Abstract:
The past few years have seen an increasing focus on energy harvesting issue, including power supply for portable electric devices. Utilize scavenging ambient energy from the environment could eliminate the need for batteries and increase portable device lifetimes indefinitely. In addition, through MEMS technology fabricated micro-generator could easy integrate with these small or portable devices. Several different ambient sources, including solar, vibration and temperature effect, have already exploited [1-3]. Each energy source should be used in suitable environment, therefore to produce maximum efficiency. In this paper, we present an acoustic wave actuated micro-generator for power system by using the energy of acoustic waves, such as the sound from human voices or speakerphone, to actuate a MEMS-type electromagnetic transducer. This provides a longer device lifetime and greater power system convenience. Moreover, it is convenient to integrate MEMS-based microgenerators with small or porta le devices

Abstract:
MEMS technology has been developed rapidly in the last few years. More and more special micro structures were discussed in several publications. However, all of the structures were produced by consist of the three fundamental structures, which included bridge, cantilever and membrane structures. Even the more complex structures were no exception. The cantilever with the property of simple design and easy fabrication among three kinds of fundamental structure, therefore, it was popular used in the design of MEMS device.

Abstract:
This study proposes an optically driven complex micromachine with an Archimedes microscrew as the mechanical power, a sphere as a coupler, and three knives as the mechanical tools. The micromachine is fabricated by two-photon polymerization and is portably driven by optical tweezers. Because the microscrew can be optically trapped and rotates spontaneously, it provides driving power for the complex micro-tools. In other words, when a laser beam focuses on the micromachine, the microscrew is trapped toward the focus point and simultaneously rotates. A demonstration showed that the integrated micromachines are grasped by the optical tweezers and rotated by the Archimedes screw. The rotation efficiencies of the microrotors with and without knives are 1.9 rpm/mW and 13.5 rpm/mW, respectively. The micromachine can also be portably dragged along planed routes. Such Archimedes screw-based optically driven complex mechanical micro-tools enable rotation similar to moving machines or mixers, which could contribute to applications for a biological microfluidic chip or a lab-on-a-chip.

Abstract:
Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high in non-obese adult individuals, but less research focusing on elderly group. We aimed to assess the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components in metabolic obese, non-obese elderly population in northern Taiwan (body mass index [BMI] < 27 kg/m^{2}). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among elderly people (≥65 y/o) who received a senior citizen health examination from March to November 2009. A total of 1180 participants (433 men, 36.7%; 748 women, 63.3%) were investigated. The prevalence and odds ratios of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), were analyzed in the following BMI groups: <18.5 kg/m^{2}, 18.5 - 24 kg/m^{2}, 24 - 27 kg/m^{2}, and ≥27 kg/m^{2}. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with BMI in both women and men (P < 0.001) in this study. A higher prevalence of MetS was found in the overweight and obesity groups and also in women with normal BMI. The mean body weight of individuals with MetS was higher than that of those without MetS across BMI groups, especially in the normal BMI group. The odds ratios for MetS were 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.01 - 1.11) for women and 1.11 (1.01 - 1.21) for men with BMI 18.5 - 24 kg/m^{2}, and 1.09 (1.02 - 1.17) for men with BMI 24 - 27 kg/m^{2}. Conclusions: Elderly individuals in the BMI belong to normal and overweight groups have a relatively high prevalence and increased risk of developing MetS. Therefore, physicians should perform screening examinations for MetS and its risk factors not only in obese patients but also in non-obese elderly patients to prevent Mets. This electronic document is a “live” template. The various components of your paper [title, text, heads, etc.] are already defined on the style sheet, as illustrated by the portions given in this document.

Background: Sleep
symptoms can predict the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the
general population. This study focused on the association between MetS and
commonly reported sleep symptoms and personal sleep hygiene habits. The goal of
this study was to help individuals to make healthier decisions and thereby
prevent MetS. Methods: A
cross-sectional survey was conducted among elderly people (age ≥ 65 years)
who underwent a senior citizen health examination between March and November
2009. A total of 1181 participants (433 men, 36.7%; 748 women, 63.3%) were
surveyed. MetS was defined using the
modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). The participants completed
a sleep questionnaire and a MetS evaluation. Multiple linear regression
analysis was used to examine the relationship of the number of MetS components
with individual sleep symptoms and sleep hygiene. Results: The specific symptom of insomnia (difficulty falling
asleep [DFA]) increased the number of MetS risk factors significantly (coefficient
= 0.252, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.8). The duration of insomnia was not associated with the risk of MetS. Sleep hygiene habits, including taking a nap lasting
longer than 1 hour during the day (coefficient = 0.256, p = 0.001, R2 =
0.7), drinking caffeine-containing drinks during the day (coefficient = 0.233,
p = 0.013, R2 = 0.5), and getting regular exercise each day (coefficient
= ?0.179, p = 0.024, R2 = 0.4), affected the number of MetS risk
factors. Conclusion: DFA and unhealthy personal sleep hygiene habits
increased the number of MetS risk factors in the community-dwelling elderly
population in northern Taiwan.
We propose that early evaluation of sleep symptoms and sleep hygiene can help
identify individuals at risk for MetS, and early intervention would result in
lower occurrence rates of MetS in elderly Taiwanese.

Abstract:
Symmetry, in particular gauge symmetry, is a fundamental principle in theoretical physics. It is intimately connected to the geometry of fibre bundles. A refinement to the gauge principle, known as ``spontaneous symmetry breaking'', leads to one of the most successful theories in modern particle physics. In this short talk, I shall try to give a taste of this beautiful and exciting concept.

Abstract:
In this talk I shall try to give an elementary introduction to certain areas of mathematical physics where the idea of moduli space is used to help solve problems or to further our understanding. In the wide area of gauge theory, I shall mention instantons, monopoles and duality. Then, under the general heading of string theory, I shall indicate briefly the use of moduli space in conformal field theory and $M$-theory.

Abstract:
The origin of fermion generations is one of the great mysteries in particle physics. We consider here a possible solution within the Standard Model framework based on a nonabelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality. First, nonabelian duality says that dual to the colour (electric) symmetry SU(3), there is a ``colour magnetic symmetry'' $\widetilde{SU}(3)$, which by a result of 't~Hooft is spontaneously broken and can thus play the role of the "horizontal symmetry" of generations. Second, nonabelian duality suggests the manner this symmetry is broken with frame vectors in internal symmetry space acting as Higgs fields. As a result, mass matrices factorize leading to fermion mass hierarchy. A calculation to first order gives mixing (CKM and MNS) matrices in general agreement with experiment. In particular, quark mixing is seen naturally to be weak compared with leptons, while within the lepton sector, $\mu-\tau$ mixing turns out near maximal but $e-\tau$ mixing small, just as seen in recent $\nu$ oscillation experiments. In addition, the scheme leads to many testable predictions ranging from rare FCNC meson decays and $\mu-e$ conversion in nuclei to cosmic ray air showers above $10^{20}$ eV.

Abstract:
In these lectures I shall explain how a new-found nonabelian duality can be used to solve some outstanding questions in particle physics. The first lecture introduces the concept of electromagnetic duality and goes on to present its nonabelian generalization in terms of loop space variables. The second lecture discusses certain puzzles that remain with the Standard Model of particle physics, particularly aimed at nonexperts. The third lecture presents a solution to these problems in the form of the Dualized Standard Model, first proposed by Chan and the author, using nonabelian dual symmetry. The fundamental particles exist in three generations, and if this is a manifestation of dual colour symmetry, which by 't Hooft's theorem is necessarily broken, then we have a natural explanation of the generation puzzle, together with tested and testable consequences not only in particle physics, but also in astrophysics, nuclear and atomic physics. Reported is mainly work done in collaboration with Chan Hong-Mo, and also various parts with Peter Scharbach, Jacqueline Faridani, Jos\'e Bordes, Jakov Pfaudler, Ricardo Gallego severally.

Abstract:
We study the distribution of entries of a random permutation matrix under a "randomized basis," i.e. we conjugate the random permutation matrix by an independent random orthogonal matrix drawn from Haar measure. It is shown that under certain conditions, the linear combination of entries of a random permutation matrix under a "randomized basis" converges to a sum of independent variables $sY + Z$ where $Y$ is Poisson distributed, $Z$ is normally distributed, and $s$ is a constant.