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Study on Properties of Silver Powder for Maki-e  [PDF]
Chieko Narita, Yutaro Shimode, Kazushi Yamada
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.61001
Abstract: Maki-e is a traditional Japanese decorative technique that uses the natural lacquer Urushi and metal powders. In 2014, there exist only two companies that manufacture silver powder for the purpose of Maki-e, and this study focuses on comparing the powders manufactured by them. Gloss and color of each silver powder were measured after Maki-e decoration was finished, and EDS (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) was used to determine the differences in their chemical composition. In addition, to verify the effect of polishing, residual gloss after sulfuration and polishing was measured. The study revealed that the shapes of the silver powders (Maru-fun, No. 1) manufactured by the two companies are different and it affects the occupancy rate of Urushi and powder, which in turn affects their gloss and color. Wakou silver has a very strong resistance to sulfuration; however, owing to its Pd content, its chroma is much lower than that of other powders. It was shown that sulfuration on powder surface can be removed by polishing irrespective of the shape and chemical composition ratio of the particles.
Study on Characteristics of Gold Powder with Round Shape for Maki-e  [PDF]
Chieko Narita, Yutaro Shimode, Kazushi Yamada
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.610086
Abstract: Maki-e is a traditional Japanese decorative technique that uses the natural lacquer Urushi and metal powders. Currently, there exist only two companies that manufacture metal powder for the purpose of Maki-e, and this research focuses on comparing the material characteristics of the gold powders with round shape manufactured by them. EDS (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis, image analysis of particle shape before and after Maki-e processing, and color analysis of samples after Maki-e processing were carried out in this research. The study revealed that current gold powders with round shape had almost the same content ratio regardless of the manufacturing company and the powder diameter. In addition, spherical shape and irregular shape were observed in any gold powders, and the aggregates were observed in powder with increasing the powder diameter, while the shape of the aggregates differed with manufacturing companies. Therefore, it was indicated that the aggregates in the powder made by Asano Co., Ltd. had an influence on the particle diameter and its deviation after Maki-e processing. Moreover, the powder in Urushi resin has an influence on the Maki-e appearance because there is a color difference in polished powder, powder in Urushi resin, and Urushi resin.
Effect of Different Eggshell Powder on Appearance of Eggshell Maki-e  [PDF]
Yutaro Shimode, Chieko Narita, Atsushi Endo, Kazushi Yamada
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.42016

The Maki-e technique with eggshell powder is one of techniques of Japanese traditional Urushi (Japanese lacquer) crafts. However, this technique is relatively new in the history of Maki-e, and there are no prior researches in terms of materials, structure, and properties. In this research, therefore we have aimed to evaluate the relationship between the eggshell powder sizes, dispersion, and color shade in Maki-e with eggshell powder. The difference between hen’s and quail’s eggshell characteristics and the effect of their powder particle size on appearance of eggshell Maki-e were discussed on the basis of the results of the particle size, circularity, particle number, and RGB value. As a result, it was found that the occupancy of the eggshell powder on the surface depends on not particle number but the particle size, whereas the whiteness of both eggshell powders depends on the particle size.

Study on the Appearance and Peel Strength of Byakudan-Nuri Works  [PDF]
Chieko Narita, Atsushi Endo, Yutaro Shimode, Kazushi Yamada
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2014.52012

This paper focuses on Byakudan-nuri, one of the traditional decoration techniques of Japanese Urushi (Urushi natural lacquer) crafts. Works produced by Byakudan-nuri express a unique luster color owing to painting gold or silver leaves along with highly transparent Urushi. The specific problem of Byakudan-nuri is the exfoliation of Urushi off the metal leaf surface, to solve a lot of repair work which is done nowadays. For Byakudan-nuri, silver leaf is preferred to a gold leaf. This paper tries to clarify the influence of the different kinds of metal leaves on the appearance and peel strength of works of Byakudan-nuri and, moreover, to elucidate the reason why silver leaf has been used more frequently for Byakudan-nuri until now. It was found out that the reason for the more frequent use of silver leaf in Byakudan-nuri is that silver does not seem to affect the appearance and peel strength in works produced by this technique.

Study on the Professional Identity of Japanese Traditional Craftspeople: Through Interviews with Maki-e Craftspeople  [PDF]
Chieko Narita, Yutaro Shimode, Kazushi Yamada, Noriyuki Kida
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2015.54022
Abstract: This study focused on the formation process of the professional identity of Maki-e craftspeople, which is one of the Japanese traditional crafts. This study aimed to clarify the professional identity of Maki-e craftspeople by comparing skilled craftspeople and young craftspeople. The participants were four Maki-e craftspeople held in different positions, and semi-structured interviews about the professional identity were conducted. As a result, the three unchangeable aspects of the professional identity of Maki-e craftspeople were shown through this research. Furthermore, the two professional identities of Maki-e craftspeople over the course of the social changes were shown. The knowledge gained from this study is important to achieve greater understanding of career formation in highly specialized occupation.
Simulation of a Daily Precipitation Time Series Using a Stochastic Model with Filtering  [PDF]
Chieko Gomi, Yasuhisa Kuzuha
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2013.34025
Abstract: After we modified raw data for anomalies, we conducted spectral analysis using the data. In the frequency, the spectrum is best described by a decaying exponential function. For this reason, stochastic models characterized by a spectrum attenuated according to a power law cannot be used to model precipitation anomaly. We introduced a new model, the e-model, which properly reproduces the spectrum of the precipitation anomaly. After using the data to infer the parameter values of the e-model, we used the e-model to generate synthetic daily precipitation time series. Comparison with recorded data shows a good agreement. This e-model resembles fractional Brown motion (fBm)/fractional Lévy motion (fLm), especially the spectral method. That is, we transform white noise Xt to the precipitation daily time series. Our analyses show that the frequency of extreme precipitation events is best described by a Lévy law and cannot be accounted with a Gaussian distribution.
Selective Translation of the Measles Virus Nucleocapsid mRNA by La Protein
Chieko Kai
Frontiers in Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00173
Abstract: Measles, caused by measles virus (MeV) infection, is the leading cause of death in children because of secondary infections attributable to MeV-induced immune suppression. Recently, we have shown that wild-type MeVs induce the suppression of protein synthesis in host cells (referred to as “shutoff”) and that viral mRNAs are preferentially translated under shutoff conditions in infected cells. To determine the mechanism behind the preferential translation of viral mRNA, we focused on the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of nucleocapsid (N) mRNA. The La/SSB autoantigen (La) was found to specifically bind to an N-5′UTR probe. Recombinant La enhanced the translation of luciferase mRNA containing the N-5′UTR (N-fLuc), and RNA interference of La suppressed N-fLuc translation. Furthermore, recombinant MeV lacking the La-binding motif in the N-5′UTR displayed delayed viral protein synthesis and growth kinetics at an early phase of infection. These results suggest that La induced predominant translation of N mRNA via binding to its 5′UTR under shutoff conditions. This is the first report on a cellular factor that specifically regulates paramyxovirus mRNA translation.
Color Barrier Free Displays in Disaster Situations  [PDF]
Kensei Tsuchida, Chieko Kato, Toshiaki Nagshima
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.42005

Concerning color barrier free, there have been many research studies and an increasing interest in it. For example, to expand activities for the promotion of colorblind-friendly designs not only among scientists but also among industrial products and public facilities, the non-profit organization CUDO (Color Universal Design Organization) was established in 2004. However, there has been very little research of this type focusing on disaster situations. From their experiences volunteering in reconstruction support for victims of the 2011 tsunami, the authors came to recognize the importance for both non-colorblind and colorblind people to notice and distinguish emergency escape notifications, cautions and passage maps quickly and accurately. Therefore this research is aimed at the realization of color barrier free displays in disaster situations. Initially, requirements for color barrier free displays in disaster situations were analyzed. Four desirable criteria were derived as a result: “eye-catching”, “instantly-readable”, “unmistakable” and “stable”. In order to evaluate given signs from the viewpoint of the above criteria, evaluation experiment systems for displays in disaster situations were developed. With the evaluation experiment systems it would be possible to design effective signs and maps as color barrier free displays in disaster situations.

Tribological Properties of Metal V-Belt Type CVT Lubricant
Keiichi Narita
Advances in Tribology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/476028
Abstract: The priority for lubricant performance for metal V-belt-type CVT (B-CVTFs) should be the improvement of transmittable torque capacity between the belt and pulley plus excellent antishudder properties for lockup clutch used in B-CVTs. This study intends to investigate the effect of lubricant additives for improving these performances of B-CVTs. In addition, surface analysis techniques were utilized to gain a novel insight into the chemical composites and morphology of the tribofilms. As a result, it is vital for greater torque capacity to give higher boundary friction coefficient between the metal contacting interfaces, and the process of boundary lubricant film formation derived from antiwear additives used in B-CVTFs strongly impacts on the torque capacity. Moreover, it is found that a sort of lubricant formulation gave an excellent antishudder performance for wet clutch with keeping higher friction coefficient between the metals, which would result in improving the performance of B-CVTs. 1. Introduction There are two types of transmissions used in automobiles: automatic and manual. A market share of automatic transmissions referred to as ATs has been over 97% of all transmissions installed in automobiles in Japan [1]. In particular, there is an increasing number of passenger cars that feature continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) because CVTs achieve better fuel economy. Among CVTs, the number of cars with metal push belt-type CVTs (B-CVTs) has steadily increased each year and is currently applied to cars with an engine displacement of more than 3 liters. B-CVT consists of a steel belt made up of about 400 segments and laminated rings, as shown in Figure 1. Power is transmitted by the frictional force generated between the belt and pulley. In order to improve transmission efficiency and spread the application to CVTs to larger cars, belt CVT lubricant oils (B-CVTFs) must produce a higher transmission torque capacity between the belt and pulley. Therefore, the priority for the performance of CVT fluids should be focused on the improvement of torque capacity. Figure 1: Constitution of Belt CVT unit. There are some reports regarding the effects of lubricants on the performance of a CVT [2–4]. For example, the films generated by Zinc dithiophosphate (ZnDTP) additives in the contact regions are known to contribute to achieve a higher metal-metal friction coefficient [2]. The information gained regarding the tribofilms of ZnDTP is helpful when considering the additive reaction from lubricants. ZnDTP tribofilms do not develop in rolling contact or if
Notas de pesquisa de campo em psicologia social
Narita, Stella;
Psicologia & Sociedade , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-71822006000200004
Abstract: this article discusses theoretical and methodological issues related to field research on social psychology. its objective is to contribute to qualitative research, focusing mainly on interview situations and data handling. it relies on pierre bourdieu's class habitus concept to discuss the individual-group-society relationship, a background theoretical-methodological problem, and a fundamental subject to social psychology.
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