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Search Results: 1 - 3 of 3 matches for " Chinnamma Chakiath "
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Establishment of an In Vitro Assay for Assessing the Effects of Drugs on the Liver Stages of Plasmodium vivax Malaria
Rana Chattopadhyay,Soundarapandian Velmurugan,Chinnamma Chakiath,Lucy Andrews Donkor,Wilbur Milhous,John W. Barnwell,William E. Collins,Stephen L. Hoffman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014275
Abstract: Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is the second most important human malaria parasite. Recent data indicate that the impact of Pv malaria on the health and economies of the developing world has been dramatically underestimated. Pv has a unique feature in its life cycle. Uninucleate sporozoites (spz), after invasion of human hepatocytes, either proceed to develop into tens of thousands of merozoites within the infected hepatocytes or remain as dormant forms called hypnozoites, which cause relapses of malaria months to several years after the primary infection. Elimination of malaria caused by Pv will be facilitated by developing a safe, highly effective drug that eliminates Pv liver stages, including hypnozoites. Identification and development of such a drug would be facilitated by the development of a medium to high throughput assay for screening drugs against Pv liver stages. We undertook the present pilot study to (1) assess the feasibility of producing large quantities of purified, vialed, cryopreserved Pv sporozoites and (2) establish a system for culturing the liver stages of Pv in order to assess the effects of drugs on the liver stages of Pv. We used primaquine (PQ) to establish this assay model, because PQ is the only licensed drug known to clear all Pv hepatocyte stages, including hypnozoites, and the effect of PQ on Pv hepatocyte stage development in vitro has not previously been reported. We report that we have established the capacity to reproducibly infect hepatoma cells with purified, cyropreserved Pv spz from the same lot, quantitate the primary outcome variable of infected hepatoma cells and demonstrate the inhibitory activity of primaquine on the infected hepatoma cells. We have also identified small parasite forms that may be hypnozoites. These data provide the foundation for finalizing a medium throughput, high content assay to identify new drugs for the elimination of all Pv liver stages.
Physicochemical characterization and functional site analysis of lactoferrin gene of Vechur cow
Anisha Shashidharan,Ruchi Singh,Salini Bhasker,Chinnamma Mohankumar
Bioinformation , 2011,
Abstract: The Bos indicus Vechur breed cow milk is known for its medicinal value and the breed is listed under the category of critically maintained breeds by the Food and Agriculture Organization. The lactoferrin protein in milk is known for its nutritional value. Gene polymorphisms have been reported for Bovine lactoferrin. Mutations in the evolutionarily conserved sites tend to impair protein function and are related with the physicochemical difference between the known variants with 11 SNPs within the wild type. Structural differences are located due to these SNPs that may lead to functional variations. The structural variation is seen primarily in the first 48 residues at 5’ end in all the samples modelled. Out of 11 SNPs 5 amino acid variations fall under alpha helix and beta sheet region, this might be of functional significance. This result may provide evidence that the SNPs detected in lactoferrin gene might have potential effects on milk composition. Our result demonstrates one major domain that could be a common binding pocket to all the samples, and important as an active site common to all the breeds that could be utilized for effective drug designing. Moreover, at some SNP positions in Vechur breed, antimicrobial peptides were located indicating importance of those residues for enhanced antimicrobial activity in lactoferrin of Vechur breed. Second binding pocket found in N- lobe region with the three required residues aspartic acid, histidine and tyrosine for iron binding, was considered as major binding site.
Pseudogap Effects in Disordered Niobium Nitride Superconducting Thin Films
R. Baskaran,A.V. ThanikaiArasu,G. Chinnamma,M.P. Janawadkar
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The pseudogap region in the disordered Niobium Nitride (NbN) superconductors has been a subject of contemporary interest and its existence for higher disorder films have been established. Niobium Nitride (NbN) thin films have been deposited by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering at 0.266 Pa total pressure in a mixture of argon and nitrogen. The Glancing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) analysis indicates the formation of NbN cubic fcc B1 structure. All the films were found to be superconducting with a maximum superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of 12 K. At higher temperatures, all the films exhibited a negative temperature coefficient of resistance indicating the presence of disorder in the films. The downturn of resistance due to the appearance of superconducting state is observable in the resistance versus temperature plot at a temperature above Tc defined as T*. It has been observed the downturn in resistance versus temperature plot of NbN thin film happens at a temperature around 20 K (T*) for a sample which is superconducting at 11.5 K (Tc).
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