sons et de la neutralisation des oppositions en un syncrétisme vocalique, caractéristique de l’anglais des francophones. This paper presents a perceptual and acoustic approach to French students’ errors in their productions of English back vowels. Dealing with spectrograms can help understand and consider articulatory processes like palatalization and lip-rounding. Length, as a distinctive feature of the English language, is sacrificed for a tendency to produce shorter, neutral and central sounds. This results in some sort of vocalic syncretism, characteristic of English as a Lingua Franca.
Analyse de pratiques de tutorat dans un campus numérique de ma trise de fran ais langue étrangère à distance Analysis of tutoring practices in a digital campus in the context of an online Masters in French as a foreign language
Christelle Celik
ALSIC : Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d'Information et de Communication , 2008, DOI: 10.4000/alsic.833
Abstract: Nous nous intéressons dans cet article à la fonction émergente qu'est le tutorat en ligne et aux différents modes de tutorat. Notre observation porte sur l'étude d'une partie de la communication pédagogique qui a eu lieu dans le cadre de la ma trise de fran ais langue étrangère sur le campus numérique Canufle animé par une équipe de divers enseignants provenant d'universités différentes tout au long de l'année universitaire 2004-2005. à travers l'analyse du discours des consignes et des messages réactifs de deux des tuteurs, nous mettons en évidence différentes modalités du tutorat et montrons que les tuteurs cherchent non seulement à établir un lien socio-affectif avec leurs étudiants mais également à susciter le conflit sociocognitif. Nous tentons de montrer le nouvel éthos tutoral tel qu'il se dessine au sein des discours. In this article we are interested in the emergent function which is the online tutoring and in the different ways of tutoring. Our observations focus on the study of a part of the pedagogical communication which took place within the context of a Masters in French as a foreign language on the digital campus Canufle led by a team of teachers coming from different universities during the 2004-2005 academic year. Through the discourse analysis of the instructions and the feedback messages of two of the tutors, we underline the different tutoring modalities and show that the tutors do not try only to establish a social affective bond with their students but also to motivate the social cognitive conflict. We try to show the new tutoral ethos as it becomes apparent into their discourses.
Une mesure des inégalités de mobilité et d’accès au volant.
Christelle Paulo
EspacesTemps.net , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction. 1 L’amélioration continue des conditions de mobilité depuis plusieurs décennies s’est accompagnée de fortes transformations des échelles spatio-temporelles de la vie économique et sociale. Les individus entretiennent désormais une relation réticulaire au territoire : ils habitent dans un lieu, travaillent dans un autre, se distraient dans un troisième, etc. (Wiel 1999 ; Ascher 2001). Au plan économique, les modifications structurelles du système productif ...
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