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To determine and map the subsurface conditions of a dam, a 2D electrical resistivity tomography study was carried out within the two flanks of Zaria dam at Shika. This was done to ascertain if the variations in the volume of water content in the dam is due to an anomalous seepage beneath the subsurface or seasonal effects. On the basis of the interpretation of the acquired data, various zones of relatively uniform resistivity values were mapped and identified. The first zone is characterized by moderate resistivity values of 150 - 600 ohm-m. It represents unsaturated topsoil with thicknesses varying from 1 - 4.5 m. The second (intermediate depth) resistivity zone, with values ranging from 5 - 100 ohm-m and thickness varying from 3.5 - 10 m, represents a silt clay layer with high moisture content. The third resistivity zone represents fairly weathered granite and is characterized by relatively high resistivity values ranging from 700 - 6000 ohm-m. The available borehole log data correlated well with the pseudo-sections in relation to the obtained resistivity values and depth. Zones of relatively low resistivity within the bedrock are interpreted to represent potential seepage pathways. Hence, this geophysical method can be successfully used to delineate and map these seepage pathways within the subsurface of the earth dam.
In the 2011 general elections in Nigeria, the Independent National Election Commission (INEC), the electoral management body (EMB) that organized the elections pulled what may pass as an electoral feat in achieving one of the most open, credible, peaceful and transparent elections within Nigeria’s recent memory. Before the 2011 elections, Nigeria had the 1999, 2003 and the 2007 elections considered by both national and international election observers, the Common Wealth Election Monitoring groups and the civil society, to be the most disorganized and fraudulent election during which people’s votes were blatantly stolen, rigged and the mandate of the people hijacked by political elites belonging variously to different political parties. Nigeria’s democracy, no doubt, is still nascent, evolving and could be classified as a new democracy. This paper takes a critical look at a disturbing national and international question: why is there so much electoral fraud in new and emerging democracies like Nigeria. The article seeks to establish the reasons and causes of electoral manipulation, its dynamics and corrupt tendencies, especially those electoral outcomes that are disputed as a result of electoral misconduct known as “electoral fraud”. The article will evaluate the concept of electoral fraud, explore the challenges of electoral fraud, its consequent crisis for new democracies and suggests ways of curtailing the phenomenon in its varied manifestations.