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Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin C on Alterations in Thyroid Hormones Concentrations Induced by Subchronic Coadministration of Chlorpyrifos and Lead in Wistar Rats
Suleiman F. Ambali,Chinedu Orieji,Woziri O. Abubakar,Muftau Shittu,Mohammed U. Kawu
Journal of Thyroid Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/214924
Abstract: The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of vitamin C on alteration in thyroid hormones induced by low-dose subchronic coadministration of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and lead (Pb). Forty Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each. Groups I and II were administered soya oil (2?mL/kg) and vitamin C (100?mg/kg), respectively. Group III was coadministered CPF (4.25?mg/kg ~1/20th LD50) and Pb (250?mg/kg ~1/20th LD50), respectively. Group IV was pretreated with vitamin C (100?mg/kg) and then coadministered with CPF (4.25?mg/kg) and Pb (250?mg/kg), 30?min later. The regimens were administered by gavage for a period of 9 weeks. The marginal decrease in serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine and the significant increase in the concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone and malonaldehyde in the group coadministered with CPF and Pb were ameliorated by vitamin C partly due to its antioxidant properties. 1. Introduction Man and animals are exposed to a “soup” of chemical contaminants in the environment, which directly or indirectly affect their health and well-being. Pesticides and heavy metals are the most common environmental contaminants because of their respective widespread use in agriculture and industries. Hitherto, most studies on these chemical contaminants have centered on the examination of one single agent and therefore, current understanding of the toxicity of many environmental toxicants/pollutants is based primarily on toxicity studies performed on laboratory animals exposed to a single toxic agent [1, 2]. However, the environment is heavily contaminated with many chemicals, which interact with each other in such a way that modify their toxic response in humans and animals. Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used insecticides accounting for 50% of global insecticidal use [3] while Pb is the most widespread heavy metal contaminants with wide applications [4]. Occupational and environmental Pb exposure continues to be among the most significant public health problems [4–7]. Due to their persistent nature in the environment and their toxicodynamics, CPF and Pb have resulted in deleterious effects in man and animals [8]. The toxicity of Pb remains a matter of public health concern [9] due to its pervasiveness in the environment and the awareness about its toxic effects [10] at exposure levels lower than what was previously considered harmful [11]. Reproductive consequences of Pb exposure are widespread [12], affecting almost all aspects of reproduction [13]. Pb induces decreased sperm count and motility and increased
Strategy Use and Language Performance by Second Language Learners in Nigeria  [PDF]
Laz Chinedu Ogenyi
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/als.2015.33011
Abstract: It is commonly believed that Nigerian students perform very poorly in the English language. Many reasons adduced to be the causative variables for students’ poor performance in the English language are located away from the students themselves. What the above scenario portends is that no effort has been made to find out the strategies which the students themselves use in their efforts to learn the English language; it also implies that no effort has been made to find out the relationship between such strategies and the level of students’ performance in the target language. The problem which this study addressed was not only to evaluate the language learning strategies which the sampled study population use in their efforts to learn English, but also to determine the extent to which their mean achievement scores in English depend on their use of various language learning strategies. The study was carried out using a descriptive survey research design. Its population consisted of Senior Secondary School (SSS) form II students in three states of south-eastern Nigeria. Random sampling technique was used to select a total of one thousand, four hundred and one (1401: 747 = males, 654 = females) students used for the study. Two sets of instrument were used to collect data for the investigation: appraisal instrument (cloze test), and questionnaire. Two research questions and corresponding two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Results of the study revealed that 1) the greatest proportion of the Igbo learners of English in SSS II (84.3%) made use of socio-affective language learning strategy, while cognitive strategy had the lowest proportion of users (50.9%); 2) there was a significant difference, in the English language performance, between the users and non-users of the various language learning strategies.
Deflectionism or Activism? The Kenya National Commission on Human Rights in Focus
Chinedu Idike
Essex Human Rights Review , 2004,
Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the general notion held by most human rights non-governmental organizations and scholars that national human rights commissions in Africa are meaningless institutions used by African leaders to deflect criticism of human rights abuses. It argues that the deflectionist idea is part of the condemnation syndrome that has infected international human rights NGOs and has led them to be unduly and excessively sceptical of Third World institutions, even when the evidence does not warrant the level of scepticism. It conducts a case study of the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights and concludes that the institutions are a valuable resource in human rights struggles.
The Beam-Forming Technique for Enhancement of Noisy Seismic Refraction Data  [PDF]
Arewa James Ogah, Ani Donatus Chinedu
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2012.324087
Abstract: We have described a method of obtaining useful information from noisy seismic refraction data. The simple method, tagged beam-forming technique, is based on the basic time-distance equations of refraction seismology. It involves basically of introducing relative time delays to individual seismic traces of seismic refraction spread to correct for the non-coincidence of the incidence seismic energy at different geophones, and averaging the traces to obtain the beam. The assumption here is that the signal is coherent between the geophones while the noise is random, and for groups of geophones corresponding to the same refraction segments of the travel time curve, this basic assumption is valid. The process of beam forming therefore leads to improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and correct determination of the intercept times which are subsequently used to compute other geologic layer parameters. The ability of the applied technique to filter out or minimize random noise has been tested using a modified random number routine. The performance test on computation of geologic layer parameters using very noisy synthetic data reveals that the method is still very reliable even with very poor quality data having SNR as small as 0.05.
Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Suspected Seepage Channels in an Earthen Dam in Zaria, North-Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Ani D. Chinedu, Arewa J. Ogah
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.31020
Abstract:

To determine and map the subsurface conditions of a dam, a 2D electrical resistivity tomography study was carried out within the two flanks of Zaria dam at Shika. This was done to ascertain if the variations in the volume of water content in the dam is due to an anomalous seepage beneath the subsurface or seasonal effects. On the basis of the interpretation of the acquired data, various zones of relatively uniform resistivity values were mapped and identified. The first zone is characterized by moderate resistivity values of 150 - 600 ohm-m. It represents unsaturated topsoil with thicknesses varying from 1 - 4.5 m. The second (intermediate depth) resistivity zone, with values ranging from 5 - 100 ohm-m and thickness varying from 3.5 - 10 m, represents a silt clay layer with high moisture content. The third resistivity zone represents fairly weathered granite and is characterized by relatively high resistivity values ranging from 700 - 6000 ohm-m. The available borehole log data correlated well with the pseudo-sections in relation to the obtained resistivity values and depth. Zones of relatively low resistivity within the bedrock are interpreted to represent potential seepage pathways. Hence, this geophysical method can be successfully used to delineate and map these seepage pathways within the subsurface of the earth dam.

Electoral Fraud in Nigeria: A Philosophical Evaluation of the Framework of Electoral Violence  [PDF]
Ani Casimir, Emma Omeh, Chinedu Ike
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.34023
Abstract:

In the 2011 general elections in Nigeria, the Independent National Election Commission (INEC), the electoral management body (EMB) that organized the elections pulled what may pass as an electoral feat in achieving one of the most open, credible, peaceful and transparent elections within Nigeria’s recent memory. Before the 2011 elections, Nigeria had the 1999, 2003 and the 2007 elections considered by both national and international election observers, the Common Wealth Election Monitoring groups and the civil society, to be the most disorganized and fraudulent election during which people’s votes were blatantly stolen, rigged and the mandate of the people hijacked by political elites belonging variously to different political parties. Nigeria’s democracy, no doubt, is still nascent, evolving and could be classified as a new democracy. This paper takes a critical look at a disturbing national and international question: why is there so much electoral fraud in new and emerging democracies like Nigeria. The article seeks to establish the reasons and causes of electoral manipulation, its dynamics and corrupt tendencies, especially those electoral outcomes that are disputed as a result of electoral misconduct known as electoral fraud. The article will evaluate the concept of electoral fraud, explore the challenges of electoral fraud, its consequent crisis for new democracies and suggests ways of curtailing the phenomenon in its varied manifestations.

Poverty and Governance—A Critical Appraisal of a Philosophy and Practice of Development in Africa  [PDF]
Ani Casimir, Emma Omeh, Chinedu C. Ike
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.43018
Abstract:
The European postcolonial literature and global discourse about development concerns in Africa have witnessed a dominance of a development theory which has failed to capture the true aspirations, values and authentic problems of development confronting the people of Africa. This pro- western European theoretical framework bars African culture and values from being factored as motives, dynamics and outcomes that drive development on the continent. This absence has led to the flaunting of theories of development which favors and recommends the Breton Wood-inspired World Bank solutions/approaches to fast tracking development plans and goals in the continent. At the heart of the failure of these externally imposed prescriptions is the irreconcilability of the prospect of its resultant economic growth indicators and the production of measurable development outcomes in the lives of the people. Gross domestic product rate results in growth patterns which post impressive economic statistics; but the reality on the ground shows that there is wor- sening destitution and deepening poverty in household incomes, purchasing power parity and deliverables. Economic policies, engineered by good governance, lead to better management of state resources, production of pro-poor and pro-people outcomes which results in a better standard of living for the people. Bad governance has been a consistent leading contributor to increasing poverty and underdevelopment in the African continent. To reverse this scenario, there is a need to re-evaluate the conceptual framework and philosophy of development theory in post colonial Africa so as to achieve poverty reduction and good governance in the context of our cultural milieu. This re-evaluation would enable governance and the leadership to experience a shift in development paradigm that will empower development policy in Africa. My paper will therefore explore the content of this new framework and draw out its dialectical relationships and implications leading to recommendations for a new African perspective on development that will benefit Africans. These are emerging critical challenges that will definitely change the tenor and content of academic discourse as conceived in the philosophy of development and political economy. Development scholars, political scientists and philosophers will be compelled to re-examine the way African leaders and the so-called western consultants to Africa conceive development and underdevelopment concerns in the continent.
Pre-Androgen Ablation Prostate Cancer Patients Who Bleed Do Well with 5 Alpha Reductase Inhibitors  [PDF]
Vitalis Obisike Ofuru, Christopher Chinedu Obiorah
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2018.86020
Abstract: Background: Patients with gross haematuria are sometimes found to have prostate cancer after clinical evaluation. The treatment of such haematuria could be very challenging. Use of a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor like dutasteride has been found helpful in bleeding prostate cancer patients if they have not undergone hormonal manipulation before they developed haematuria. Patients and Method: 26 patients with gross haematuria of prostatic origin who had histologic confirmation of adenocarcinoma of the prostate but who have not had chemical or surgical castration were randomized to receive daily dutasteride in addition to vigorous saline irrigation and antibiotics on one arm and vigorous saline irrigation and antibiotics only as control on the other arm. The time taken before haematuria resolved and the amount of irrigation fluid used were noted. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Student’s t-test and Kaplan Meier survival analysis were used to test various variables at 0.5 significant levels. Results: Of the 26 patients 12(46.2%) received 0.5 mg oral dutasteride in addition to saline irrigation while 14 (53.8%) received saline irrigation only. Haematuria stopped in all of 12 (100%) patients on dutasteride arm but on 12 (85.7%) of the 14 patients on the control arm. It took significantly shorter time and lesser volume of irrigation fluid before haematuria resolved in those treated with dutasteride than in those on the control arm. Conclusion: Dutasteride is effective in the control of acute haematuria in pre-androgen ablation prostate cancer patients.
Utilization of Adult and Non-Formal Education Programs in Combating Rural Poverty in Nigeria
John Chinedu Ihejirika
World Journal of Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/wje.v2n3p25
Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept of poverty and its causes in Nigeria and to analyze how adult and non-formal education programs can be utilized to reduce rural poverty in Nigeria. In spite of Nigeria's affluence in human and material resources, it is classified among countries with high level of poverty. Incidentally, the incidence of poverty in Nigeria assumes wider dimensions in rural areas where larger proportion of the population (about 70%) reside mainly as subsistence farmers, fishermen and women, retail traders, herdsmen, palm wine tappers, the aged and hunters whose cultural and occupational affiliations do not encourage them to migrate. The incidence of rural poverty in Nigeria is attributed to lack of adequate education/illiteracy, subsistence farming, protracted illness due to inadequate medical care services, lack of employment opportunities, and failure of government to provide basic social amenities. To ameliorate the extent and dimensions of rural poverty in particular, successive governments, over the years, have introduced various economic recovery programs, most of which failed due to official corruption, lack of proper mobilization and top-down nature of such programs/schemes. This paper advocates a revert to the use of adult and non- formal education programs to educate and train the rural poor outside the formal education system on how and what to do to come out of the stronghold of poverty. In this regard, the use of adult basic education and functional literacy, agricultural extension education, women education, health extension education and vocational skills acquisition programs are seriously indicated. It is strongly recommended that for poverty alleviation programs of government to succeed, community members particularly, the poor for whom the programs are meant, should be well mobilized as to make inputs in the planning, execution, monitoring and evaluation of such programs and schemes that concern them.
Advances in Asset Management Techniques: An Overview of Corrosion Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies for Oil and Gas Pipelines
Chinedu I. Ossai
ISRN Corrosion , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/570143
Abstract:
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