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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6152 matches for " Chris Impey "
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Hidden Galaxies Revealed
Greg Bothun,Chris Impey,Stacy McGaugh
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: In twenty years, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies have evolved from being an idiosyncratic notion to being one of the major baryonic repositories in the Universe. The story of their discovery and the characterization of their properties is told here. Their recovery from the noise of the night sky background is a strong testament to the severity of surface brightness selection effects. LSB galaxies have a number of remarkable properties which distinguish them from the more familiar Hubble Sequence of spirals. The two most important are 1) they evolve at a significantly slower rate and may well experience star formation outside of the molecular cloud environment, 2) they are embedded in dark matter halos which are of lower density and more extended than the halos around high surface brightness (HSB) disk galaxies. Compared to HSB disks, LSB disks are strongly dark matter dominated at all radii and show a systematic increase in M/L with central surface brightness. In addition, the recognition that large numbers of LSB galaxies actually exist has changed the form of the galaxy luminosity function and has clearly increased the space density of galaxies at z = 0. Recent CCD surveys have uncovered a population of red LSB disks that may be related to the excess of faint blue galaxies detected at moderate redshifts. LSB galaxies offer us a new window into galaxy evolution and formation which is every bit as important as those processes which have produced easy to detect galaxies. Indeed, the apparent youth of some LSB galaxies suggest that galaxy formation is a greatly extended process. While the discovery of LSB galaxies have lead to new insights, it remains unwise to presume that we now have a representative sample which encompasses all galaxy types and forms.
HST Imaging of the BL Lacertae Object OJ 287
Brian Yanny,Buell T. Jannuzi,Chris Impey
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/310793
Abstract: Hubble Space Telescope WFPC-2 I-band (F814W) images of the BL Lacertae object OJ 287 and the surrounding field are presented. We find evidence of associated extended nebulosity near OJ 287, as well as a small nebulosity to the West, which may be spatially coincident with the position of previously observed radio emission. The brightness of a host galaxy is difficult to determine due to the brightness of the active nucleus, but it lies in the range -21.5 > M_R > -23.1 (H_0 = 100 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, q_0 = 0). No evidence is seen for the previously reported optical ``jet'' at position angle 220 degrees to a surface brightness limit of I = 24.3 mag arcsec^{-2}. There are several resolved and unresolved objects within 17'' of OJ~287 in the field to limits of I=25 (point source 5\sigma detections). The magnitudes and relative positions of these objects are reported. An offset in the centroid position between the OJ 287 point source and the underlying nebulosity reported by Wurtz, Stocke and Yee is confirmed and measured to be about 0.4 (1.2h^{-1} kpc at the redshift of OJ~287). This offset is tentatively interpreted as evidence for recent merger activity rather than a sign of gravitational microlensing.
Imaging of the Host Galaxies of Three X-Ray Selected BL Lacertae Objects
Buell T. Jannuzi,Brian Yanny,Chris Impey
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/304944
Abstract: Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC-2 I-band (F814W) images of three X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects (MS1221.8+2452, MS1407.9+5954, & MS2143.4+0704) reveal that each of these BL Lac objects is well-centered in an extended nebulosity that is consistent in brightness and morphology with being light from an elliptical galaxy at the previously reported redshifts of these BL Lac objects. Each of the detected host galaxies have radial surface brightness profiles that are well fit by a DeVaucouleurs' law with effective radii of between 3 to 12 kpc (H_0=50 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, q_0 = 0). The absolute magnitudes of the host galaxies fall in the range -24.7 < M_I < -23.5, in the range of luminosities determined for other BL Lacertae object host galaxies. In addition to allowing the measurement of the host galaxy magnitudes and radial surface brightness profiles, the HST images allow a search for substructure in the host galaxies and the presence of close companion galaxies at spatial resolutions not yet achievable from the ground. While no evidence was found for any ``bars'' or spiral arms, ``boxy'' isophotes are present in the host galaxy of at least one of the three objects observed as part of this study (MS2143.4+0704). The apparent magnitudes and image properties of the companions of the BL Lac objects are catalogued as part of this work. The three BL Lacs appear to occur in diverse environments, from being fairly isolated (MS1221.8+2452) to possibly being a member of a rich group of galaxies (MS1407.9+5954).
HST Imaging of z > 0.4 Quasar Host Galaxies Selected by Quasar Radio and Optical Properties
Eric J. Hooper,Chris D. Impey,Craig B. Foltz
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/310637
Abstract: A sample of 16 quasars selected from the Large Bright Quasar Survey in the redshift range 0.4 < z < 0.5 has been imaged in the R band with the Planetary Camera on the WFPC2 instrument of the Hubble Space Telescope. The host galaxy magnitudes are mostly similar to or brighter than L*, and the host luminosity is positively correlated with the luminosity of the quasar nuclear component. There is no distinction in host galaxy magnitude between radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, assuming they are all of the same galaxy type. Many of the host galaxies in the sample have small axial ratios, which may indicate that they are inclined disk systems. Alternatively, this elongated appearance may be due to bars or other distinctive morphological features which are visible while the bulk of the underlying lower surface brightness components of the host galaxy are not.
Quasars As Absorption Probes Of The Hubble Deep Field
Charles Liu,Cathy Petry,Chris Impey,Craig Foltz
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/301100
Abstract: We present a catalog of 30 QSOs and their spectra, in the square degree of sky centered on the northern Hubble Deep Field. These QSOs were selected by multicolor photometry and subsequently confirmed with spectroscopy. They range in magnitude from 17.6 < B < 21.0 and in redshift from 0.44 < z < 2.98. We also include in the catalog an AGN with redshift z=0.135. Together, these objects comprise a new grid of absorption probes which can be used to study the correlation between luminous galaxies, non-luminous halos and Lyman-alpha absorbers along the line of sight toward the Hubble Deep Field.
The Radio Properties of Optically Selected Quasars. III. Comparison Between Optical and X-Ray Selected Samples
Eric J. Hooper,Chris D. Impey,Craig B. Foltz,Paul C. Hewett
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/178186
Abstract: A sample of 103 quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS) has been observed with the VLA at 8.4 GHz to study the evolution of the radio luminosity distribution and its dependence on absolute magnitude. Radio data from pointed observations are now available for 359 of the 1055 LBQS quasars. The radio-loud fraction is constant at ~10% over the absolute magnitude range -28 <= MB <= -23, and it rises to ~20% (log R > 1) or ~35% (log L > 25) at the brightest absolute magnitudes in the sample. This nearly flat distribution differs markedly from those of the optically selected Palomar-Green (PG) Bright Quasar Survey and the X-ray selected Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS), both of which have lower radio-loud fractions for absolute magnitudes fainter than MB = -24 and higher fractions at brighter magnitudes. The reason for the high radio-loud fraction at bright absolute magnitudes in the PG, compared to the LBQS and other optically selected quasar surveys, is unknown. The trend of increasing radio-loud fraction with absolute magnitude in the EMSS is due at least in part to a correlation between X-ray and radio luminosity. Combining the LBQS data with radio studies of high-redshift quasars leads to the conclusion that the radio-loud fraction in optically selected quasars does not appear to evolve significantly, aside from a modest increase at z ~1, from z = 0.2 to redshifts approaching 5, a result that is contrary to previous studies which found a decrease in radio-loud fraction with increasing redshift by comparing the low-z fraction in the PG to higher redshift samples.
Detailed Decomposition of Galaxy Images. II. Beyond Axisymmetric Models
Chien Y. Peng,Luis C. Ho,Chris D. Impey,Hans-Walter Rix
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/139/6/2097
Abstract: We present a two-dimensional (2-D) fitting algorithm (GALFIT, Version 3) with new capabilities to study the structural components of galaxies and other astronomical objects in digital images. Our technique improves on previous 2-D fitting algorithms by allowing for irregular, curved, logarithmic and power-law spirals, ring and truncated shapes in otherwise traditional parametric functions like the Sersic, Moffat, King, Ferrer, etc., profiles. One can mix and match these new shape features freely, with or without constraints, apply them to an arbitrary number of model components and of numerous profile types, so as to produce realistic-looking galaxy model images. Yet, despite the potential for extreme complexity, the meaning of the key parameters like the Sersic index, effective radius or luminosity remain intuitive and essentially unchanged. The new features have an interesting potential for use to quantify the degree of asymmetry of galaxies, to quantify low surface brightness tidal features beneath and beyond luminous galaxies, to allow more realistic decompositions of galaxy subcomponents in the presence of strong rings and spiral arms, and to enable ways to gauge the uncertainties when decomposing galaxy subcomponents. We illustrate these new features by way of several case studies that display various levels of complexity.
Detailed Structural Decomposition of Galaxy Images
Chien Y. Peng,Luis C. Ho,Chris D. Impey,Hans-Walter Rix
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/340952
Abstract: We present a two-dimensional (2-D) fitting algorithm (GALFIT) designed to extract structural components from galaxy images, with emphasis on closely modeling light profiles of spatially well-resolved, nearby galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. Our algorithm improves on previous techniques in two areas, by being able to simultaneously fit a galaxy with an arbitrary number of components, and with optimization in computation speed, suited for working on large galaxy images. We use 2-D models such as the ``Nuker'' law, the Sersic (de Vaucouleurs) profile, an exponential disk, and Gaussian or Moffat functions. The azimuthal shapes are generalized ellipses that can fit disky and boxy components. Many galaxies with complex isophotes, ellipticity changes, and position-angle twists can be modeled accurately in 2-D. When examined in detail, we find that even simple-looking galaxies generally require at least three components to be modeled accurately, rather than the one or two components more often employed. We illustrate this by way of 7 case studies, which include regular and barred spiral galaxies, highly disky lenticular galaxies, and elliptical galaxies displaying various levels of complexities. A useful extension of this algorithm is to accurately extract nuclear point sources in galaxies. We compare 2-D and 1-D extraction techniques on simulated images of galaxies having nuclear slopes with different degrees of cuspiness, and we then illustrate the application of the program to several examples of nearby galaxies with weak nuclei.
A Cluster or Filament of Galaxies at Redshift Z=2.5
Ana Campos,Amos Yahil,Rogier A. Windhorst,Eric A. Richards,Sebastian Pascarelle,Chris Impey,Catherine Petry
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/311824
Abstract: We report the discovery of 56 new Lyman-alpha-emitting candidates (LECs) at redshift z=2.5 in a field of 8'x14' around two previously known weak radio QSOs and a cosmic microwave background decrement (CMBD) that is plausibly due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Broad-band and medium-band imaging at the redshifted Lyman-alpha wavelength have allowed us to identify the LECs at the redshift of the QSOs. Three of the brightest LECs have been confirmed spectroscopically, with redshifts between z=2.501 and z=2.557; one of them is another QSO. Excluding the third QSO, the four spectroscopically confirmed objects form a 3' filament with a rest-frame velocity dispersion of 1000 km/s lying adjacent to the CMBD, and there is a significant concentration of LECs at the NW end of the filament around the brightest QSO. If confirmed, a velocity dispersion ~1000 km/s on a proper scale ~1 Mpc at redshift z=2.5 would, in and of itself, constrain the cosmological model to low Omega.
The U.S. ISO Key Project on Quasars
Eric Hooper,Belinda Wilkes,Kim McLeod,Jonathan McDowell,Martin Elvis,Matthew Malkan,Carol Lonsdale,Chris Impey
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Observations for the U.S. key project on quasars using ISO were completed in April when the satellite's cryogen supply expired. This proceeding presents an update of the project, including information on the final sample, a discussion of some of the data reduction challenges and current efforts to meet them, plus a comparison of preliminary results with IRAS fluxes.
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