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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 331014 matches for " Chris S. Rae "
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Interaction of Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) Nanoparticles with Antigen Presenting Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
Maria J. Gonzalez,Emily M. Plummer,Chris S. Rae,Marianne Manchester
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007981
Abstract: Plant viruses such as Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) are increasingly being developed for applications in nanobiotechnology including vaccine development because of their potential for producing large quantities of antigenic material in plant hosts. In order to improve efficacy of viral nanoparticles in these types of roles, an investigation of the individual cell types that interact with the particles is critical. In particular, it is important to understand the interactions of a potential vaccine with antigen presenting cells (APCs) of the immune system. CPMV was previously shown to interact with vimentin displayed on cell surfaces to mediate cell entry, but the expression of surface vimentin on APCs has not been characterized.
Listeriolysin O Is Necessary and Sufficient to Induce Autophagy during Listeria monocytogenes Infection
Nicole Meyer-Morse,Jennifer R. Robbins,Chris S. Rae,Sofia N. Mochegova,Michele S. Swanson,Zijiang Zhao,Herbert W. Virgin,Daniel Portnoy
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008610
Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that autophagy is utilized by cells as a protective mechanism against Listeria monocytogenes infection.
Dynamic Imaging of the Effector Immune Response to Listeria Infection In Vivo
Janelle C. Waite,Ingrid Leiner,Peter Lauer,Chris S. Rae,Gaetan Barbet,Huan Zheng,Daniel A. Portnoy,Eric G. Pamer,Michael L. Dustin
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001326
Abstract: Host defense against the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) requires innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we directly imaged immune cell dynamics at Lm foci established by dendritic cells in the subcapsular red pulp (scDC) using intravital microscopy. Blood borne Lm rapidly associated with scDC. Myelomonocytic cells (MMC) swarmed around non-motile scDC forming foci from which blood flow was excluded. The depletion of scDC after foci were established resulted in a 10-fold reduction in viable Lm, while graded depletion of MMC resulted in 30–1000 fold increase in viable Lm in foci with enhanced blood flow. Effector CD8+ T cells at sites of infection displayed a two-tiered reduction in motility with antigen independent and antigen dependent components, including stable interactions with infected and non-infected scDC. Thus, swarming MMC contribute to control of Lm prior to development of T cell immunity by direct killing and sequestration from blood flow, while scDC appear to promote Lm survival while preferentially interacting with CD8+ T cells in effector sites.
Conceptualising global health: theoretical issues and their relevance for teaching
Mike Rowson, Chris Willott, Rob Hughes, Arti Maini, Sophie Martin, J Jaime Miranda, Vicki Pollit, Abi Smith, Rae Wake, John S Yudkin
Globalization and Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-8-36
Abstract: What we now know as global health has its roots in the late 19th century, in the largely colonial, biomedical pursuit of ‘international health’. The twentieth century saw a change in emphasis of the field towards a much broader conceptualisation of global health, encompassing broader social determinants of health and a truly global focus. The disciplinary focus has broadened greatly to include economics, anthropology and political science, among others. There have been a number of attempts to define the new field of global health. We suggest there are three central areas of contention: what the object of knowledge of global health is, the types of knowledge to be used and around the purpose of knowledge in the field of global health. We draw a number of conclusions from this discussion. First, that definitions should pay attention to differences as well as commonalities in different parts of the world, and that the definitions of global health themselves depend to some extent on the position of the definer. Second, global health’s core strength lies in its interdisciplinary character, in particular the incorporation of approaches from outside biomedicine. This approach recognises that political, social and economic factors are central causes of ill health. Last, we argue that definition should avoid inclusion of values. In particular we argue that equity, a key element of many definitions of global health, is a value-laden concept and carries with it significant ideological baggage. As such, its widespread inclusion in the definitions of global health is inappropriate as it suggests that only people sharing these values may be seen as ‘doing’ global health. Nevertheless, discussion of values should be a key part of global health education.Our discussions lead us to emphasise the importance of an approach to teaching global health that is flexible, interdisciplinary and acknowledges the different interpretations and values of those practising and teaching the field.W
The evolution of global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula
Mike Rowson, Abi Smith, Rob Hughes, Oliver Johnson, Arti Maini, Sophie Martin, Fred Martineau, J Jaime Miranda, Vicki Pollit, Rae Wake, Chris Willott, John S Yudkin
Globalization and Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-8-35
Abstract: Undergraduate global health teaching has seen a marked growth over the past ten years, partly as a response to student demand and partly due to increasing globalization, cross-border movement of pathogens and international migration of health care workers. This teaching has many different strands and types in terms of topic focus, disciplinary background, the point in medical studies in which it is taught and whether it is compulsory or optional.We carried out a survey of medical schools across the world in an effort to analyse their teaching of global health. Results indicate that this teaching is rising in prominence, particularly through global health elective/exchange programmes and increasing teaching of subjects such as globalization and health and international comparison of health systems. Our findings indicate that global health teaching is moving away from its previous focus on tropical medicine towards issues of more global relevance.We suggest that there are three types of doctor who may wish to work in global health – the ‘globalised doctor’, ‘humanitarian doctor’ and ‘policy doctor’ – and that each of these three types will require different teaching in order to meet the required competencies. This teaching needs to be inserted into medical curricula in different ways, notably into core curricula, a special overseas doctor track, optional student selected components, elective programmes, optional intercalated degrees and postgraduate study.We argue that teaching of global health in undergraduate medical curricula must respond to changing understandings of the term global health. In particular it must be taught from the perspective of more disciplines than just biomedicine, in order to reflect the social, political and economic causes of ill health. In this way global health can provide valuable training for all doctors, whether they choose to remain in their countries of origin or work abroad.Global health is a key component of many undergraduate medic
Ground state charmed meson spectra for N_f=2+1+1
T. D. Rae,S. Durr
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present a preliminary study of the charmed meson spectra using the electrically neutral subset of the new Budapest-Marseille-Wuppertal N_f=2+1+1 gauge configurations that utilise the 3-HEX smeared clover action. The analysis is performed with a focus on the hyperfine splitting.
The Safety and Feasibility of Low-Molecular-Weight He-parin Prophylaxis in Major Abdominal Surgery Combined with Neuraxial Anesthesia  [PDF]
Bogdan Protyniak, Michael C. Meadows, H. Rae Pak, Ronald S. Chamberlain
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.34034
Abstract: Background: Global guidelines for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis of patients undergoing major surgery are well established. However, their applicability and safety in patients receiving neuraxial anesthesia is unproven. We sought to evaluate the safety and feasibility of chemical VTE prophylaxis in a prospective group of patients undergoing major foregut procedures under a combination of epidural and general anesthesia. Methods: A prospective database of all patients undergoing major foregut surgery from 2004-2009 was maintained and analyzed. Epidural catheters were placed pre-operatively and used for post-operative analgesia for three days in all patients. Factors evaluated included age, ethnicity, sex, length of stay, duration of epidural placement, complications of epidural placement and post-operative management, and VTE events. A uniform protocol was followed regarding the timing of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) administration with epidural catheter insertion/removal. Results: A total of 237 patients formed the study group. The mean age was 57 years (range, 19 - 88) among 121 (51.1%) women and 65 years (range, 20 - 95) among 116 (48.9%) men. One hundred and sixty-six patients were Caucasian (70%), 37 Black (15.6%), 15 Hispanic (6.3%), 12 Asian/Pacific (5.1%), and 7 other (3%). All epidural catheters were removed on the third post-operative day. There were a total of five VTE (2.1%) events postoperatively. No peri-operative or post-operative epidural catheter associated complications occurred. Conclusions: Concomitant epidural catheterization and LMWH anticoagulation is safe and feasible in major abdominal surgery patients, including those undergoing major hepatic resection. Guidelines for VTE prophylaxis and LMWH administration in the setting of neuraxial anesthesia are well established and applicable to this unique patient population.
Asthma Hospital Admissions and Ambient Air Pollutant Concentrations in New York City  [PDF]
Carlos E. Restrepo, Jeffrey S. Simonoff, George D. Thurston, Rae Zimmerman
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.329129
Abstract: Air pollution is considered a risk factor for asthma. In this paper, we analyze the association between daily hospital admissions for asthma and ambient air pollution concentrations in four New York City counties. Negative binomial regression is used to model the association between daily asthma hospital admissions and ambient air pollution concentrations. Potential confounding factors such as heat index, day of week, holidays, yearly population changes, and seasonal and long-term trends are controlled for in the models. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) show the most consistent statistically significant associations with daily hospitalizations for asthma during the entire period (1996-2000). The associations are stronger for children (0 - 17 years) than for adults (18 - 64 years). Relative risks (RR) for the inter-quartile range (IQR) of same day 24-hour average pollutant concentration and asthma hospitalizations for children for the four county hospitalization totals were: NO2 (IQR = 0.011 ppm, RR = 1.017, 95% CI = 1.001, 1.034), SO2 (IQR = 0.008 ppm, RR = 1.023, 95% CI = 1.004, 1.042), CO (IQR = 0.232 ppm, RR = 1.014, 95% CI = 1.003, 1.025). In the case of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM2.5) statistically significant associations were found for daily one-hour maxima values and children’s asthma hospitalization in models that used lagged values for air pollution concentrations. Five-day weighted average lag models resulted in these estimates: O3 (one-hour maxima) (IQR = 0.025 ppm, RR = 1.049, 95% CI = 1.002, 1.098), PM2.5 (one-hour maxima) (IQR = 16.679 μg/m3, RR = 1.055, 95% CI = 1.008, 1.103). In addition, seasonal variations were also explored for PM2.5 and statistically significant associations with daily hospital admissions for asthma were found during the colder months (November-March) of the year. Important differences in pollution effects were found across pollutants, counties, and age groups. The results for PM2.5 suggest that the composition of PM is important to this health outcome, since the major sources of NYC PM differ between winter and summer months.
Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping of the quiescent disc in V2051 Ophiuchi
S. Vrielmann,Rae F. Stiening,Warren Offutt
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05544.x
Abstract: We analyse simultaneous UBVR quiescent light curves of the cataclysmic variable V2051 Oph using the Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping method in order to map the gas temperature and surface density of the disc for the first time. The disc appears optically thick in the central regions and gradually becomes optically thin towards the disc edge or shows a more and more dominating temperature inversion in the disc chromosphere. The gas temperatures in the disc range from about 13500 K near the white dwarf to about 6000 K at the disc edge. The intermediate part of the disc has temperatures of 9000 K to 6500 K. The quiescent disc (chromosphere) shows a prominent bright region with temperatures of 10500 K around the impact region of the stream from the secondary with an extension towards smaller azimuths. The disc has a size of 0.53 +- 0.03 R_L1 and a mass accretion rate of between dM/dt = 10^15 g/s to 10^17g/s. The light curves must include an uneclipsed component, a hot chromosphere and/or a disc wind. The PPEM method allows us to determine a new distance of 146+-20pc, compatible with previous rough estimates. For the white dwarf we then reconstruct a temperature of 19600 K, if the lower hemisphere of the white dwarf is occulted by the disc. We find that although V2051 Oph is very similar to the SU UMa type dwarf novae HT Cas, OY Car and Z Cha, there must be a substantial difference in order to explain its unique light curve. For further details and results see paper.
Chemical Addressability of Ultraviolet-Inactivated Viral Nanoparticles (VNPs)
Chris Rae, Kristopher J. Koudelka, Giuseppe Destito, Mayra N. Estrada, Maria J. Gonzalez, Marianne Manchester
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003315
Abstract: Background Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) is increasingly being used as a nanoparticle platform for multivalent display of molecules via chemical bioconjugation to the capsid surface. A growing variety of applications have employed the CPMV multivalent display technology including nanoblock chemistry, in vivo imaging, and materials science. CPMV nanoparticles can be inexpensively produced from experimentally infected cowpea plants at high yields and are extremely stable. Although CPMV has not been shown to replicate in mammalian cells, uptake in mammalian cells does occur in vitro and in vivo. Thus, inactivation of the virus RNA genome is important for biosafety considerations, however the surface characteristics and chemical reactivity of the particles must be maintained in order to preserve chemical and structural functionality. Methodology/Principal Findings Short wave (254 nm) UV irradiation was used to crosslink the RNA genome within intact particles. Lower doses of UV previously reported to inactivate CPMV infectivity inhibited symptoms on inoculated leaves but did not prohibit systemic virus spread in plants, whereas higher doses caused aggregation of the particles and an increase in chemical reactivity further indicating broken particles. Intermediate doses of 2.0–2.5 J/cm2 were shown to maintain particle structure and chemical reactivity, and cellular binding properties were similar to CPMV-WT. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that it is possible to inactivate CPMV infectivity while maintaining particle structure and function, thus paving the way for further development of CPMV nanoparticles for in vivo applications.
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