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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 551 matches for " Chieko Hamada "
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Transperitoneal Calcium Balance in Anuric Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis and Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Chieko Hamada,Yasuhiko Tomino
International Journal of Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/863791
Abstract: Backgrounds. Calcium (Ca) and bone metabolism in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients show a remarkable difference depending on dialysis modalities. The levels of serum Ca and phosphate (P) in HD patients fluctuate contributing to the intermittent and rapid removal of plasma solute unlike in CAPD. Characteristics of plasma solute transport in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients are resembled with that in HD. The purpose of the present study was to examine the difference of transperitoneal Ca removal between APD and CAPD anuric patients. Subjects and Methods. Twenty-three APD anuric patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical parameters responsible for transperitoneal Ca removal in 24-hour and 4-hour peritoneal effluents were analyzed on CAPD and APD. Results. Transperitoneal Ca removal on APD was smaller compared with that on CAPD. The Ca removal was related to the ultrafiltration during short-time dwell. Decrease of the Ca removal during NPD induced by short-time dialysate dwell caused negative or small Ca removal in APD patients. The levels of intact PTH were increased at the end of PET. Conclusion. It appears that short-time dwell and frequent dialysate exchanging might suppress the transperitoneal Ca removal in anuric APD patients. 1. Introduction Bone disease is one of the serious complications in chronic dialysis patients. Adynamic bone disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism are associated with not only viability and quality of life (QOL) but also mortality in long-term dialysis patients. It is generally considered that Ca and bone metabolism between peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients provided remarkable differences according to dialysis modalities. Hemodialysis patients undergo rapid and intermittent removal of phosphate, uremic toxins and excess body fluid from sera, and influx or efflux of Ca influent in such metabolism [1–3]. Higher serum Ca levels and continuous glucose loading occur, which may lead to a higher incidence of adynamic bone in CAPD patients compared with that in HD patients [4, 5]. Patients with very low parathyroid hormone (PTH) level had a higher mortality rate after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and dialysis vintage [6]. The turnover of bone remodeling in PD patients is lower than that in HD patients [4, 5]. Using 3.5?mEq/L Ca dialysate in HD, Ca removal demonstrated a negative balance [7, 8]. It is recognized that Ca mass transport in CAPD patients depends on the following factors: Ca concentration in the dialysis fluid, starting plasma
Usefulness of Change in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate as a Predicting Factor of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease
Kunimi Maeda,Chieko Hamada,Satoshi Horikoshi,Yasuhiko Tomino
ISRN Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/351364
Abstract: Purpose. To explore factors contributing to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and change in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time (ΔeGFR) as a risk factor in predialysis patients under multidisciplinary managements. Methods. Among 113 CKD patients, eGFR, serum creatinine, total protein, albumin, urea nitrogen, uric acid, calcium, inorganic phosphate, total cholesterol, urinary creatinine, urinary protein (UP), hemoglobin A1c, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were analyzed. Results. ΔeGFR analysis in the first six months presented a positive slope (remission group) in 43 patients (38%) and a negative slope (no-remission group) in 70 patients (62%). Three-year dialysis-free rate was 89.4% in the remission group and 39.3% in the no-remission group, with a significant difference ( ). To explore factors contributing to dialysis initiation by stepwise Cox regression, baseline eGFR (HR 0.706, ) and ΔeGFR in the first six months of treatment (HR 0.075, ) were identified. To investigate factors affecting remission and no remission by stepwise logistic regression, age (odds ratio 1.06, ) and UP excretion (odds ratio 1.223, ) were identified. Conclusion. Monitoring of ΔeGFR and UP is not only useful in suppressing CKD 3 progression, but also in deciding strategies to achieve remission in individual patients. 1. Introduction In Japan, the number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) shows a trend of annual increase and has reached 13.3 million as estimated by the Japanese Society of Nephrology. In other words, 1 in 9 adults is affected by CKD, showing a great impact of this disease on the population. In addition, the number of patients initiated on dialysis therapy continues to increase at a rate of 10,000 a year, reaching approximately 280,000 at the end of 2009 and has become an important medicoeconomic and social issue [1]. The Japanese Society of Nephrology tackled the establishment of standard treatment and dissemination of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for the Japanese, which form the basis of CKD guidelines, and published the Clinical Practice Guidebook for Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease 2009 [2]. However, the current therapies cannot be regarded as optimal, and further studies of multidisciplinary treatment incorporating various modalities are required. With the previous background, further promotion of the use of eGFR as a simple indicator of the disease condition and practice of treatment based on evidence obtained from clinical studies are necessary. To investigate the relationship between the change in
Simulation of a Daily Precipitation Time Series Using a Stochastic Model with Filtering  [PDF]
Chieko Gomi, Yasuhisa Kuzuha
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2013.34025
Abstract: After we modified raw data for anomalies, we conducted spectral analysis using the data. In the frequency, the spectrum is best described by a decaying exponential function. For this reason, stochastic models characterized by a spectrum attenuated according to a power law cannot be used to model precipitation anomaly. We introduced a new model, the e-model, which properly reproduces the spectrum of the precipitation anomaly. After using the data to infer the parameter values of the e-model, we used the e-model to generate synthetic daily precipitation time series. Comparison with recorded data shows a good agreement. This e-model resembles fractional Brown motion (fBm)/fractional Lévy motion (fLm), especially the spectral method. That is, we transform white noise Xt to the precipitation daily time series. Our analyses show that the frequency of extreme precipitation events is best described by a Lévy law and cannot be accounted with a Gaussian distribution.
Selective Translation of the Measles Virus Nucleocapsid mRNA by La Protein
Chieko Kai
Frontiers in Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00173
Abstract: Measles, caused by measles virus (MeV) infection, is the leading cause of death in children because of secondary infections attributable to MeV-induced immune suppression. Recently, we have shown that wild-type MeVs induce the suppression of protein synthesis in host cells (referred to as “shutoff”) and that viral mRNAs are preferentially translated under shutoff conditions in infected cells. To determine the mechanism behind the preferential translation of viral mRNA, we focused on the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of nucleocapsid (N) mRNA. The La/SSB autoantigen (La) was found to specifically bind to an N-5′UTR probe. Recombinant La enhanced the translation of luciferase mRNA containing the N-5′UTR (N-fLuc), and RNA interference of La suppressed N-fLuc translation. Furthermore, recombinant MeV lacking the La-binding motif in the N-5′UTR displayed delayed viral protein synthesis and growth kinetics at an early phase of infection. These results suggest that La induced predominant translation of N mRNA via binding to its 5′UTR under shutoff conditions. This is the first report on a cellular factor that specifically regulates paramyxovirus mRNA translation.
Study on Properties of Silver Powder for Maki-e  [PDF]
Chieko Narita, Yutaro Shimode, Kazushi Yamada
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.61001
Abstract: Maki-e is a traditional Japanese decorative technique that uses the natural lacquer Urushi and metal powders. In 2014, there exist only two companies that manufacture silver powder for the purpose of Maki-e, and this study focuses on comparing the powders manufactured by them. Gloss and color of each silver powder were measured after Maki-e decoration was finished, and EDS (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) was used to determine the differences in their chemical composition. In addition, to verify the effect of polishing, residual gloss after sulfuration and polishing was measured. The study revealed that the shapes of the silver powders (Maru-fun, No. 1) manufactured by the two companies are different and it affects the occupancy rate of Urushi and powder, which in turn affects their gloss and color. Wakou silver has a very strong resistance to sulfuration; however, owing to its Pd content, its chroma is much lower than that of other powders. It was shown that sulfuration on powder surface can be removed by polishing irrespective of the shape and chemical composition ratio of the particles.
Study on Characteristics of Gold Powder with Round Shape for Maki-e  [PDF]
Chieko Narita, Yutaro Shimode, Kazushi Yamada
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.610086
Abstract: Maki-e is a traditional Japanese decorative technique that uses the natural lacquer Urushi and metal powders. Currently, there exist only two companies that manufacture metal powder for the purpose of Maki-e, and this research focuses on comparing the material characteristics of the gold powders with round shape manufactured by them. EDS (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis, image analysis of particle shape before and after Maki-e processing, and color analysis of samples after Maki-e processing were carried out in this research. The study revealed that current gold powders with round shape had almost the same content ratio regardless of the manufacturing company and the powder diameter. In addition, spherical shape and irregular shape were observed in any gold powders, and the aggregates were observed in powder with increasing the powder diameter, while the shape of the aggregates differed with manufacturing companies. Therefore, it was indicated that the aggregates in the powder made by Asano Co., Ltd. had an influence on the particle diameter and its deviation after Maki-e processing. Moreover, the powder in Urushi resin has an influence on the Maki-e appearance because there is a color difference in polished powder, powder in Urushi resin, and Urushi resin.
Color Barrier Free Displays in Disaster Situations  [PDF]
Kensei Tsuchida, Chieko Kato, Toshiaki Nagshima
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.42005

Concerning color barrier free, there have been many research studies and an increasing interest in it. For example, to expand activities for the promotion of colorblind-friendly designs not only among scientists but also among industrial products and public facilities, the non-profit organization CUDO (Color Universal Design Organization) was established in 2004. However, there has been very little research of this type focusing on disaster situations. From their experiences volunteering in reconstruction support for victims of the 2011 tsunami, the authors came to recognize the importance for both non-colorblind and colorblind people to notice and distinguish emergency escape notifications, cautions and passage maps quickly and accurately. Therefore this research is aimed at the realization of color barrier free displays in disaster situations. Initially, requirements for color barrier free displays in disaster situations were analyzed. Four desirable criteria were derived as a result: “eye-catching”, “instantly-readable”, “unmistakable” and “stable”. In order to evaluate given signs from the viewpoint of the above criteria, evaluation experiment systems for displays in disaster situations were developed. With the evaluation experiment systems it would be possible to design effective signs and maps as color barrier free displays in disaster situations.

Phenomenological and Semi-microscopic Analysis for the Elastic Scattering of Protons from 12C Nuclei at Different Energies  [PDF]
Sh. Hamada, N. Amangeldi
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.45B013

Analysis of the elastic scattering of protons from 12C nuclei had been performed within the framework of both the optical model and single folding model at different proton energies; 17, 30.3, 40, 49.48 and 61.4 MeV. We have obtained the global potential parameters which could fairly reproduce the experimental data for p+12C elastic scattering at the aforementioned energies. The radial and energy dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the potential were calculated. Good agreement between experimental data and theoretical predictions in the whole angular range was obtained using both phenomenological approach (Optical Model), and semi-microscopic approach (Single Folding). In single folding calculations, the real part of the potential was calculated from a more fundamental basis by the folding method in which the NN interaction VNN(r), is folded into the density of the target nuclei and supplemented with a phenomenological imaginary potential. The obtained normalization factor Nr is in the range of 0.75 - 0.9.

Review Article: Multicarrier Communication for Underwater Acoustic Channel  [PDF]
Hamada Esmaiel, Danchi Jiang
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2013.68039

In past decades, there has been a growing interest in the discussion and study of using underwater acoustic channel as the physical layer for communication systems, ranging from point-to-point communications to underwater multicarrier modulation networks. A series of review papers were already available to provide a history of the development of the field until the end of the last decade. In this paper, we attempt to provide an overview of the key developments, both theoretical and applied, in the particular topics regarding multicarrier communication for underwater acoustic communication such as the channel and Doppler shift estimation, video and image transmission throw multicarrier techniques, etc. This paper also includes acoustic propagation properties in seawater and underwater acoustic channel representation.

Refractive Features and Diffraction Scattering Patterns Observed in the Elastic Scattering of 12C from 12C at Various Energies  [PDF]
Sh. Hamada, N. Burtebayev
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.46114

We have measured the angular distributions for 12C ion beam elastically scattered from 12C target of thickness 17.4 μg/cm2 at energies 15, 18 and 21 MeV which is close to the Coulomb barrier energy for 12C + 12C nuclear system. The elastic scattering of 12C beam on 12C was analysed also at different energies (139.5, 158.8, 180, 240, 288.6, 300, 360 and 420 MeV) from literature in order to obtain the global optical potential parameters, which could fairly reproduce the experimental data. The experimental results were analysed within the framework of both the optical model and the double folding potential obtained with different density-dependent NN interactions which give the corresponding values of the nuclear incompressibility K in the Hartree-Fock calculation of nuclear matter. The agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions in the whole angular range is fairly good.

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