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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 104842 matches for " Chen-How Huang "
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Measuring the second order correlation function and the coherence time using random phase modulation
Chen-How Huang,Yung-Hsiang Wen,Yi-Wei Liu
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A new approach to measure the second order correlation function $g^{(2)}$ and the coherence time was investigated. The $g^{(2)}$ was calculated from the photon pair time interval distribution by direct numerical self-convolution with the high order correction. The accuracy of this method was examined using an optical fiber based Hanbury-Brown-Twiss interferometer with a pseudo-thermal light source. We found that the significance of the high order correction is related to the factor $\bar{I}\tau_{c}$, which is the overlapping of the photon wave packets. A novel technique was also demonstrated to measure the coherence time $\tau_c$ of a light source using the random phase modulation. In comparison with the conventional self-heterodyne detection, this method is more suitable for a weak light source with a long coherence time.
The Effects of Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Sheet Resistance and Transmittance in Poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonate) Films
Teen-Hang Meen,Kan-Lin Chen,Yu-Hao Chen,Wen-Ray Chen,Dei-Wei Chou,Wen-How Lan,Chien-Jung Huang
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/843410
Abstract: The conductivity of poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) films by adding various molar concentrations of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was improved and studied in this paper. The sheet resistance of the doped PEDOT: PSS film was enhanced with increasing the ratio of H2SO4, but it drops after the maximum sheet resistance. The reason for this phenomenon is resulting from the fact that the H2SO4 preferentially react with the sorbitol which is so-called the pinacol rearrangement. The nonconductive anions of some PSS? were substituted by the conductive anions of hydrogen sulfate (HS ) when the residual H2SO4 reacted with PSS. In addition to the substitution reaction, PEDOT chains were increasingly aggregated with increasing the ratio of H2SO4. After doped H2SO4, the sheet resistance of H2SO4-doped PEDOT: PSS film is improved nearly 36%; the surface roughness is reduced from 1.268?nm to 0.822?nm and the transmittance is up to 91.9% in the visible wavelength range from 400 to 700?nm. 1. Introduction The poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) is a conductive polymer blend, which mainly consisted of two substances, PEDOT and PSS. The PEDOT is a polymer of the 3,4-thylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), which is insoluble in water. The solubility of the PEDOT increased through being combined with the PSS. Therefore, the PEDOT: PSS becomes easier to use. The PEDOT: PSS was widely applicated to electronic devices such as organic solar cells, actuators, capacitors, organic light-emitting devices, and sensors [1–3]. One of the fundamental requirements for operation of all organic optoelectronic devices is a stable anode interface. Indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely used for organic optoelectronic devices due to its high optical transparency and high conductivity. However, the work function of ITO is low. The most common way is to be coated with a buffer layer on the top of ITO surface. The buffer layer can export the carriers more efficiently. Among these buffer layers, the PEDOT: PSS is superior to other materials due to its structural stability, optical transparency, and process ability. The PEDOT: PSS as the buffer layer not only increases the work function of the ITO but also planarizes the surface of ITO substrate. The insufficient conductivity of the PEDOT: PSS is a restriction for application in optoelectronic devices, although the PEDOT: PSS has the above advantages. Therefore, the topic of enhancement on conductivity of the PEDOT: PSS was studied by many researchers. The research of the PEDOT: PSS indicates
The Investigation on Color Purity of Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (BOLED) by Hole-Blocking Layer
Kan-Lin Chen,Chien-Jung Huang,Wen-Ray Chen,Chih-Chieh Kang,Wen-How Lan,Yu-Chen Lee
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/878537
Abstract: Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with triple hole-blocking layer (THBL) structure, which consist of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP), 4,4′-bis(2,2′diphenyl vinil)-1,1′-biphenyl (DPVBi), and (4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazole)biphenyl (CBP), have been fabricated. Regardless of applied voltage variation, the luminous efficiency of the OLEDs with THBL structure was increased by 41% as compared with the dual hole-blocking layer (DHBL) structure. The CIE coordinates of (0.157, 0.111) of device with THBL structure are close to pure blue emission than that of other devices of DHBL. There is a coordinate with the slight shift of = (0.001, 0.008) for the device with THBL structure during the applied voltage of 6–9?V. The results indicate that the excitons can be effectively confined in the emitting layer of device, leading to an enhancement of luminance efficiency and more stable coordinate. 1. Introduction Recently, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted much attention due to their superior characteristics such as high luminance, wide range of colors, and wide viewing angles. OLEDs have been regarded as the next generation display technology. Many approaches have been tried to realize full-color displays [1], and it requires three basic emitting colors, red, green, and blue. However, the blue OLEDs still have inherent problems of low efficiency, poor color purity, and short lifetime in comparison with other red or green OLEDs [2]. It is important to keep the color stability with applied voltage in the blue OLEDs. So far, there is still a distance to achieve standard Commission International de L’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates (0.14, 0.08) of blue OLEDs. Generally, there are many structures of emitting layer to obtain blue OLEDs, such as single emitting layer, double emitting layer, blue guest doped layer, or multiple-quantum-well (MQW) layer [3–12]. Shi et al. utilized MQW structure of [4,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl (NPB)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) that makes hole-electron balance in emitting layer, resulting in the CIE coordinates of (0.1747, 0.1059) [11]. Bang et al. used 4,4′-bis(2,2′diphenyl vinil)-1,1′-biphenyl (DPVBi) and tris-8-hydroxy-quinoline aluminum (Alq3) as double emitting layer, leading to CIE coordinates of (0.150, 0.137) at 11?V [2]. However, the CIE coordinates are not stable by using the above structure or method, resulting from the shift of the excitons recombination zone. In this study, we improved the color purity of OLEDs by using structure of triple-hole blocking layer
Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of soft palate with cavernous sinus invasion
Hsuan-Ho Chen, Li-Yu Lee, Shy-Chyi Chin, I-How Chen, Chun-Ta Liao, Shiang-Fu Huang
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-8-24
Abstract: A 60-year-old male had a 3-month history of a small soft palatal mass with progressing left cheek numbness, proptosis, and disturbed vision. Biopsy of soft palatal tumor showed pleomorphic adenoma. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor involving left maxilla, and extended from pterygopalatine fossa, inferior orbital fissure to CS. Excision of tumor revealed CXPA. Adjuvant concomitant chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) was given. The tumor recurred 5 months later in left CS which was re-treated with CCRT. The disease status was stable at 2 years after the diagnosis of CXPA.We present this case to emphasize that patients with symptoms such as facial numbness, proptosis and disturbed vision should be carefully investigated for lesions invading CS by perineural spread.Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare, aggressive, poorly understood malignancy that usually develops in a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA) [1]. The pathogenesis has not been well understood. CXPA accounts for 3.6% of all salivary neoplasms and for 11.7% of salivary malignancies [2]. Less than 7% of the cases occur in the palatal minor salivary glands [3]. Misdiagnosis is not uncommon because the carcinoma may represent various subtypes in the residual PA on microscopic examination [1]. Imaging study of CXPA usually presents as non-specific characteristics [4]. We describe a 60-year-old male diagnosed as a CXPA of the soft palate with direct cavernous sinus (CS) invasion. The initial presentations of his disease were left cheek numbness, proptosis and blurred vision which were rarely reported in the literature [5].A 60-year-old male visited our hospital for left cheek numbness for 3 months. A painless soft palatal mass was noticed and became more prominent recently (Figure 1). Physical examinations of the head and neck revealed an area of numbness in the distribution of 2nd division of trigeminal nerve, proptosis, and disturbed visual acuity at the level of counting fingers. He als
Long-term survival and prognostic implications of Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease after coronary artery bypass grafting  [PDF]
Ming C Hsiung, Tao-Hsin Tung, Chung-Yi Chang, Yi-Cheng Chuang, Kuo-Chen Lee, Sung-How Sue, Yi-Pen Chou, Richard Hsiung, Chien-Ming Huang, Chang-Chyi Lin, Wei-Hsian Yin, Mason S Young, Jeng Wei
Health (Health) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.13023
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the sur-vival rates of type 2 diabetic patients after coro-nary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, and the prognostic factors related to all-cause mor-tality during a 7-year follow-up. The medical re-cords of 816 type 2 diabetic patients who un-derwent primary, isolated CABG surgery during 1997-2003 were studied. The Kaplan-Meier me- thod and Cox regression were used to estimate survival and the independence of prognostic factors associated with all-cause mortality. One hundred and five out of 816 patients expired during the 7-year period. The overall survival rate was 83.5% (95%CI: 78.7-88.3%). Associated prog- nostic factors varied by gender. For males, but not for females, smoking (RR=3.44, 95%CI: 1.01- 11.70), myocardial infarction (RR=4.77, 95% CI: 1.23-18.86), respiratory failure (RR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.48-7.99), cardiogenic shock (RR=12.58, 95% CI: 3.25-20.77), and congestive heart failure (RR= 3.77, 95%CI: 1.10-13.45) were significantly related to all-cause mortality. Older age at sur-gery (RR= 1.15, 95%CI: 1.04-1.27), emergent op-eration (RR= 21.29, 95%CI: 10.03-39.43), pul-monary ede-ma (RR=7.72, 95%CI: 1.89-15.59), and days of ICU stay (RR=1.05, 95%CI: 1.02-1.09) were significant- ly related to all-cause mortality in females only. In conclusion, several gen-der-related differences were noted pertaining to all-cause mortality and its relationship to smok- ing, myocardial infarction, respiratory failure, cardiogenic shock, congestive heart failure, older age at surgery, emergent operation, pul-monary edema, and days of ICU stay.
The Mitochondrial DNA Northeast Asia CZD Haplogroup Is Associated with Good Disease-Free Survival among Male Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients
Chih-Hsiung Lai, Shiang-Fu Huang, I-How Chen, Chun-Ta Liao, Hung-Ming Wang, Ling-Ling Hsieh
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049684
Abstract: Reprogramming of energy metabolism in cancer cells has been directly/indirectly linked to mitochondria and mitochondrial functional defects and these changes seem to contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Studies have indicated that mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are associated with risk in relation to various diseases including cancer. However, few studies have examined the effect of haplogroups on cancer prognosis outcome. In order to explore the role of haplogroups on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) prognosis, the mitochondrial genomes of 300 male OSCC patients were comprehensively analyzed by direct sequencing. They were then haplotyped and grouped into four major geographic haplogroups, namely the East Asia AN, Southeast Asia RBF, East Asia MGE and Northeast Asia CZD groups. The Kaplan-Meier plot analysis indicated that individuals who were members of the CZD haplogroup showed a significant association with better disease-free survival (DFS) than the other three haplogroups and this phenomenon still existed after adjusting for tumor stage, differentiation and age at diagnosis (hazard ratio = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.36–0.84). In addition, an interaction between membership of the RBF haplogroup and radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy in DFS was also identified. The results strongly support the hypothesis that an individual’s haplogroup, by defining their genomic background, plays an important role in tumor behavior and mitochondrially-targeted anticancer drugs are promising future therapeutic approaches.
Cyclin D1 overexpression and poor clinical outcomes in Taiwanese oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma
Shiang-Fu Huang, Sou-De Cheng, Wen-Yu Chuang, I-How Chen, Chun-Ta Liao, Hung-Ming Wang, Ling-Ling Hsieh
World Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-10-40
Abstract: A total of 264 male OSCCs were examined for cyclin D1 protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression levels of cyclin D1 were defined as overexpression when more than 10% of tumor cells displayed nuclear staining with moderate to strong intensity.Overexpression of cyclin D1 was found in 97 (36.7%) OSCCs. Cyclin D1 protein overexpression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002), tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.031) and tumor stage (P = 0.051), but not associated with age onset, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, or areca quid chewing. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was also significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes in terms of disease-free survival (DFS, P = 0.002) and overall survival (OS, P < 0.001). The effects of cyclin D1 protein overexpression on DFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.540; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.068 - 2.222) and OS (HR = 1.702; 95% CI, 1.168 - 2.480) were still existed after adjusting for clinicopathological paremeters (such as age, primary tumor status, tumor cell differentiation, and lymph node metastasis) using logistic multivariate analysis.Cyclin D1 protein worked as an independent prognostic factor and can be as a biomarker for the aggressiveness of OSCC.In Taiwan, oral cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men [1]. Epidemiologic studies have shown that environment and personal habits, particularly tobacco use, areca quid (AQ) chewing and alcohol abuse, are major etiologic factors in the induction and progression of this disease. About two thirds of oral cancers were occurred in oral cavity. The primary treatment for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is radical surgery with or without post-operative chemoradiation [2]. However, for patients with tumors at advanced stage, their prognoses are usually discouraging. If we can better understand the characteristics of OSCCs, this may ultimately help clinicians to provide OSCC patients with more appropriate treatment.The cycl
Protective Role of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Evoked Autophagy on an In Vitro Model of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Renal Tubular Cell Injury
Li-Ting Wang, Bo-Lin Chen, Cheng-Tien Wu, Kuo-How Huang, Chih-Kang Chiang, Shing Hwa Liu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079814
Abstract: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common cause of injury to target organs such as brain, heart, and kidneys. Renal injury from I/R, which may occur in renal transplantation, surgery, trauma, or sepsis, is known to be an important cause of acute kidney injury. The detailed molecular mechanism of renal I/R injury is still not fully clear. Here, we investigate the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-evoked autophagy in the renal proximal tubular cell death in an in vitro I/R injury model. To mimic in vivo renal I/R injury, LLC-PK1 cells, a renal tubular cell line derived from pig kidney, were treated with antimycin A and 2-deoxyglucose to mimic ischemia injury followed by reperfusion with growth medium. This I/R injury model markedly induced apoptosis and autophagy in LLC-PK1 cells in a time-dependent manner. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA) significantly enhanced I/R injury-induced apoptosis. I/R could also up-regulate the phosphorylation of AMPK and down-regulate the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Cells transfected with small hairpin RNA (shRNA) for AMPK significantly increased the phosphorylation of mTOR as well as decreased the induction of autophagy followed by enhancing cell apoptosis during I/R. Moreover, the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 significantly enhanced autophagy and attenuated cell apoptosis during I/R. Taken together, these findings suggest that autophagy induction protects renal tubular cell injury via an AMPK-regulated mTOR pathway in an in vitro I/R injury model. AMPK-evoked autophagy may be as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in I/R renal injury.
Clinical Significance in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pathogenic Somatic Mitochondrial Mutations
Chih-Hsiung Lai, Shiang-Fu Huang, Chun-Ta Liao, I-How Chen, Hung-Ming Wang, Ling-Ling Hsieh
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065578
Abstract: Somatic mutations affecting the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been frequently observed in human cancers and proposed as important oncological biomarkers. However, the clinical significance of mtDNA mutations in cancer remains unclear. This study was therefore performed to explore the possible clinical use in assessing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of pathogenic mtDNA mutations. The entire mitochondrial genome of 300 OSCC with their matched control DNAs was screened by direct sequencing and criteria were set to define a pathogenic somatic mutation. The patients' TP53 R72P genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The relationships between pathogenic somatic mutations, clinicopathogical features, TP53 R72P genotype and clinical prognosis were analyzed. Overall, 645 somatic mtDNA mutations were identified and 91 of these mutations were defined as pathogenic. About one quarter (74/300) of the OSCC tumor samples contained pathogenic mutations. Individuals with the TP53 R allele had a higher frequency of pathogenic somatic mutation than those with the PP genotype. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that TP53 R allele patients with pathogenic somatic mutations demonstrated a significant association with a poorer disease-free survival than other individuals (HR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15–2.57; p = 0.009) and this phenomenon still existed after adjusting for mtDNA haplogroup, tumor stage with treatment regimens, differentiation and age at diagnosis (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06–2.40; p = 0.03). Subgroup analyses showed that this phenomenon was limited to patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy after surgery. The results strongly indicated that pathogenic mtDNA mutations are a potential prognostic marker for OSCCs. Furthermore, functional mitochondria may play an active role in cancer development and the patient's response to radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy.
Pre-Treatment Levels of C-Reactive Protein and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen for Predicting the Aggressiveness of Pharyngolaryngeal Carcinoma
Hsuan-Ho Chen, Hung-Ming Wang, Kang-Hsing Fan, Chien-Yu Lin, Tzu-Chen Yen, Chun-Ta Liao, I-How Chen, Chung-Jan Kang, Shiang-Fu Huang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055327
Abstract: The levels of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) and C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used to predict tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, staging and survival in patients with oral cavity cancer. The present study analyzed the relationship between pre-treatment levels of SCC-Ag and CRP in relation to clinicopathological factors in patients with pharyngolaryngeal cancer (PLC) and determined whether elevated levels of CRP and SCC-Ag were associated with tumor metabolic activity via [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). We retrospectively recruited one hundred and six PLC patients between June 2008 and December 2011. All patients received computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FDG-PET staging analyses, and the serum levels of SCC-Ag and CRP in these patients were measured prior to treatment. A SCC-Ag level ≥2.0 ng/ml and a CRP level ≥5.0 mg/L were significantly associated with clinical stage (P<0.001), clinical tumor status (P<0.001), and clinical nodal status (P<0.001). The elevation of both SCC-Ag and CRP levels was correlated with the standardized uptake value (SUV) max of the tumor (≥8.6 mg/L) and lymph nodes (≥5.7 ng/ml) (P = 0.019). The present study demonstrated that the presence of high levels of both pre-treatment SCC-Ag and CRP acts as a predictor of clinical stage, clinical tumor status, and clinical nodal status in patients with PLC. Moreover, elevated levels of SCC-Ag and CRP were associated with a high metabolic rate as well as the proliferative activity measured according to the SUVmax of the tumor and lymph nodes. Therefore, elevated levels of these two factors have the potential to serve as biomarkers for the prediction of tumor aggressiveness in cases of PLC.
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