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This study was carried out to determine the concentration of Cd, and Pb in the tissues of thigh, breast, liver, heart, gizzard, neck and skin of chicken. All samples were collected in the summer of 2004 from three different commercial farms of chickens production located in different areas of EL-Jabal Alakhder region at Libya country (Gernada, EL-Abrak and Sousa). For comparison, the metals were also determined in the same tissues of the chickens which produced in the national station of poultry production at EL-Akhoria city. The metals in the chickens feed and in water for both drinking and cleaning inside the slaughter house were also determined. The results revealed that the highest concentrations of Cd were found in neck, liver and heart while the neck and skin tissues contained the highest level of Pb. However, the tissues of thigh and breast flesh had the lowest level of metals. The levels of Cd in the different tissues ranged from 0.008 to 0.227 ppm and from 0.093 to 2.391 ppm for Pb. The results revealed that the levels of Cd in neck from all farms, liver from both EL-Akhoria and Gernada farms. Levels of Pb in the neck and skin from all farms were exceeding the permitted limits according to some European regulations. The results also indicate that the high concentrations of Cd in some tissues were due to the effect of high levels of these metals in the feed of birds. However the drinking and cleaning water had no effects on the level of the metals in the different tissues.
A laboratory incubation experiment of 60 days was
carried out to observe the changes of soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC),
soil organic carbon (SOC), and potassium chloride extractable nitrogen () in a soil to which three animal manures viz. cow dung (CD), chicken manure (CM)
and a combination of CD and CM had been applied at a rate of 10 t·ha－1.
The effects of manures varied with manure type and incubation period. Soil pH
slightly increased with the incubation period up to 30 days there after it
declined with time significantly (p < 0.05). There was a
significant (p < 0.05) increase in EC as days of incubation increased. Organic carbon
contents of manure treated soils reached its peak at 15 days of incubation and
decreased thereafter with time. The content of increased
significantly (p < 0.05) as incubation period increased in control and cow dung amended
soils whereas there was no significant difference in contents when
either chicken manure alone or cow
dung and chicken manure mixed in combination. After 60 days of incubation, the highest amount of was found in
cow dung plus chicken manure treated soil followed by chicken manure treatment.
RTE Pineapple chicken curry, a traditional Kerala recipe, was prepared and standardized by using de-boned broiler meat chunks, pineapple and spices. The product having both meat and gravy (1:1.9) was packed in polyethylene pouches and stored at -18℃± 2℃for 6 months. During frozen storage, the free fatty acid (FFA) values were 0.28 - 0.46 (as percentage oleic acid) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were 1.68 - 2.45 (mg of malonaldehyde/Kg of sample) increased in both meat and gravy. Meat and gravy pH were in the range of 5.5 to 6. Marginal decrease in shear force values (43.4 - 39.6 N) were also observed. During storage the SPC was found to be decreasing over period of storage (100, 40, 20, <10 respectively). Psychrophiles were within acceptable limit and pathogens were absent. Microbiological data showed that the product was microbiologically safe. The sensory score indicated that the RTE pineapple chicken curry is acceptable after storage at -18℃± 2℃for 6 months.
Hydrothermal process has been applied for effective production of Hydrogen from biowastes. In this study hydrothermal process for production of valuable Hydroxylapatitefrom chicken manure containing phosphorus was focused on. Conditions of 400?C and 26 - 27 MPa with addition of 1 mmol Ca(OH)2 were determined as the optimal by using O-phospho-DL-serine as a model compound. Afterwards, the real biowaste containing phosphorous, chicken manure was processed under the same conditions. Formation of a Hydroxylapatite; in the solid residue was confirmed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, after purification. It was found that 27.9% of P in the chicken manure was converted to Hydroxylapatite. With the use of acetic acid as a chemical purification medium, Hydroxylapatite was obtained.
Quality poultry meat depends upon the feed and as such there are many commercially available feeds. However, their composition and standard by and large throughout the year may not remain same due to obvious reasons. Moreover, there is no mention of locally produced feed particularly in the north eastern part of India. The major objective of this study was to prepare mesh feed E1 with the available ingredients as well as their effect were compared with that of the two commercially available feed Amrit and Godrej (E2 and E3) in terms of Crude protein, fats and element composition. The findings showed that the protein content (240 g/kg) and fats (105 g/kg) in the breast muscle of female was higher in the E3 received against the broiler chicken received local feed. Element analysis of the E1, E2 and E3 depicted significantly higher value of Ca, K, Cu Zn and Se against the commercial feed. Other elements like Mg, Na, Fe, P, and Mn showed no variation while compared E1, E2 and E3 together. Thus the present findings suggest that the local feed E1 could be accepted at per with that of the commercial feed for poultry.
is widely applied in animal manure treatment and reclamation. The degradation
of organic pollutants during the composting treatment is attributed to two
parallel processes: one is the bioprocess induced by the used microorganisms,
and the other is the chemical process. In order to clarify the relative
contribution of the chemical process to the compositing, in this paper,
oxytetracycline (OTC) was chosen to study the degradation of tetracyclines (TCs)
in water and chicken manure. It was observed that the degradation of OTC in
water was much faster than that in chicken mature. At 40°C, 95% of OTC in water
could be removed in two days, while it took about one month in mature. By
increasing the temperature to 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, the required degradation
time (with the degradation efficiency more than 95%) was shortened to 22, 13
and 9 days, respectively. This difference was caused by desorption hysteresis
and irreversible fixation due to the formation of complexes of OTC with
co-existed metal ions in the matrix. It was found that the coexisted Ca2+,
Zn2+ and Ni2+ ions decreased the degradation of OTC,
whereas Cu2+ ions promoted the degradation of OTC.