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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10196 matches for " Charles Sampford "
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Towards a Global Carbon Integrity System: Learning from the GFC1 and avoiding a GCC2  [PDF]
Charles Sampford
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.24026
Abstract: This paper examines some of the central globalethical and governance challenges of climate change and carbon emissions reduction in relation to globalization, the ‘global financial crisis’ (GFC), and unsustainable conceptions of the ‘good life’,and argues in favour ofthe development of a global carbon ‘integrity system’. It is argued that a fundamental driver of our climate problems is the incipient spread of an unsustainable Western version of the ‘good life’, whereresource-intensive, high-carbon western lifestyles,although frequently criticized as unsustainable and deeply unsatisfying, appear to have established anunearned ethical legitimacy.While the ultimate solution to climate change is the development of low carbon lifestyles, the paper argues that it is also important that economic incentives support and stimulate that search: the sustainable versions of the good life provide an ethical pull, whilst the incentives provide an economic push. Yet, if we are going to secure sustainable low carbon lifestyles, it is argued, we need more than the ethical pull and the economic push. Each needs to be institutionalized – built into the governance of global, regional, national, sub-regional, corporate and professional institutions. Where currently weakness in each exacerbates the weaknesses in others,it is argued that governance reform is required in all areas supporting sustainable, low carbon versions of the good life.
Efficacy of a synbiotic chewable tablet in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea  [PDF]
Charles Spielholz
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.32020
Abstract: Infection by Clostridium difficile, a complication of treatment with antibiotics, causes antibiotic- associated diarrhea (AAD) and can lead to colitis and pseudomembranous colitis. Incidence of C. difficile infection is increasing among the elderly undergoing antibiotics therapy confined to health care facilities, conditions that are expensive to treat, decrease the quality of life and are life threatening. Use of probiotics has been proposed as a method to decrease the incidence of AAD in health care facilities. To examine the efficacy of using probiotics, 120 nursing home residents undergoing antibiotic therapy were provided with a synbiotic tablet containing two probiotics, Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus coagulans, and a prebiotic, fructooligosaccharide. Residents were evaluated retrospectively for AAD and C. difficile infection. It was found that 95% of residents treated with antibiotics and taking the synbiotic tablet were free of AAD. More than 97% of the residents did not become infected with C. difficile. No adverse effects were reported. Minor side effects, gastrointestinal upset and nausea, were reported by less than 6% of the residents. The cause of the minor side effects was not known. Only 2.5% of the residents stopped taking the synbiotic tablet because of the gastrointestinal upset. These Results suggest that use of the synbiotic tablet prevents AAD and C. difficile infection in nursing home residents undergoing antibiotic therapy. It is concluded that this synbiotic tablet provides an easy to administer and safe approach to controlling AAD and C. difficile infection in residents in nursing homes.
Belief Structures, Common Policy Space and Health Care Reform: A Q Methodology Study  [PDF]
Charles Wilf
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29143
Abstract: Debate on the merits of health care reform continues even after passage of the Affordable Care Act of 2010. Poll results confirm a split along political party and associated ideological lines with democrats more supportive and republicans generally opposed to the law. As parts of the law are now subject to increasing scrutiny, it may be instructive to question whether a party-centered or surrogate liberal/conservative dichotomy is the best representation of positions in the health care debate. Q Methodology reveals a more complex set of belief structures, suggesting that a simple dichotomy is misleading in terms of the values that underlie the role of health care in society. Five distinct belief structures were found, each with different concerns as to the purpose and potential benefits of various health care initiatives. In addition, Q Methodology allows for the formation of a common policy space within which all belief structures are independently in agreement in four specific areas. It is argued that this empirically derived consensus can serve as a basis for effective political engagement and policy implementation.
A Novel Operational Partition between Neural Network Classifiers on Vulnerability to Data Mining Bias  [PDF]
Charles Wong
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.74027

It is difficult if not impossible to appropriately and effectively select from among the vast pool of existing neural network machine learning predictive models for industrial incorporation or academic research exploration and enhancement. When all models outperform all the others under disparate circumstances, none of the models do. Selecting the ideal model becomes a matter of ill-supported opinion ungrounded on the extant real world environment. This paper proposes a novel grouping of the model pool grounded along a non-stationary real world data line into two groups: Permanent Data Learning and Reversible Data Learning. This paper further proposes a novel approach towards qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrating their significant differences based on how they alternatively approach dynamic and raw real world data vs static and prescient data mining biased laboratory data. The results across 2040 separate simulation runs using 15,600 data points in realistically operationally controlled data environments show that the two-group division is effective and significant with clear qualitative, quantitative and theoretical support. Results across the empirical and theoretical spectrum are internally and externally consistent yet demonstrative of why and how this result is non-obvious.

Exploring the Pedagogical Meaning and Implications of the 4Cs “Super Skills” for the 21st Century through Bruner’s 5E Lenses of Knowledge Construction to Improve Pedagogies of the New Learning Paradigm  [PDF]
Charles Kivunja
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.62021
Abstract: As economies increasingly globalize and digital technologies assume ubiquitous presence and functional utility in peoples’ lives outside educational contexts, there is an increasing realization among pedagogues that education designed to equip graduates of the Digital Economy requires the teaching of new skills rather than the traditional core subjects. This realization has led to the emergence of what is called the New Learning Paradigm which postulates that students now need to be taught the skills most in demand in the 21st century. Those skills are epitomized in what The Partnership for 21st Century Skills calls the Framework for 21st Century Skills. Keys among those skills are what The Partnership characterizes as the 4Cs super skills.. What are those skills? Why are they essential for successful learning, teaching, assessment, working and living in today’s Digital Economy? How do they align with the full set of 21st century skills? What are the pedagogical implications of these 4Cs super skills? This paper answers these questions in four steps. Firstly, it articulates the 4Cs super skills. Secondly, it explains the “Rainbow” framework of the full set of essential 21st century skills as conceptualized by The Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Thirdly, it outlines Bruner’s 5E Instructional Model and explains how it provides an excellent lens through which to approach learning, teaching, assessment and curriculum development for the 4Cs super skills in Kivunja’s New Learning Paradigm.
Using De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Model to Teach Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Essential for Success in the 21st Century Economy  [PDF]
Charles Kivunja
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.63037
Abstract: It is understood that although critical thinking and problem solving are recognized as skills that are essential for success, particularly in the 21st century Digital Economy, they are not explicitly taught as part of the curriculum in many educational institutions. To make a contribution to an understanding of how critical thinking and problem solving can be taught effectively, the present paper draws upon the work of one of the leaders in critical thinking and problem solving to illustrate how these skills could be taught using De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Model. Following an exposition of the key tenets of De Bono’s Model, the paper discusses how each of the Six Thinking Hats could be used in an effective pedagogy.
Creative Engagement of Digital Learners with Gardner’s Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence to Enhance Their Critical Thinking  [PDF]
Charles Kivunja
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.66060
Abstract: Although we owe a debt of gratitude to Howard Gardner for articulating in 1983 that all human beings have many intelligences, the recognition that there is a multiplicity of intelligences (MI) among humans and that some are more endowed with and have greater dexterity in some of the intelligences than that in others is nearly as old as mankind. It is well understood that critical thinking is essential for success in all human endeavors. Unfortunately, critical thinking is not explicitly taught in most learning contexts. This paper is guided by the cognitive principle that teaching that aligns with the learner’s stronger intelligences and learning style can facilitate active learning and critical thinking. This is a strong pedagogical reason for us as pedagogues with the privilege of training teachers, to make sure that our students adopt this cognitive principle to facilitate learning among all their students—not just those gifted in the orthodoxy skills of language and logic. This paper uses the example of Gardner’s bodily-kinesthetic MI to illustrate how trainee and practising teachers can apply some of the latest digital technologies to mobilize the MI of digital students endowed with the bodily-kinesthetic MI to enhance their active learning and critical thinking.
Leadership in Early Childhood Education Contexts: Looks, Roles, and Functions  [PDF]
Charles Kivunja
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.616172
Abstract: Situated in the field of early childhood education (ECE), this paper uses literature on educational leadership to answer four questions about leadership in ECE contexts. Firstly, what is leadership and how important is it for the success of an organisation? Secondly, what does it look like in ECE? Thirdly, what does leadership in ECE involve? And fourthly, how does efficient and effective leadership function in an ECE context? It is important to answer these questions because there is an understanding that leadership in ECE contexts is unlike leadership in other educational institutions. It requires special administrative and managerial skills to plan, organise, lead, control and direct the operations in the ECE context, as well as leadership skills to provide an organisational vision, direction and aculturation. An understanding of what leadership in ECE contexts looks like, its roles and functions can inform ECE leaders in ways that help them to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their educational institution.
Why Students Don’t Like Assessment and How to Change Their Perceptions in 21st Century Pedagogies  [PDF]
Charles Kivunja
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.620215
Abstract: In more than thirty years of teaching and testing students of all ages and across all learning stages—primary, secondary, college, university undergraduates and postgraduates—I am yet to find a student who looked forward to an assessment task they were to complete. Why? One might ask: why don’t students like assessment? And how can we change their perceptions? To lay the ground-work for answering these perplexing and yet important pedagogical questions, this paper starts with an explanation of the meaning of educational assessment. It then delineates the different types of assessments and their intended purposes before examining reasons why students don’t like assessment. This is followed by suggestions of what we could do as pedagogues, to make assessment meaningful and attractive to students in 21st century learning so as to change their perceptions of assessment. The paper argues that just as effective teaching and learning need to change from the orthodoxy 3Rs and core subjects that drove the Industrial Age to a New Learning Paradigm which includes the Super 4Cs Skills of the 21st century, (critical thinking and problem solving, collaboration, creativity and innovation, and communication), so does assessment need to change if it is to serve its moral purpose in 21st century education.
Mood States are Not Associated with BMI in Mentally Healthy Adults  [PDF]
Charles Halloran van Wijk
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.25076
Abstract: The relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and mental health has been widely investigated, and recent evidence has shown that overweight and obese individuals may be more vulnerable to the development of anxiety and mood disorders than individuals of a normal weight. This article examines the association between BMI and mood states of mentally healthy adults. BMI and Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) scores, and other demographic information, was collected from healthy adults over a six month period (N = 1621). When age was controlled, only a small but significant negative correlation between BMI and Depression in men was found, which stands in contrasts to previous studies. This may be due to the sample of mentally healthy adults with less incidence of severe obesity due to their military background. Further, African samples may have different expressions for non-clinical distress than industrialised countries which may lead to skewed results. The findings suggests that measures of transient mood states, like the BRUMS, may not be particularly useful in investigating relationships between mental health constructs and anthropometric measures, like BMI.
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