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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 44384 matches for " Cheng-Chang Lien "
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Slight free falling impact test for assessing guava maturity  [PDF]
Cheng-Chang Lien, Ching-Hua Ting
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.45B004

A non-destructive method for assessing the maturity of guava was developed based on the mechanical properties of the fruit under the slight falling impact test. The levels of maturity were classified with cluster and discriminant analyses on the primitive impact measurements and their derivatives. The accuracy of classification was improved with linear discriminant analysis and the number of indices being processed was reduced with stepwise regression analysis. The accuracy of classification is 84.21%. The performance shows that slight falling impact together with linear discriminant analysis provides a promising non-destructive approach in assessing the maturity of guavas.

Characterising the Progress of Gelation in Tofu Making with Ohmic Heating  [PDF]
Cheng-Chang Lien, Ching-Hua Ting
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2015.42B001

In tofu making by heat treatment, the addition of coagulant ionizes the proteins as a result of heat dissolution and the ionized proteins aggregate with the coagulant to form protein clusters. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the soya milk emulsion varies in response to the progress of gelation. By ohmic heating, the applied current and voltage directly indicate the electrical conductivity of the soya milk emulsion and then indirectly the progress of tofu gelation. In this paper, ultrasonic measurement is adopted to explore the feasibility of using EC as an indicator of tofu gelation. Experiments showed a strong correlation between EC and ultrasonic measurement in characterisation of tofu gelation.

Fast Forgery Detection with the Intrinsic Resampling Properties  [PDF]
Cheng-Chang Lien, Cheng-Lun Shih, Chih-Hsun Chou
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2010.11002
Abstract: With the rapid progress of the image processing software, the image forgery can leave no visual clues on the tampered regions and make us unable to authenticate the image. In general, the image forgery technologies often utilizes the scaling, rotation or skewing operations to tamper some regions in the image, in which the resampling and interpolation processes are often demanded. By observing the detectable periodic distribution properties generated from the resampling and interpolation processes, we propose a novel method based on the intrinsic properties of resampling scheme to detect the tampered regions. The proposed method applies the pre-calculated resampling weighting table to detect the periodic properties of prediction error distribution. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy.
Ohmic Heating for Tofu Making—A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Cheng-Chang Lien, Yu-Chieh Shen, Ching-Hua Ting
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.32B002

The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between temperature and electrical conductivity of soya milk under ohmic heating in tofu making. The soya milk of 10 Brix was heated to a steady temperature of 90?C. The applied voltage was increased and the temperature rising rate was investigated for adequate heating profiles in tofu making. Experimental results showed that the electrical conductivity of soya milk is proportional to the heating time. The temperature rising rate was increased from 1.46?C to 3.82?C/min as a result of increased voltage. Hence ohmic heating could be an efficient, convenient heating measure in tofu making.

Water Scrubbing for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Inbiogas from Hog Farms  [PDF]
Cheng-Chang Lien, Jeng-Lian Lin, Ching-Hua Ting
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.32B001

Biogas from anaerobic digestion of biological wastes is a renewable energy resource. H2S in biogas may cause corrosion or other damage to engines if it is not removed from the gas before utilization. Because the solubility of H2S in water is higher than methane, water can be used as an adsorbent to remove H2S from biogas. A simple water scrubbing column to reduce the H2S content was designed in this study. The biogas purification process took place in the scrubbing column with water where the gas was continuously fed from the bottom of the column through the diffuser which could produce bubbles. The biogas bubbles and the water can accelerate the reaction inside the column. The water in the column was circulated by means of a pump. H2S content in raw biogas was about 6000 ppm. First, the efficiencies of H2S removal for different biogas flow rate and water level were conducted at 30 and 90 sec. Second, the efficiencies of H2S removal with water recycling system were induced. The results showed that the concentration of H2S in biogas decreased significantly with water level and increased with biogas flow rate through the water scrubbing. It was an effective technique for removing H2S in a short operation time, but absorption capability of water declined rapidly with time. To maintain high absorption rate, water scrubbing after adsorption needed to be replaced or regenerated. The water scrubbing system is a simplest and cheapest method. This work is investigated the feasibility of water scrubbing system and its application to a small hog farm.

High-Density Expression of Ca2+-Permeable ASIC1a Channels in NG2 Glia of Rat Hippocampus
Yen-Chu Lin,Yu-Chao Liu,Yu-Yin Huang,Cheng-Chang Lien
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012665
Abstract: NG2 cells, a fourth type of glial cell in the mammalian CNS, undergo reactive changes in response to a wide variety of brain insults. Recent studies have demonstrated that neuronally expressed acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are implicated in various neurological disorders including brain ischemia and seizures. Acidosis is a common feature of acute neurological conditions. It is postulated that a drop in pH may be the link between the pathological process and activation of NG2 cells. Such postulate immediately prompts the following questions: Do NG2 cells express ASICs? If so, what are their functional properties and subunit composition? Here, using a combination of electrophysiology, Ca2+ imaging and immunocytochemistry, we present evidence to demonstrate that NG2 cells of the rat hippocampus express high density of Ca2+-permeable ASIC1a channels compared with several types of hippocampal neurons. First, nucleated patch recordings from NG2 cells revealed high density of proton-activated currents. The magnitude of proton-activated current was pH dependent, with a pH for half-maximal activation of 6.3. Second, the current-voltage relationship showed a reversal close to the equilibrium potential for Na+. Third, psalmotoxin 1, a blocker specific for the ASIC1a channel, largely inhibited proton-activated currents. Fourth, Ca2+ imaging showed that activation of proton-activated channels led to an increase of [Ca2+]i. Finally, immunocytochemistry showed co-localization of ASIC1a and NG2 proteins in the hippocampus. Thus the acid chemosensor, the ASIC1a channel, may serve for inducing membrane depolarization and Ca2+ influx, thereby playing a crucial role in the NG2 cell response to injury following ischemia.
Formation of Meat like Flavor
Cheng-Chang Lin
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Maillard reaction was evaluated the capable procession for producing the meat like flavor using for vegetarianism food. Yeast extract powder was used the basement mixing with cysteine and methionine to reflux react with glucose at 80°C for 2 h. The proper reaction parameters to form meat like flavor were pH concentration of the reagents 0.3 M.
Cell Type-Specific Dependency on the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway for the Endogenous Epo and VEGF Induction by Baicalein in Neurons versus Astrocytes
Yu-Yo Sun, Shang-Hsuan Lin, Hung-Cheng Lin, Chia-Chi Hung, Chen-Yu Wang, Yen-Chu Lin, Kuo-Sheng Hung, Cheng-Chang Lien, Chia-Yi Kuan, Yi-Hsuan Lee
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069019
Abstract: The neuroprotective effect of baicalein is generally attributed to inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) and suppression of oxidative stress, but recent studies showed that baicalein also activates hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF1α) through inhibition of prolyl hydrolase 2 (PHD2) and activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Yet, the significance and regulation of prosurvival cytokines erythropoietin (Epo) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), two transcriptional targets of HIF1α, in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in neurons and astrocytes remains unknown. Here we investigated the causal relationship between the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and Epo/VEGF expression in baicalein-mediated neuroprotection in primary rat cortical neurons and astrocytes. Our results show that baicalein induced Epo and VEGF expression in a HIF1α- and PI3K/Akt-dependent manner in neurons. Baicalein also protected neurons against excitotoxicity in a PI3K- and Epo/VEGF-dependent manner without affecting neuronal excitability. In contrast, at least a 10-fold higher concentration of baicalein was needed to induce Epo/VEGF production and PI3K/Akt activity in astrocytes for protection of neurons. Moreover, only baicalein-induced astrocytic VEGF, but not Epo expression requires HIF1α, while PI3K/Akt signaling had little role in baicalein-induced astrocytic Epo/VEGF expression. These results suggest distinct mechanisms of baicalein-mediated Epo/VEGF production in neurons and astrocytes for neuroprotection, and provide new insights into the mechanisms and potential of baicalein in treating brain injury in vivo.
Students' Attitude in a Web-enhanced Hybrid Course: A Structural Equation Modeling Inquiry
Cheng-Chang Sam Pan,Stephen Sivo,James Brophy
Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The present study focuses on five latent factors affecting students use of WebCT in a Web-enhanced hybrid undergraduate course at a southeastern university in the United States. An online questionnaire is used to measure a hypothetic model composed of two exogenous variables (i.e., subjective norm and computer self-efficacy), three endogenous variables (i.e., perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude toward WebCT use), one dependent variable (i.e., actual system use), and eleven demographic items. PROC CALIS is used to analyze the data collected. Results suggest the technology acceptance model may not be applicable to the higher education setting. However, student attitude toward WebCT instruction remains a significant determinant to WebCT use on a non-voluntary basis. Educational achievement (i.e., student final grades) is regressed on the attitude factor as an outcome variable.Suggestions for practitioners and researchers in the field are mentioned.
Temporal Cross-lagged Effects Between Subjective Norms and Students’Attitudes Regarding the use of Technology
Stephen A. Sivo,Cheng-Chang Sam Pan,James Broophy
Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The present study concentrated on the interplay of subjective norms and attitudes towards WebCT over time in a U.S. higher education setting. Panel data collected on three occasions over the course of a semester were investigated in a Web-enhanced hybrid undergraduate psychology course, using a crosslagged and autoregressive model. Results suggested: 1. the degree to which students report deferring to their professor s expectations and peer opinions (subjective norms) influences the degree to which they, on future occasions, report deferring to their professor s expectations and peer opinions; 2. students attitudes towards using WebCT influence their attitudes assessed on immediately following occasions, but only those attitudes assessed immediately afterwards; 3. the degree to which students report deferring to professorial expectations and peer opinions (subjective norms) influences contemporaneously measured attitudes toward WebCT use; 4. student attitudes regarding WebCT use actually influence how students on a later occasion report their degree of deference to professorial expectations and peer opinions (subjective norms). Further research was suggested.
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