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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 112 matches for " Chisholm "
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Progresso e mimesis: ideias políticas, imita??o e desenvolvimento
Chisholm, Robert;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64452009000200004
Abstract: comparative political science has ignored the central role that political ideas and models have on the creation and development of institutions. with the collapse of the soviet bloc and the intellectual fervor that accompanied this event, possibilities of paying attention to the effects of political thought grew. articulated by political thinkers, ideas direct actions, reflect dominant understandings among elites on the truth or provide a basis for criticism of these understandings. in this sense, their study may reveal some aspects of the effort to set up a regime. this article suggests an approach to the problem: focusing on how ideas are adopted, adapted and supported by the political actors.
Exploring UK attitudes towards unlicensed medicines use: a questionnaire-based study of members of the general public and physicians
Chisholm A
International Journal of General Medicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S28341
Abstract: ring UK attitudes towards unlicensed medicines use: a questionnaire-based study of members of the general public and physicians Original Research (1870) Total Article Views Authors: Chisholm A Published Date January 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 27 - 40 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S28341 Received: 17 November 2011 Accepted: 06 December 2011 Published: 10 January 2012 Alison Chisholm Omega Scientific, Yately, UK Aims: To undertake a questionnaire-based study to evaluate attitudes towards the use of unlicensed medicines among prescribing doctors and members of the general public (ie, patients). The study also aimed to explore the factors that influence physicians' prescribing decisions and priorities, and to understand the knowledge of the medicines licensing system among members of the public. Methods: Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd funded the online interview of 500 members of the general public and 249 prescribing physicians. Best practice standards were followed for questionnaire-based studies; no specific treatments or conditions were mentioned or discussed. Results: Few of the participating physicians, only 14%, were very familiar with the UK General Medical Council (GMC) guidelines on the use of unlicensed medicines and just 17% felt very comfortable prescribing an unlicensed medication when a licensed alternative was available. Key physician concerns included the lack of safety data (76%), legal implications (76%), and safety monitoring associated with unlicensed medicine use (71%). Patients and physicians agreed that safety and efficacy are the most important prescribing considerations, although 48% of participating physicians were worried that budget pressures may increase pressure to prescribe unlicensed medications on the basis of cost. A high proportion of patients (81%) also indicated some degree of concern, were they to be prescribed an unlicensed medication when a licensed alternative was available specifically because it costs less. Conclusions: This UK-based questionnaire study suggests pervasive concerns among prescribers over the safety, monitoring, and legal implications of unlicensed prescribing. High levels of concern were expressed among patients and physicians if cost were to become an influential factor when making decisions between licensed and unlicensed medications.
Exploring UK attitudes towards unlicensed medicines use: a questionnaire-based study of members of the general public and physicians
Chisholm A
International Journal of General Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Alison ChisholmOmega Scientific, Yately, UKAims: To undertake a questionnaire-based study to evaluate attitudes towards the use of unlicensed medicines among prescribing doctors and members of the general public (ie, patients). The study also aimed to explore the factors that influence physicians' prescribing decisions and priorities, and to understand the knowledge of the medicines licensing system among members of the public.Methods: Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd funded the online interview of 500 members of the general public and 249 prescribing physicians. Best practice standards were followed for questionnaire-based studies; no specific treatments or conditions were mentioned or discussed.Results: Few of the participating physicians, only 14%, were very familiar with the UK General Medical Council (GMC) guidelines on the use of unlicensed medicines and just 17% felt very comfortable prescribing an unlicensed medication when a licensed alternative was available. Key physician concerns included the lack of safety data (76%), legal implications (76%), and safety monitoring associated with unlicensed medicine use (71%). Patients and physicians agreed that safety and efficacy are the most important prescribing considerations, although 48% of participating physicians were worried that budget pressures may increase pressure to prescribe unlicensed medications on the basis of cost. A high proportion of patients (81%) also indicated some degree of concern, were they to be prescribed an unlicensed medication when a licensed alternative was available specifically because it costs less.Conclusions: This UK-based questionnaire study suggests pervasive concerns among prescribers over the safety, monitoring, and legal implications of unlicensed prescribing. High levels of concern were expressed among patients and physicians if cost were to become an influential factor when making decisions between licensed and unlicensed medications.Keywords: patient, physician, unlicensed treatment, concern, safety, trust
Deep Reads: Strands in the History of Molecular Genetics
Andrew D. Chisholm
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004887
Abstract:
Primordial Black Hole Minimum Mass
James R. Chisholm
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.74.043512
Abstract: In this paper we revisit thermodynamic constraints on primordial black hole (PBH) formation in the early universe. Under the assumption that PBH mass is equal to the cosmological horizon mass, one can use the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics to put a lower limit on the PBH mass. In models of PBH formation, however, PBHs are created at some fraction of the horizon mass. We show that this thermodynamic constraint still holds for sub-horizon PBH formation.
Clustering of Primordial Black Holes. II. Evolution of Bound Systems
James R. Chisholm
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.84.124031
Abstract: Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) that form from the collapse of density perturbations are more clustered than the underlying density field. In a previous paper, we showed the constraints that this has on the prospects of PBH dark matter. In this paper we examine another consequence of this clustering: the formation of bound systems of PBHs in the early universe. These would hypothetically be the earliest gravitationally collapsed structures, forming when the universe is still radiation dominated. Depending upon the size and occupation of the clusters, PBH merging occurs before they would have otherwise evaporated due to Hawking evaporation.
Clustering of primordial black holes: Basic results
James R. Chisholm
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.73.083504
Abstract: We investigate the spatial clustering properties of primordial black holes (PBHs). With minimal assumptions, we show that PBHs created in the radiation era are highly clustered. Using the peaks theory model of bias, we compute the PBH two-point correlation function and power spectrum. For creation from an initially adiabatic power spectrum of perturbations, the PBH power spectrum contains both isocurvature and adiabatic components. The absence of observed isocurvature fluctuations today constrains the mass range in which PBHs may serve as dark matter. We briefly discuss other consequences of PBH clustering.
A Mathematical Method for Deriving the Relative Effect of Serviceability on Default Risk
Graham Andersen,David Chisholm
Quantitative Finance , 2011,
Abstract: The writers propose a mathematical Method for deriving risk weights which describe how a borrower's income, relative to their debt service obligations (serviceability) affects the probability of default of the loan. The Method considers the borrower's income not simply as a known quantity at the time the loan is made, but as an uncertain quantity following a statistical distribution at some later point in the life of the loan. This allows a probability to be associated with an income level leading to default, so that the relative risk associated with different serviceability levels can be quantified. In a sense, the Method can be thought of as an extension of the Merton Model to quantities that fail to satisfy Merton's 'critical' assumptions relating to the efficient markets hypothesis. A set of numerical examples of risk weights derived using the Method suggest that serviceability may be under-represented as a risk factor in many mortgage credit risk models.
The Meaning of Probability of Default for Asset-backed Loans
David Chisholm,Graham Andersen
Quantitative Finance , 2013,
Abstract: The authors examine the concept of probability of default for asset-backed loans. In contrast to unsecured loans it is shown that probability of default can be defined as either a measure of the likelihood of the borrower failing to make required payments, or as the likelihood of an insufficiency of collateral value on foreclosure. Assuming expected loss is identical under either definition, this implies a corresponding pair of definitions for loss given default. Industry treatment of probability of default for asset-backed loans appears to inconsistently blend the two types of definition. The authors develop a mathematical treatment of asset-backed loans which consistently applies each type of definition in a framework to produce the same expected loss and allows translation between the two frameworks.
Braid groups and euclidean simplices
Elizabeth Leyton Chisholm,Jon McCammond
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: When Daan Krammer and Stephen Bigelow independently proved that braid groups are linear, they used the Lawrence-Krammer-Bigelow representation for generic values of its variables q and t. The t variable is closely connected to the traditional Garside structure of the braid group and plays a major role in Krammer's algebraic proof. The q variable, associated with the dual Garside structure of the braid group, has received less attention. In this article we give a geometric interpretation of the q portion of the LKB representation in terms of an action of the braid group on the space of non-degenerate euclidean simplices. In our interpretation, braid group elements act by systematically reshaping (and relabeling) euclidean simplices. The reshapings associated to the simple elements in the dual Garside structure of the braid group are of an especially elementary type that we call relabeling and rescaling.
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