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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6212 matches for " Chris Tamm "
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Financial Contracting and Warrant Structure: Unit IPOs vs. Chapter 11 Reorganizations
John S. Howe,Chris Tamm
Accounting and Finance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/afr.v1n2p66
Abstract: The type of firms issuing warrants has changed over the last 20 years. In the 1990s, warrants were primarily issued by firms as part of their IPOs. By 2001, firms emerging from chapter 11 bankruptcy issued the majority of warrants. The contract characteristics of the warrants issued in the two situations are different. Warrants issued during chapter 11 have a longer time until expiration, lower dilution levels, higher exercise price to initial price ratio, and are less likely to have provisions that allow managerial control over the warrants. The differences arise from different motivations for the issuance of warrants.
Accelerating Expansion in a Closed Universe  [PDF]
Martin Tamm
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.63029
Abstract: In this paper, I suggest a possible explanation for the accelerating expansion of the universe. This model does not require any dark energy or quintessence. Rather, the idea is to suggest a different view on the origin of general relativity. Since it is very difficult to say something in general, I will mainly restrict myself to the case of very low curvature. The question about the underlying reasons for the acceleration is also closely related to the question whether the universe is a finite or infinite. It is part of the purpose of this paper to argue that a phase of accelerating expansion may be very well compatible with the idea of a closed universe.
Time’s Arrow in a Finite Universe  [PDF]
Martin Tamm
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2015.52010
Abstract: In this paper, a simple model for a closed multiverse as a finite probability space is analyzed. For each moment of time on a discrete time-scale, only a finite number of states are possible and hence each possible universe can be viewed as a path in a huge but finite graph. By considering very general statistical assumptions, essentially originating from Boltzmann, we make the set of all such paths (the multiverse) into a probability space, and argue that under certain assumptions, the probability for a monotonic behavior of the entropy is enormously much larger then for a behavior with low entropy at both ends. The methods used are just very simple combinatorial ones, but the conclusion suggests that we may live in a multiverse which from a global point of view is completely time-symmetric in the sense that universes with Time’s Arrow directed forwards and backwards are equally probable. However, for an observer confined to just one universe, time will still be asymmetric.
On the Curvature of Rotating Objects  [PDF]
Martin Tamm
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.66087
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate a certain property of curvature which differs in a remarkable way between Lorentz geometry and Euclidean geometry. In a certain sense, it turns out that rotating topological objects may have less curvature (as measured by integrating the square of the scalar curvature) than non-rotating ones. This is a consequence of the indefinite metric used in relativity theory. The results in this paper are mainly based of computer computations, and so far there is no satisfactory underlying mathematical theory. Some open problems are presented.
Saints and the Demoniacs: Exorcistic Rites in Medieval Europe (11th - 13th Century)
Marek Tamm
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2003,
Optionality: Social Cognitive Factors in Changing Linguistic Complexity in the Dialects of Estonia
Anne Tamm
LEA : Lingue e Letterature d'Oriente e d'Occidente , 2013,
Abstract: Estonian dialects provide several examples of increasing and decreasing linguistic complexity. The goal of the article is to clarify the notion of optionality. Optionality is clarified by discussing its relationships with social cognition in the Estonian dialect phenomena. Examples are derived from two areas of rapid grammatical change, negation and evidentiality in Standard versus South Estonian. In languages, it is possible to derive negative and evidential interpretations without grammatical encoding by using cognitive mechanisms to derive the intended interpretation. However, languages tend to encode nega- tion and have negators. There are dialects in Estonia that optionally omit the negative auxiliary for language-internal reasons. Optionality may but need not result in an impoverished system. Some categories, such as evidentiality in Standard Estonian, are the result of enriched grammar. Evidentiality can be optionally encoded because of its interaction with social cognition. In the category of evidentiality the optionality of a grammatical form enhances the spread of a category instead of obstructing it.
L nemaa-muljeid, suvi 1996
Kadri Tamm
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 1996,
Abstract: The EFA summer expedition of 1996 to the parishes of Martna and Kirbla was regarded with some prejudice and fears (the religious exorbitance in L nemaa, the introversion of the local people, etc.), but all the more decisively. Soon it was clear that the locals were everything but introverted and religious movements were something I soon started to long for.Quite soon I also got the impression that although there had been several musicians and good singers in that region (now we only managed to collect the basic data and memories of them) and very many still had song notebooks, there was no superstition or any narratives of the kind. For example: My father didn't believe. He did always the opposite. There in a village, it was that: "No, today morning it is no use going out, the horse dung between the shafts." my father still went, just out of stubbornness. But then there were still some who knew both legends of place names (this time very many about Kalevipoeg and Kuradikivi - 'Devilstone') and narratives with a rich religious background. (It is common knowledge that when looking for the oldest and natural born locals, the collector may not notice some really interesting people - just as almost by accident I found a woman born in 1947 whose grandfather had been a musician, mother a singer, who herself told of a treasure-bearer seen by her grandmother, of omens connected with herself, the birth of her son and the death of her mother and of many other things.)It is interesting that quite some of the people who themselves had no other supernatural experiences had still just before the war either seen themselves some heavenly signs or had heard of them from someone close. In most cases the sky had been purple red in the east, but there were more concrete omens as well. The rich bee-traditions of L nemaa which have been recorded in the EFA cardfiles in the `30s, have by now lost most of its religious background. From the earlier local witches, mostly those who dealt with healing plants or fixed sprained bones were mentioned. The of attitudes towards the sensitives and healers of today in L nemaa varied from severe criticism to deep respect.This year, perhaps more material than usual was collected that could serve as a basis for the so-called background studies, that is, what people themselves talk of their life, conditions and how they feel about the way the world is, what they consider to be important, not only folkloristic material and remnants or signs of the primeval beginning of the things.
Estonian Transitive Verb Classes, Object Case, and Progressive
Anne Tamm
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2003,
Abstract: This article examines the relation between aspect and object case in Estonian and establishes a verb classification that predicts many facets of object case behavior. It is demonstrated that the aspectual opposition between perfectivity and imperfectivity correspond to the morphological opposition between genitive/nominative case marking and partitive object case marking. However, case marking of Estonian objects is shown to be an unreliable indicator for aspectual verb class membership. The verb classification proposed here is established on the basis of tests that involve only the partitive object case. These tests employ the Estonian progressive. The tests distinguish verb classes from each other according to the situations they typically describe and predict several conditions of case assignment of patterns.
Comparative Supreme Justice
Ditlev Tamm
O?ati Socio-Legal Series , 2011,
Abstract: This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.
On Some Aspects of the Lilleoru Community
Kaidi Tamm
Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics , 2009,
Abstract: This paper explores the raison d’être of the only proper Estonian ecovillage, Lilleoru. Exceptional in the Estonian context, this relatively small and young community is a member of three established international networks uniting similar communities. Based on fieldwork and ethnographic interviews, the present article describes some focal aspects of the community and investigates how Lilleoru functions as a community. After a brief overview of the formation of the community, the following questions are touched upon: what is its significance for its members, how are they differentiated from other similar groups, what creates coherence among its members, how is the community managed, what are the everyday practices and how does it fit into the global context. As a result of the study it might be said that although from the outside Lilleoru is mainly seen as an ecovillage, from inside being an awareness training centre is central. The ecological lifestyle is regarded as a side result of a conscious lifestyle.
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