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The Maki-e technique with eggshell powder is one of techniques of Japanese traditional Urushi (Japanese lacquer) crafts. However, this technique is relatively new in the history of Maki-e, and there are no prior researches in terms of materials, structure, and properties. In this research, therefore we have aimed to evaluate the relationship between the eggshell powder sizes, dispersion, and color shade in Maki-e with eggshell powder. The difference between hen’s and quail’s eggshell characteristics and the effect of their powder particle size on appearance of eggshell Maki-e were discussed on the basis of the results of the particle size, circularity, particle number, and RGB value. As a result, it was found that the occupancy of the eggshell powder on the surface depends on not particle number but the particle size, whereas the whiteness of both eggshell powders depends on the particle size.
This paper focuses on Byakudan-nuri, one of the traditional decoration techniques of Japanese Urushi (Urushi natural lacquer) crafts. Works produced by Byakudan-nuri express a unique luster color owing to painting gold or silver leaves along with highly transparent Urushi. The specific problem of Byakudan-nuri is the exfoliation of Urushi off the metal leaf surface, to solve a lot of repair work which is done nowadays. For Byakudan-nuri, silver leaf is preferred to a gold leaf. This paper tries to clarify the influence of the different kinds of metal leaves on the appearance and peel strength of works of Byakudan-nuri and, moreover, to elucidate the reason why silver leaf has been used more frequently for Byakudan-nuri until now. It was found out that the reason for the more frequent use of silver leaf in Byakudan-nuri is that silver does not seem to affect the appearance and peel strength in works produced by this technique.
Concerning color barrier free,
there have been many research studies and an increasing interest in it. For
example, to expand activities for the promotion of colorblind-friendly designs
not only among scientists but also among industrial products and public
facilities, the non-profit organization CUDO (Color Universal Design
Organization) was established in 2004. However, there has been very little
research of this type focusing on disaster situations. From their experiences volunteering
in reconstruction support for victims of the 2011 tsunami, the authors came to
recognize the importance for both non-colorblind and colorblind people to
notice and distinguish emergency escape notifications, cautions and passage
maps quickly and accurately. Therefore this research is aimed at the
realization of color barrier free displays in disaster situations. Initially,
requirements for color barrier free displays in disaster situations were
analyzed. Four desirable criteria were derived as a result: “eye-catching”,
“instantly-readable”, “unmistakable” and “stable”. In order to evaluate given
signs from the viewpoint of the above criteria, evaluation experiment systems
for displays in disaster situations were developed. With the evaluation
experiment systems it would be possible to design effective signs and maps as
color barrier free displays in disaster situations.