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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6097 matches for " Chris Fewings "
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Alternative Splicing and Transcriptome Profiling of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Using Genome-Wide Exon Arrays
Alan Gillett,Klio Maratou,Chris Fewings,Robert A. Harris,Maja Jagodic,Tim Aitman,Tomas Olsson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007773
Abstract: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing demyelination and nerve loss in the central nervous system. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of MS that is widely used to investigate complex pathogenic mechanisms. Transcriptional control through isoform selection and mRNA levels determines pathway activation and ultimately susceptibility to disease.
The Stationary Distributions of a Class of Markov Chains  [PDF]
Chris Cannings
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.45105
Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to find the stationary distribution of a certain class of Markov chains arising in a biological population involved in a specific type of evolutionary conflict, known as Parkers model. In a population of such players, the result of repeated, infrequent, attempted invasions using strategies from{0,1,2,,m-1}, is a Markov chain. The stationary distributions of this class of chains, for m ε {3,4,,} are derived in terms of previously known integer sequences. The asymptotic distribution (for m →∞) is derived.

The Prevalence of Sexual Partner Concurrency Is Not Correlated with Markers of Poverty or Gender Inequality: An Ecological Analysis  [PDF]
Chris Kenyon
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.54035
Abstract: High rates of overlapping sexual relationships (concurrency) are believed to be important in the generation of generalized HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. Different authors favor socioeconomic, gender-equity or cultural explanations for the high concurrency rates in this region. We performed linear regression to analyze the association between the point-prevalence of concurrency in 15 - 49 years old males and various indicators of socioeconomic status and gender-equity using data from 11 countries surveyed in 1989/1990. We found no meaningful association between concurrency and the various markers of socioeconomic status and gender-equity. This analysis supports the findings of other studies that high concurrency rates in sub-Saharan Africa could be reduced without having to address socioeconomic and gender-equity factors.
Big Data at HPC Wales
Sidharth N. Kashyap,Ade J. Fewings,Jay Davies,Ian Morris,Andrew Thomas Thomas Green,Martyn F. Guest
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This paper describes an automated approach to handling Big Data workloads on HPC systems. We describe a solution that dynamically creates a unified cluster based on YARN in an HPC Environment, without the need to configure and allocate a dedicated Hadoop cluster. The end user can choose to write the solution in any combination of supported frameworks, a solution that scales seamlessly from a few cores to thousands of cores. This coupling of environments creates a platform for applications to utilize the native HPC solutions along with the Big Data Frameworks. The user will be provided with HPC Wales APIs in multiple languages that will let them integrate this flow into their environment, thereby ensuring that the traditional means of HPC access do not become a bottleneck. We describe the behavior of the cluster creation and performance results on Terasort.
Some Models of Reproducing Graphs: II Age Capped Vertices  [PDF]
Richard Southwell, Chris Cannings
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/am.2010.14031
Abstract: In the prequel to this paper we introduced eight reproducing graph models. The simple idea behind these models is that graphs grow because the vertices within reproduce. In this paper we make our models more realistic by adding the idea that vertices have a finite life span. The resulting models capture aspects of systems like social networks and biological networks where reproducing entities die after some amount of time. In the 1940’s Leslie introduced a population model where the reproduction and survival rates of individuals depends upon their ages. Our models may be viewed as extensions of Leslie’s model-adding the idea of network joining the reproducing individuals. By exploiting connections with Leslie’s model we are to describe how many aspects of graphs evolve under our systems. Many features such as degree distributions, number of edges and distance structure are described by the golden ratio or its higher order generalisations.
Some Models of Reproducing Graphs: I Pure Reproduction  [PDF]
Richard Southwell, Chris Cannings
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/am.2010.13018
Abstract: Many real world networks change over time. This may arise due to individuals joining or leaving the network or due to links forming or being broken. These events may arise because of interactions between the vertices which occasion payoffs which subsequently determine the fate of the nodes, due to ageing or crowding, or perhaps due to isolation. Such phenomena result in a dynamical system which may lead to complex behaviours, to self-replication, to chaotic or regular patterns, to emergent phenomena from local interactions. They give insight to the nature of the real-world phenomena which the network, and its dynamics, may approximate. To a large extent the models considered here are motivated by biological and social phenomena, where the vertices may be genes, proteins, genomes or organisms, and the links interactions of various kinds. In this, the first paper of a series, we consider the dynamics of pure reproduction models where networks grow relentlessly in a deterministic way.
Some Models of Reproducing Graphs: III Game Based Reproduction  [PDF]
Richard Southwell, Chris Cannings
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/am.2010.15044
Abstract: Many real world networks change over time. This may arise due to individuals joining or leaving the network or due to links forming or being broken. These events may arise because of interactions between the vertices which occasion payoffs which subsequently determine the fate of the vertices, due to ageing or crowding, or perhaps due to isolation. Such phenomena result in a dynamical system which may lead to complex behaviours, to selfreplication, to chaotic or regular patterns, or to emergent phenomena from local interactions. They hopefully give insight to the nature of the real-world phenomena which the network, and its dynamics, may approximate. To a large extent the models considered here are motivated by biological and social phenomena, where the vertices may be genes, proteins, genomes or organisms, and the links interactions of various kinds. In this, the third paper of a series, we consider the vertices to be players of some game. Offspring inherit their parent’s strategies and vertices which behave poorly in games with their neighbours get destroyed. The process is analogous to the way different kinds of animals reproduce whilst unfit animals die. Some game based systems are analytically tractable, others are highly complex-causing small initial structures to grow and break into large collections of self replicating structures.
A Basis for Improving Numerical Forecasting in the Gulf Area by Assimilating Doppler Radar Radial Winds  [PDF]
Fathalla Rihan, Chris Collier
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2010.12010
Abstract: An approach to assimilate Doppler radar radial winds into a high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model using 3D-Var system is described. We discuss the types of errors that occur in radar radial winds. Some related problems such as nonlinearity and sensitivity of the forecast to possible small errors in initial conditions, random observation errors, and the background states are also considered. The technique can be used to improve the model forecasts, in the Gulf area, at the local scale and under high aerosol (dust/sand/pollution) conditions.
The Hydroxylation of Vitamin D on C25 in Thyrotoxicosis The Role of the Activity of Microsomal Liver Enzymes  [PDF]
Chris G. Velentzas
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.34057
Abstract: Vitamin D3 after its entrance in the organism undergoes hydroxylation on C-25 carbon atom by the action of microsomal liver enzymes giving the metabolite 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3). The function of microsomal liver enzymes is influenced in some specified states by hormones or drugs. It has approved that thyroxin is a potent stimulator of these enzymes while allopurinol suppresses their function. The aim of this issue is to examine 25OHD3 plasma levels in thyrotoxic subjects and in those pretreated with allopurinol on the base of the afford mentioned data. In a first phase 25OHD3 plasma levels were estimated in thyrotoxic subjects against euthytoid healthy controls. In a second phase lmg vitamin D3 was injected intravenously (i.v.) in thyrotoxic subjects and in healthy euthyroid controls. 25OHD3 plasma levels were measured before and in post injection period in six hours intervals for 48 hours. In a third phase a couple of subjects one thyrotoxic and one euthyroid healthy control pretreated both with allopurinol injected lmg of vitamin D3 i.v. In all studied subjects 25OHD3 plasma levels were measured before and in post injection period in six hours intervals for 48 hours. The pre and post injection 25OHD3 plasma levels measured the size of activity of liver enzyme responsible for bioactivation of vitamin D3. In the first phase was indicated that 25OHD3 plasma levels were lower in thyrotoxic subjects comparing with that of euthyroid healthy controls (p < 0.001). In the second phase was found that the bioactivation of vitamin D3 in thyrotoxic subjects was 2,5 to 8 times faster comparing with euthyroid healthy controls. In the third phase was shown that allopurinol decreases the activity of liver enzymes function as regard the bioactivation of vitamin D3. The bioactivation of vitamin D3 is accelerated in thyrotoxicosis compared with that in euthyroid state. This phenomenon produces low 25OHD3 plasma levels in thyrotoxic subjects which initially may be normal or slightly increased depended from the vitamin D3 status in the thyrotoxic subjects. By continuous stimulatory action of increased thyroid hormones on liver enzymes the 25OHD3 plasma levels earlier or later decline in levels of hypo-or avitaminosis D3. The previously described biological events may explain the decreased intestinal calcium absorption of vitamin D3 and the osteomalacic
Should gait speed be included in the clinical evaluation of Parkinson’s disease?  [PDF]
Joe Nocera, Chris Hass
Advances in Parkinson's Disease (APD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/apd.2012.11001
Abstract: Background: The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale is the most commonly used scale in the clinical study of Parkinson’s disease. However, it may fail to capture the essence of physical impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease and thus limit responsiveness of care-givers, patients, and/or clinicians as to increasing physical disability. This study sought to compare subjective measures of physical disability in Parkinson’s disease to an objective, accurate, and proven measure of physical function-gait speed. Methods: Eighty-eight individuals with early to moderate stage Parkinson’s disease were evaluated on the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, the Parkinson’s disease Questionnaire 39 and during five 8 meter walking trials. Spearman correlations coefficients were used to determine the association among all variables of interest. Results: The findings demonstrate that only a fair to moderate relationship between objectively measured gait speed and physical function as measured subjectively by the clinical rating scale and as evaluated by the patients during self report. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that commonly utilized measures of physical function in Parkinson’s disease are not highly correlated with gait speed. Because gait speed is demonstrated as a dependable proxy for physical function, the results of this study may provide a rational for the use of gait speed to provide a more accurate picture of physical function in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
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