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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 466754 matches for " Chris A McGibbon "
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Examining Gait Patterns after Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Parameterization and Principal Component Analysis  [PDF]
Kevin E. Roy, Victoria L. Chester, Chris A. McGibbon
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2013.32028
Abstract:

The use of parameterization in assessing gait waveforms has been widely accepted, although it is recognized that this approach excludes the majority of information contained in the waveform. Waveform analysis techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), have gained popularity in recent years as a more effective approach to extracting important information from human movement waveforms, but are more challenging to interpret. Few studies have compared these two different approaches to determine which yields the most relevant information. This study compared the kinematic patterns during gait of six total knee arthroplasty (TKA) subjects (10 TKA knees), to a group of 10 age-matched asymptomatic control subjects (19 control knees). An eight-camera Vicon M-cam system was used to track movement and compute joint angles. Group differences in parameterization (max and min peaks) values and principal component scores were tested using one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Using parameterization, the TKA group was characterized by reduced hip extension, increased hip flexion, increased anterior pelvic tilt, increased trunk tilt, and reduced sagittal ankle angles compared to the control group. Waveform analysis, by means of PCA, showed-magnitude shifts in sagittal ankle waveforms between groups, rather than solely reporting differences in peaks. Waveform analysis also indicated a significant shift in the magnitude of the entire waveform for hip angles, pelvic tilt, and trunk tilt, indicating no change in range of motion between groups, but rather a change in the way in which range of motion is achieved at the hip. This study has identified several gait variables that were significantly different between the TKA and control groups. Our results suggest that waveform analysis is effective at identifying magnitude shifts as sources of variability between groups, which would not necessarily be analyzed using conventional parameterization techniques unless one knew a priori where the variability would exist.

Stepping stability: effects of sensory perturbation
Chris A McGibbon, David E Krebs, Robert Wagenaar
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-2-9
Abstract: Balance impaired and healthy subjects performed a repeated bench stepping task. The perturbation was applied by suddenly changing the cadence of the metronome (100 beat/min to 80 beat/min) at a predetermined time (but unpredictable by the subject) during the trial. Perturbation response was quantified by computing the Euclidian distance, expressed as a fractional error, between the anterior-posterior center of gravity attractor trajectory before and after the perturbation was applied. The error immediately after the perturbation (Emax), error after recovery (Emin) and the recovery response (Edif) were documented for each participant, and groups were compared with ANOVA.Both balance impaired groups exhibited significantly higher Emax (p = .019) and Emin (p = .028) fractional errors compared to the healthy (HE) subjects, but there were no significant differences between CB and VH groups. Although response recovery was slower for CB and VH groups compared to the HE group, the difference was not significant (p = .051).The findings suggest that individuals with balance impairment have reduced ability to stabilize locomotor patterns following perturbation, revealing the fragility of their impairment adaptations and compensations. These data suggest that auditory perturbations applied during a challenging stepping task may be useful for measuring rehabilitation outcomes.Balance and postural control in humans is often studied by measuring the sway and/or muscle EMG response to a controlled mechanical perturbation, mainly taking the form of forward and backward or side-to-side platform translations, and foot dorsi- and plantar-flexing rotations [1-7]. Perturbations have also taken the form of a sudden push or pull to the upper body or waist while subjects stand or walk [8-13]. While these studies provide a better understanding of postural reflexes to mechanical perturbations, the conditions for the responses often do not correspond to the natural conditions in which individu
Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation improve vestibulopathic gait via different neuromuscular mechanisms: Preliminary report
Chris A McGibbon, David E Krebs, Stephen W Parker, Donna M Scarborough, Peter M Wayne, Steven L Wolf
BMC Neurology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-5-3
Abstract: We examined the relationship between lower extremity neuromuscular function and trunk control in 36 older adults with vestibulopathy, randomized to 10 weeks of either VR or TC exercise. Time-distance measures (gait speed, step length, stance duration and step width), lower extremity sagittal plane mechanical energy expenditures (MEE), and trunk sagittal and frontal plane kinematics (peak and range of linear and angular velocity), were measured.Although gait time-distance measures were improved in both groups following treatment, no significant between-groups differences were observed for the MEE and trunk kinematic measures. Significant within groups changes, however, were observed. The TC group significantly increased ankle MEE contribution and decreased hip MEE contribution to total leg MEE, while no significant changes were found within the VR group. The TC group exhibited a positive relationship between change in leg MEE and change in trunk velocity peak and range, while the VR group exhibited a negative relationship.Gait function improved in both groups consistent with expectations of the interventions. Differences in each group's response to therapy appear to suggest that improved gait function may be due to different neuromuscular adaptations resulting from the different interventions. The TC group's improvements were associated with reorganized lower extremity neuromuscular patterns, which appear to promote a faster gait and reduced excessive hip compensation. The VR group's improvements, however, were not the result of lower extremity neuromuscular pattern changes. Lower-extremity MEE increases corresponded to attenuated forward trunk linear and angular movement in the VR group, suggesting better control of upper body motion to minimize loss of balance. These data support a growing body of evidence that Tai Chi may be a valuable complementary treatment for vestibular disorders.Vestibulopathy decreases whole body dynamic postural control and causes functiona
Xeroderma pigmentosum
Alan R Lehmann, David McGibbon, Miria Stefanini
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-70
Abstract: The first features are either extreme sensitivity to sunlight, triggering severe sunburn, or, in patients who do not show this sun-sensitivity, abnormal lentiginosis (freckle-like pigmentation due to increased numbers of melanocytes) on sun-exposed areas. This is followed by areas of increased or decreased pigmentation, skin aging and multiple skin cancers, if the individuals are not protected from sunlight. A minority of patients show progressive neurological abnormalities. There are eight XP complementation groups, corresponding to eight genes, which, if defective, can result in XP. The products of these genes are involved in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage in DNA. Seven of the gene products (XPA through G) are required to remove UV damage from the DNA. The eighth (XPV or DNA polymerase η) is required to replicate DNA containing unrepaired damage. There is wide variability in clinical features both between and within XP groups. Diagnosis is made clinically by the presence, from birth, of an acute and prolonged sunburn response at all exposed sites, unusually early lentiginosis in sun-exposed areas or onset of skin cancers at a young age. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by cellular tests for defective DNA repair. These features distinguish XP from other photodermatoses such as solar urticaria and polymorphic light eruption, Cockayne Syndrome (no pigmentation changes, different repair defect) and other lentiginoses such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Leopard syndrome and Carney complex (pigmentation not sun-associated), which are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Antenatal diagnosis can be performed by measuring DNA repair or by mutation analysis in CVS cells or in amniocytes. Although there is no cure for XP, the skin effects can be minimised by rigorous protection from sunlight and early removal of pre-cancerous lesions. In the absence of neurological problems and with lifetime protection against sunlight, the prognosis is good. In patients
Variational cross-validation of slow dynamical modes in molecular kinetics
Robert T. McGibbon,Vijay S. Pande
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4916292
Abstract: Markov state models (MSMs) are a widely used method for approximating the eigenspectrum of the molecular dynamics propagator, yielding insight into the long-timescale statistical kinetics and slow dynamical modes of biomolecular systems. However, the lack of a unified theoretical framework for choosing between alternative models has hampered progress, especially for non-experts applying these methods to novel biological systems. Here, we consider cross-validation with a new objective function for estimators of these slow dynamical modes, a generalized matrix Rayleigh quotient (GMRQ), which measures the ability of a rank-$m$ projection operator to capture the slow subspace of the system. It is shown that a variational theorem bounds the GMRQ from above by the sum of the first $m$ eigenvalues of the system's propagator, but that this bound can be violated when the requisite matrix elements are estimated subject to statistical uncertainty. This overfitting can be detected and avoided through cross-validation. These result make it possible to construct Markov state models for protein dynamics in a way that appropriately captures the tradeoff between systematic and statistical errors.
Efficient maximum likelihood parameterization of continuous-time Markov processes
Robert T. McGibbon,Vijay S. Pande
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: Continuous-time Markov processes over finite state-spaces are widely used to model dynamical processes in many fields of natural and social science. Here, we introduce an maximum likelihood estimator for constructing such models from data observed at a finite time interval. This estimator is dramatically more efficient than prior approaches, enables the calculation of deterministic confidence intervals in all model parameters, and can easily enforce important physical constraints on the models such as detailed balance. We demonstrate and discuss the advantages of these models over existing discrete-time Markov models for the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations.
Yield and Nitrogen Fixation Response by Drought Tolerant Tepary Bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray var. latifolius) in Sole and Maize Intercrop Systems in Semi-Arid Southeast Kenya
Chris A. Shisanya
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Tepary Bean (TB), a drought tolerant bean variety has become popular among poor small-scale farmers in semi-arid Kenya, where it is predominantly intercropped with maize. The nitrogen fixation and yield of intercropping tepary bean-maize in comparison to sole crops as affected by nitrogen fertiliser application and inoculation were investigated during two successive growing seasons. Experimental design was randomised complete block with eight treatments: TB sole crop not inoculated with Rhizobium (R3254) and without N fertilizer (N), TB sole crop not inoculated with R3254 with or without N, TB sole crop inoculated with R3254 without N, TB with maize intercrop not inoculated with R3254 with or without N and maize sole crop with or without N. Each treatment was replicated four times. Significant differences (p#0.05) were observed in total plant dry between inoculated and uninoculated treatments at both 21 and 42 Days after Emergence (DAE). TB yields were significantly reduced in uninoculated intercrop. Inoculated TB treatments had significantly higher seed dry weights and yields ha compared to uninoculated. Intercropping TB and maize suppresses the yield of the -1 former under semi-arid conditions. Inoculating TB with Rhizobium strain R3254 was infective, effective and significantly improved TB yields in sole and intercrop. Soil analysis after the two cropping seasons indicated enhancement of soil N in sole TB plots above pre-planting levels. Maize plots exhibited a decline in soil N. Total N concentration in plant tissues was significantly enhanced in treatment R3254. There was a marked increase in soil P in all treatment plots following amendment.
Recent results on the embedding of latin squares and related structures, cycle systems and graph design
Chris A. Rodger
Le Matematiche , 1992,
Abstract: See directly the article.
Maximal set of factors
Chris A. Rodger
Le Matematiche , 2004,
Abstract: In this paper, a survey is presented of results concerning maximal sets of factors in graphs. These factors at times satisfy additional structural constraints, such as being connected, or such as requiring each component of each factor to be isomorphic. Each set of factors occurs in some natural family of graphs, including complete graphs and complete multipartite graphs.
Graph decomposition
Chris A. Rodger
Le Matematiche , 1990,
Abstract: This paper surveys some recent results and new techniques concerning edge-disjoint decompositions of Kn into copies of G, where G may be a cycle, a path, or just a small graph. Additional properties of such a decomposition are considered, such as nestings, resolvability, i-perfect, decompositions and self-complementary decompositions. The use of skew Room frames is demonstrated by obtaining some new results when G is small.
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