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Situs invertus totalis in a child with chronic sinusitis  [PDF]
Chinawa Josephat Maduabuchi, Ujunwa Fortune Amuche, Eze Chukwubuike Uzodinma
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.33041

Background: Total situs inversus, (also called situs transversus or oppositus) known as mirror image dextrocardia, is characterized by a heart on the right side of the midline while the liver is on the left side. Situs Inversus Totalis (SIT) is a congenital anomaly characterized by complete transposition of abdominal and thoracic organs. Patients with this anomaly usually lead a normal life. We report a fourteen-year old Nigerian who was found to have dextrocardia with situs inversus totalis while presenting for treatment for a different problem. Conclusion: Situs inversus totalis is a rare finding. This report underscores the need for routine screening of children so that such congenital anomalies can be identified and complications that follow it averted timely.

Mothers' beliefs about infant teething in Enugu, South-east Nigeria: a cross sectional study
Gilbert N Adimorah, Agozie C Ubesie, Josephat M Chinawa
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-228
Abstract: A cross-sectional survey involving sixty mothers presenting at a Children's clinic in Enugu metropolis using questionnaire. More than 90% of the respondents thought that babies can experience medical problems as a result of teething. The commonest medical problems perceived to be associated with teething were fever (71.7%), loose stools (58.3%) and vomiting (35%).Mothers still associate a variety of symptoms of childhood illnesses to teething and this association is not evidence based and could lead to delayed interventions, increased morbidity and mortality of children. It is important therefore that mothers and health workers caring for young children are educated on the need to seek prompt medical attentions in a symptomatic child.Teething according to Tasanen cited in Swann [1] has traditionally been the explanation for a variety of symptoms and signs associated with tooth eruption in the young child, both by parents and doctors. A child's first tooth usually appears by 6 months of age, and a complete set of 20 primary or first teeth usually develops by age three [2]. It is important to remember that during this same period of an infant's life, passive immunity due to maternal antibodies wanes and exposure to a wide variety of childhood illnesses can occur [3]. Some of the attributable symptoms such as drooling of saliva and itching gum are trivial, nevertheless significant to the child and parents [4]. Others such as fever, diarrhea and cough may connote underlying serious medical conditions in the child. There is little evidence to support these beliefs despite their implications for prompt diagnosis and management of childhood illnesses [4]. Such uninformed beliefs could cause delays in diagnosing and managing serious childhood illnesses. Delayed diagnosis of underlying serious medical conditions on the other hand, may have far reaching consequences including mortalities from otherwise preventable and treatable diseases. It is important therefore, that parent
Paracetamol use (and/or misuse) in children in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria
Herbert A Obu, Josephat M Chinawa, Agozie C Ubesie, Christopher B Eke, Ikenna K Ndu
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-103
Abstract: To determine the dosage, formulation, and frequency of paracetamol administration to children by caregivers and factors associated with its use and/or misuse.An observational prospective study involving 231 children and their caregivers seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku - Ozalla, Enugu between June and November 2011 was undertaken. Data on paracetamol use before presentation to the clinic, in addition to demographic and other data were obtained from the caregivers using a structured questionnaire. Ethical consent for the study was obtained from the Hospital Ethics and Research Committee and informed consent was further obtained from the caregivers of the children.A total of 231 children aged six weeks to 16?years and their caregivers participated in this study. The mean ages of the children and their caregivers were 3.8 and 33.9?years, respectively. One hundred and thirty three of the children studied were males while 98 were females. Most of the children (75.6%) received paracetamol at home before presenting. Paracetamol tablet alone or in combination with the syrup was mostly used (60%) and this observation was made across all age groups. The commonest reason for using paracetamol tablet instead of the syrup was that it was more effective. Most caregivers relied on past experience (71.2%) rather than on enclosed information leaflet to decide the appropriate dosage. Half of the children also received other medications, mainly anti-malarials and antibiotics.Paracetamol was commonly given to children on “self prescription” basis and the tablet formulation was most frequently used, with the possibility of misuse and overdose. Caregivers need to be educated on age-appropriate formulations which are less likely to lead to overdose.Paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) is the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic [1]. It is found in many over the counter and prescription products. Given in the right do
Congenital malformations among newborns admitted in the neonatal unit of a tertiary hospital in Enugu, South-East Nigeria - a retrospective study
Herbert A Obu, Josephat M Chinawa, Nwachinemere D Uleanya, Gilbert N Adimora, Ikechukwu E Obi
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-177
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of congenital malformations among newborns admitted in a tertiary hospital in Enugu, the nature of these abnormalities and the outcome/prognosis. For purposes of this study, congenital abnormalities are defined as obvious abnormality of structure or form which is present at birth or noticed within a few days after birth. A cross-sectional retrospective study in which a review of the records of all babies admitted in the Newborn Special Care Unit (NBSCU) of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu over a four year period (January 2007-April 2011) was undertaken.All babies admitted in the unit with the diagnosis of congenital abnormality were included in the study. Information extracted from the records included characteristics of the baby, maternal characteristics, nature/type of abnormalities and outcome.Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 13. Rates and proportions were calculated with 95% confidence interval. The proportions were compared using students T-test. Level of significance was set at P?<?0.05Seventeen (17) out of a total of six hundred and seven newborn babies admitted in the newborn unit of UNTH over the study period (Jan 2007-March 2011) were found to have congenital abnormalities of various types, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. Common abnormalities seen in these babies were mainly surgical birth defects and included cleft lip/cleft palate, neural tube defects (occurring either singly or in combination with other abnormalities), limb abnormalities (often in combination with neural tube defects of various types), omphalocoele, umbilical herniae, ano-rectal malformations and dysmorphism associated with multiple congenital abnormalities.The results of this study show that 2.8% of babies admitted to a Newborn Special Care Unit in a teaching hospital in Enugu had congenital abnormalities and that the commonest forms seen were mainly surgical birth defects and includes
Theistic Panpsychic Communicative Rationality  [PDF]
Maduabuchi Dukor
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2011.12013
Abstract: The difference between a scientific system and the non scientific system is only a matter of forms of rationality: so also the difference between empirical system and non empirical system explainable in terms of the kinds of rationality systems in their structures. Similarly, the classification of civilized cultures and primitive cultures or the black civilization and western civilization is all about forms of rationalizations. That is because the form of explanation of European Society is different from the form of explanation of the Black African animistic society. However, structural functionalism is an attempt on a large scale to combine the methods of both functionalism and structuralism which is not only extant in African philosophy but also embedded in the practice of tradition. Indeed Theistic Panpsychic rationality is culturally structural and functional thereby qualifying to be described as structural functional Panpsychic communicative animism.
Philosophical Bases of African Freedom beyond Black and White  [PDF]
Maduabuchi Dukor
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.44065
Abstract: The aim of this chapter is to philosophically and critically examine and outline the bases of African freedom. The approach will adopt the following sub-headings: Introduction, Metaphysical Basis of African Freedom, Beyond “Black” and “White” to Pluralism, African Philosophy and the Paradox of African Freedom. The philosophical basis of African freedom consists essentially in the categorical assertion and defense of the freedom of man. The philosophical basis of African freedom is to seek the theoretical, metaphysical, ideological and scientific bases or justification for African freedom. Hence the intention is an attempt to establish the universality of mankind and ipso facto examine the propositions and ideologies that justified African freedom. We shall first of all take up the issue that the African race is an inferior race and a different “species” of being from the white man and then assert the common ancestry of man or humanity of man.
Adam Exists in the Mind of Man: The Existential Phenomenological Ontology of Human Predicament  [PDF]
Maduabuchi Dukor
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.52015
Abstract: The road map from Abrahamic order is phenomenologically a trajectory to a world of disorder. Order and disorder in the age of globalization is not hanging on a vacuum but is deeply embedded and historically structured in the creation story which Biblical and Quranic literatures are the main original sources, which the sciences complemented in a most profound theoretical and observational global context though philosophically and phenomenologically empty. The sin and disobedience of the ancient and early Christian and Islamic accounts explain the current human misery and insecurity as episodes or consequences of unnatural actions; a punishment from the unseen hand whose mercy is not reducible to any known planet-earth ruler, but to human nature, intuition and wisdom not found in science and technology.
Invasion of Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl. in Kenya  [PDF]
Josephat Makokha
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.96042
Abstract: Many forest ecosystems in Kenya are at risk from the invasion of exotic plant species that pose numerous threats like decreasing biodiversity, deteriorating ecosystem processes and degrading their services. They also affect human, other animal health and various angles of the general economy. Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl. is a species with invasive reputation having been reported with very high biological success rating and has been noted in parts of Kenya in proportions that raise concerns. It has negative effects on other plants and animal species function and diversity. These impacts have been recorded in Kenya and elsewhere in this review, I synthesized data from studies that have examined the taxonomy of Cestrum aurantiacum, how this species become part of the ecosystem in Kenya and its ecological and economic impacts. I sourced relevant articles from the internet using keywords relating to the taxonomy, impacts and reports of invasive species and narrowed to records from different parts of Kenya. In this review, I looked across twenty-seven studies, on Cestrum aurantiacum in Kenya and went ahead to review one hundred and thirteen other articles for expanded discussion. Species data in published articles from different parts of Kenya were used as georefences to model overall species distribution which was noted to lie between Mt Kenya, Mt Elgon-Nandi hills and Cherangani hills. It was clearly established that there are major adverse effects associated with species. First, it can change native ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycle or hydrology and contribute significant role on the decrease of native species. A primary risk of Cestrum aurantiacum is that when this species alters the biodiversity, ecosystems are transformed into new configurations with unpredictable consequences to humans and other wildlife in totality. Despite the few positive applications of cestrum species, these can’t compensate for the enormous detrimental consequences associated with the species. Cestrum aurantiacum was introduced in Kenya as an ornamental plant in 1921 by the government and was distributed in several regions of high potential Kenya due to high level of hybridization within the genera, several variables of the species occur. By examining the level of information regarding the taxonomy and impacts of Cestrum aurantiacum on animal and plant species, this study provides pivotal information at the country level with a view to informing monitoring and conservation efforts, such as alien plant removal and control programmes, and
Epistemic Investigation into the Problems and Challenges of Philosophy in Nigerian Society  [PDF]
Olisa Raphael Maduabuchi, Eugene Anowai
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.84029
Abstract: This paper sought to examine the problems and challenges of Philosophy in Nigeria. Philosophy is an abstract discipline whose relevance is grossly contested in the world. In Nigeria, philosophy is misconceived as a fruitless academic venture without any practical utility. Nigerian philosophers are facing many problems and challenges in this 21st century. The work recommended that Nigerian philosophers should stand up to their responsibility and confront the challenges bedeviling their disciplines in order to solve the problems of Nigerian society.
John Dewey’s Instrumentalism and Techno-Scientific Development: Its Implications to Man and Society  [PDF]
Raphael Olisa Maduabuchi, Eugene Anowai
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2018.85038
Abstract: This work sought to examine the implications of John Dewey’s instrumentalism on techno-scientific development. Instrumentalism is John Dewey’s aspect of pragmatism. Dewey’s idea of pragmatism is anthropomorphic naturalism. Anthropomorphic naturalism is an argument for a reconsideration of the place of man in the world through some adjustments in the practice of science. In the view of John Dewey, scientific findings have extended the confines of man as an end in itself. Dewey was convinced that there is a gap between the desire to improve man’s wellbeing through scientific discoveries and inventions and the commitment to ensure that these improvements do not consistently threaten the well being of man and his environment. This referred to as abysmal gap between the theory of science which focuses on the wellbeing of man and his environment, and the practice of science which ignores this wellbeing in the long term. Thus, a question deserves our attention: “Do we continue with this ‘pull’ to discover and invent, even to our own detriment while ignoring the evident fact that this ‘pull’, when not monitored by values and principles, portend danger for mankind as fictitiously represented in Frankenstein’s monster?” The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the theory of science which focuses on the wellbeing of man and environment, and the practice of science which ignores this wellbeing in the long term. His idea of anthropomorphic naturalism draws attention to the need to integrate values into the practice of science. This work posits that Dewey’s pragmatic or humanistic naturalism offers a solution to the existing paradox of advancement for self harm or destruction.
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