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Biodiversity for livelihoods and food security
Chittaranjan Baruah,D.K. Sharma
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2012,
Abstract: EDITORIAL
Organic Manures and Crop Residues as Fertilizer Substitutes: Impact on Nitrous Oxide Emission, Plant Growth and Grain Yield in Pre-Monsoon Rice Cropping System  [PDF]
Anushree Baruah, Kushal Kumar Baruah
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.67069
Abstract: It has been previously argued that application of organic residues added in soils has a great impact on soil quality, grain productivity as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Substitution of chemical fertilizers has become a common practice in agricultural systems which consequently affect the greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural fields. To observe the effects of organic manures and crop residues amendments, five fertilizer treatments including conventional inorganic nitrogen fertilizer—NPK, cow manure, rice straw, poultry manure and sugarcane bagasse were applied in the field for two consecutive pre-monsoon rice seasons. Addition of rice straw, poultry manure and sugarcane bagasse decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by 14% and 31%, and by 1% and 7% and 5% and 3% in 2012 and 2013 respectively when compared with conventional fertilizer treatment (NPK) in both the seasons. Yield differences were not significant (p > 0.005) amongst the treatments, however, a slight increase was observed due to rice straw amendment over control. Soil organic carbon decreased by 11% - 17% under the application of organic residues which might have contributed to lower N2O emissions from the plots. Results of carbon equivalent emission (CEE) and carbon efficiency ratio (CER) indicated that incorporation of rice straw during pre-monsoon rice season had the potential to reduce the N2O emissions and yield scaled emissions of rice production at lower level than the conventional farmers’ practice of using chemical fertilizers (NPK).
The Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability Due to Leaching of Chemicals: The Review of Attenuation Factor  [PDF]
Sivarajah Mylevaganam, Chittaranjan Ray
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2016.61002
Abstract: To assess the groundwater vulnerability due to leaching of chemicals, the groundwater system in the unsaturated zone is characterized by conceptual models that are further extended and refined with more detailed mathematical models to understand the governing physical processes in detail. However, due to lack of data and uncertainty level, an intermediate transition through index based models is researched. The attenuation factor (AF) approach, which works under the assumption that the chemicals degrade following a first-order kinetics and determines the fraction of the chemicals that goes to groundwater table, is one of the index based models that has been widely used due to its simplicity. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the research works done using the AF approach, to outline the future research needs. Furthermore, the mathematical implementation of the AF approach and the associated uncertainty levels is explained through an example and MATLAB source code.
A Spatial Evapotranspiration Tool at Grid Scale  [PDF]
Sivarajah Mylevaganam, Chittaranjan Ray
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.61007
Abstract: The drastic decline in groundwater table and many other detrimental effects in meeting irrigation demand, and the projected population growth have force to evaluate consumptive use or evapo-transpiration (ET), the rate of liquid water transformation to vapor from open water, bare soil, and vegetation, which determines the irrigation demand. As underscored in the literature, Pen-man-Monteith method which is based on aerodynamic and energy balance method is widely used and accepted as the method of estimation of ET. However, the estimation of ET is oftentimes carried out using meteorological data from climate stations. Therefore, such estimation of ET may vary spatially and thus there exists a need to estimate ET spatially at different spatial or grid scales/resolutions. Thus, in this paper, a spatial tool that can geographically encompass all the best available climate datasets to produce ET at different spatial scales is developed. The spatial tool is developed as a Python toolbox in ArcGIS using Python, an open source programming language, and the ArcPy site-package of ArcGIS. The developed spatial tool is demonstrated using the meteorological data from Automated Weather Data Network in Nebraska in 2010.
Accordion Manoeuvre with Ilizarov Frame over Nail in Situ in a Case of Infected Non-Union of Femur: Discussion on Strategies: A Case Report  [PDF]
Ranjit Kr. Baruah
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2014.47030
Abstract: Quiescent Type of H. Rosen & Stage 2 of C.L. Romano et al. for Infected Non Union of Femur after K-nailing (Küntscher nailing) require no debridement & removal of nail and therefore can be treated by a single stage procedure. There are a few reports of treating aseptic non-union of femur by compression alone or compression distraction over nail by Ilizarov Technique. However, no case of Infected Non-Union femur being treated by Accordion Manoeuvre with Ilizarov over nail in situ (i.e. without exchange nailing) has been reported so far. Here, we are reporting a case of Infected Non-Union following K-nailing for a fracture shaft of femur in a 15-year-old female, who was treated by this technique as a single stage procedure. An Ilizarov frame was mounted on the femur with nail in situ followed by Accordion Manoeuvre. The fracture was healed in 5.6 months with two cycles of Accordion Manoeuvre followed by rhythmic compression. There was no recurrence of infection.
MSM Book Review: Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications
Chittaranjan Andrade
Mens Sana Monographs , 2010,
Abstract: Many books in medical literature have become so well-established over the years that they are known by the names of the founding author(s) or editor(s). Notable examples are Harrison for Medicine; Bailey and Love for Surgery; Nelson for Pediatrics; Parson for Ophthalmology; Guyton for Physiology; Goodman and Gilman for pharmacology; Kaplan for Psychiatry; Lishman for Organic Psychiatry; Fish for Phenomenology; and Stahl for Psychopharmacology.These classics in medical literature are common names in medical halls because of a consistency in quality across editions that have spanned generations of teachers and students. In this context, Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology has become a brand name in only a little over 10 years. In fact, the brand is now reflected in the title of the third edition: not just Essential Psychopharmacology, but Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology. With this modification, the publishers make a clear statement that they intend to establish perpetuity of publication no matter who authors future editions of the text.
A Possible Realization of Chlorophyll Lase  [PDF]
Mitali Konwar, G. D. Baruah
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.38060
Abstract:

The present work is concerned with a description of strong fluorescence from a sample of Alocasia culcullata schot (local name Kolia kasu) and possible realization of chlorophyll laser. The red florescence is most prominent when excited with broad band source like 30 mW green or blue solid state laser, but the acetone extract of plant leaves Allocasa cullcuta schot unusually exhibits the strong intensity in the red sector of the spectrum. A dark room can be easily illuminated with this red radiation. We have used this fact to explore a possible realization of chlorophyll laser which would be a natural environmental phenomenon.

Ilizarov methodology for infected non union of the Tibia: Classic circular transfixion wire assembly vs. hybrid assembly
Baruah Ranjit
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction: Conventional wire fixation of Ilizarov rings often fails to provide 90-90 configuration because of vital structures, which is essential for optimum stability. Hybrid assembly with half pins is an alternative. The aim of this study is to compare the results of Hybrid assembly with that of conventional classic circular transfixion wire Ilizarov assembly in 50 cases of infected nonunion of tibia between 1994 and 2003. Materials and Methods: This study includes two groups with 25 patients in each group: Group (A) conventional Ilizarov assembly and Group (B) hybrid Ilizarov assembly. Thirty-five cases developed infected nonunion following road traffic accidents while others after fall (6) bullet injury (4), infected osteosynthesis (3) and assault (2). There were 45 males and five females with mean age (18 to 56 years). All active cases (n=28) were treated by debridement including removal of implants in infected osteosynthesis. Twenty out of 22 cases in the quiescent group (non draining for last three consecutive months) were treated without open debridement; only two cases required open debridement for various reasons. All the cases were finally treated as atrophic aseptic nonunion with bone defect and were classified according to ASAMI. Type B1: length of the limb maintained with bone gap (14 cases in both Group A and B) and Type B3: combined shortening with defect (five and seven cases in Group A and B respectively), were treated by bifocal osteosynthesis. Only one case in the B3 group was treated by trifocal osteosynthesis to shorten the time. Type B2: segments in contact with limb shortening (total nine cases; five and four cases in Group A and B respectively) with shortening up to 2 cm (total five cases) were treated with monofocal osteosynthesis while shortening up to 5 cm and beyond (total four cases) were treated with bifocal osteosynthesis. Results: The cases were followed up for two to six years and the results were evaluated by Paley criteria of bony results ( union, infection, deformity and leg-length discrepancy ) and Functional Results (significant limp , equinus rigidity of the ankle, soft-tissue dystrophy, pain and inactivity) . In both the groups, 24 cases out of 25, had excellent to good bony result with Group B having twice more excellent result than Group A. Functional results were found to be similar in both the groups. Although persistence of infection and Grade III pin tract infection (PTI) were slightly higher in Group B, complications like delayed consolidation of regenerate, refracture, deformity and aneurysm of vessel
A GA Approach to Static Task Scheduling in Grid based Systems
Arun Baruah
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Static task scheduling in computational grids is very important because of the optimal usage of computing time for scheduling algorithms. Given a set of resources, a static scheduler computes the execution schedule before runtime. In static task scheduling resource information and performance parameters are assumed to be knowndepending on how a job can be divided, relevant research can be categorized into two different areas: divisible workload, scheduling where they can divided workload into arbitraty-sizes. Solving this problem dynamically needs more time. Therefore an attempt is made to solve it by meta-heuristic techniques. A new GA scheduler,GASAScheduler is presented whose run-time depends on the number of tasks in scheduling problem. The computation time to find sub-optimal function improved. The result shows the computation time of the proposed algorithms is better.
The practice of telepathology in India
Baruah M
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Telepathology in India is still in the evolving stages. Although, much progress has been made around the world specially in the field of digital imaging and virtual slides, the practice of telepathology in India still revolves around static telepathology, be it in telelearning or distance learning, or in remote diagnosis. Websites such as telepathology.org.in have been very successful in popularizing telepathology through quizzes of interesting and rare cases. The only study of teleconsultation from India, has shown that a good concordance with glass slide and static telepathology images. The reasons for the relative delay in acceptance of telepathology in India are manifold.
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