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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10180 matches for " Charles Opiyo Ayieko "
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Controlled Texturing of Aluminum Sheet for Solar Energy Applications  [PDF]
Charles Opiyo Ayieko, Robinson Juma Musembi, Alex Awuor Ogacho, Benard Odhiambo Aduda, Boniface Mutua Muthoka, Pushpendra K. Jain
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2015.511046
Abstract: Aluminum sheets were polished to reduce ruggedness and then textured in varying acid-ethanol concentration etchant to form pores. The textured surface was characterized structurally by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) which revealed aluminum crystallographic planes (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1). Its morphology was studied by using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) that confirmed purity of aluminum sheet to be 99.66% at. Reflectance of textured and plain aluminum sheet was analyzed by spectrophotometric measurements which showed that texturing reduced the reflectance of the polished surface by 26% in the UV-VIS-NIR spectrum of solar radiation. With reduced reflectance of the textured aluminum sheet, it was applicable for solar radiation absorption.
Effect of a multi-faceted quality improvement intervention on inappropriate antibiotic use in children with non-bloody diarrhoea admitted to district hospitals in Kenya
Charles Opondo, Philip Ayieko, Stephen Ntoburi, John Wagai, Newton Opiyo, Grace Irimu, Elizabeth Allen, James Carpenter, Mike English
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-109
Abstract: Repeated cross-sectional survey data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve management of common childhood illnesses in Kenya were used to describe the prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic use in a 7-day period in children aged 2-59 months with acute non-bloody diarrhoea. Logistic regression models with random effects for hospital were then used to identify patient and clinician level factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic use and to assess the effect of the intervention.9, 459 admission records of children were reviewed for this outcome. Of these, 4, 232 (44.7%) were diagnosed with diarrhoea, with 130 of these being bloody (dysentery) therefore requiring antibiotics. 1, 160 children had non-bloody diarrhoea and no co-morbidities requiring antibiotics-these were the focus of the analysis. 750 (64.7%) of them received antibiotics inappropriately, 313 of these being in the intervention hospitals vs. 437 in the controls. The adjusted logistic regression model showed the baseline-adjusted odds of inappropriate antibiotic prescription to children admitted to the intervention hospitals was 0.30 times that in the control hospitals (95%CI 0.09-1.02).We found some evidence that the multi-faceted, sustained intervention described in this paper led to a reduction in the inappropriate use of antibiotics in treating children with non-bloody diarrhoea.International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN42996612Diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of mortality in childhood, accounting for 15% of the approximately 8.7 million deaths of under-5 year olds worldwide in 2008 alone [1]. Current best-practice guidance for treatment of diarrhoea is contained within the World Health Organisation's strategy for Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), a strategy adopted by over 100 countries worldwide [2]. This strategy is intended to foster correct diagnosis and treatment of common childhood illnesses in ou
An intervention to improve paediatric and newborn care in Kenyan district hospitals: Understanding the context
Mike English, Stephen Ntoburi, John Wagai, Patrick Mbindyo, Newton Opiyo, Philip Ayieko, Charles Opondo, Santau Migiro, Annah Wamae, Grace Irimu
Implementation Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-4-42
Abstract: Hospital characteristics were assessed using previously developed tools assessing the broad structure, process, and outcome of health service provision for children and newborns. Major health system or policy developments over the period of the intervention at a national level were documented prospectively by monitoring government policy announcements, the media, and through informal contacts with policy makers. At the hospital level, a structured, open questionnaire was used in face-to-face meetings with senior hospital staff every six months to identify major local developments that might influence implementation. These data provide an essential background for those seeking to understand the generalisability of reports describing the intervention's effects, and whether the intervention plausibly resulted in these effects.Hospitals had only modest capacity, in terms of infrastructure, equipment, supplies, and human resources available to provide high-quality care at baseline. For example, hospitals were lacking between 30 to 56% of items considered necessary for the provision of care to the seriously ill child or newborn. An increase in spending on hospital renovations, attempts to introduce performance contracts for health workers, and post-election violence were recorded as examples of national level factors that might influence implementation success generally. Examples of factors that might influence success locally included frequent and sometimes numerous staff changes, movements of senior departmental or administrative staff, and the presence of local 'donor' partners with alternative priorities.The effectiveness of interventions delivered at hospital level over periods realistically required to achieve change may be influenced by a wide variety of factors at national and local levels. We have demonstrated how dynamic such contexts are, and therefore the need to consider context when interpreting an intervention's effectiveness.The poor quality of care offere
A Multifaceted Intervention to Implement Guidelines and Improve Admission Paediatric Care in Kenyan District Hospitals: A Cluster Randomised Trial
Philip Ayieko ,Stephen Ntoburi,John Wagai,Charles Opondo,Newton Opiyo,Santau Migiro,Annah Wamae,Wycliffe Mogoa,Fred Were,Aggrey Wasunna,Greg Fegan,Grace Irimu,Mike English
PLOS Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001018
Abstract: Background In developing countries referral of severely ill children from primary care to district hospitals is common, but hospital care is often of poor quality. However, strategies to change multiple paediatric care practices in rural hospitals have rarely been evaluated. Methods and Findings This cluster randomized trial was conducted in eight rural Kenyan district hospitals, four of which were randomly assigned to a full intervention aimed at improving quality of clinical care (evidence-based guidelines, training, job aides, local facilitation, supervision, and face-to-face feedback; n = 4) and the remaining four to control intervention (guidelines, didactic training, job aides, and written feedback; n = 4). Prespecified structure, process, and outcome indicators were measured at baseline and during three and five 6-monthly surveys in control and intervention hospitals, respectively. Primary outcomes were process of care measures, assessed at 18 months postbaseline. In both groups performance improved from baseline. Completion of admission assessment tasks was higher in intervention sites at 18 months (mean = 0.94 versus 0.65, adjusted difference 0.54 [95% confidence interval 0.05–0.29]). Uptake of guideline recommended therapeutic practices was also higher within intervention hospitals: adoption of once daily gentamicin (89.2% versus 74.4%; 17.1% [8.04%–26.1%]); loading dose quinine (91.9% versus 66.7%, 26.3% [?3.66% to 56.3%]); and adequate prescriptions of intravenous fluids for severe dehydration (67.2% versus 40.6%; 29.9% [10.9%–48.9%]). The proportion of children receiving inappropriate doses of drugs in intervention hospitals was lower (quinine dose >40 mg/kg/day; 1.0% versus 7.5%; ?6.5% [?12.9% to 0.20%]), and inadequate gentamicin dose (2.2% versus 9.0%; ?6.8% [?11.9% to ?1.6%]). Conclusions Specific efforts are needed to improve hospital care in developing countries. A full, multifaceted intervention was associated with greater changes in practice spanning multiple, high mortality conditions in rural Kenyan hospitals than a partial intervention, providing one model for bridging the evidence to practice gap and improving admission care in similar settings. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN42996612 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Quality of hospital care for sick newborns and severely malnourished children in Kenya: A two-year descriptive study in 8 hospitals
David Gathara, Newton Opiyo, John Wagai, Stephen Ntoburi, Philip Ayieko, Charles Opondo, Annah Wamae, Santau Migiro, Wycliffe Mogoa, Aggrey Wasunna, Fred Were, Grace Irimu, Mike English
BMC Health Services Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-307
Abstract: As a sub-component of a larger study we evaluated care during surveys conducted in 8 rural district hospitals using convenience samples of case records. After baseline hospitals received either a full multifaceted intervention (intervention hospitals) or a partial intervention (control hospitals) aimed largely at improving inpatient paediatric care for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea/dehydration. Additional data were collected to: i) examine the availability of routine information at baseline and their value for morbidity, mortality and quality of care reporting, and ii) compare the care received against national guidelines disseminated to all hospitals.Clinical documentation for neonatal and malnutrition admissions was often very poor at baseline with case records often entirely missing. Introducing a standard newborn admission record (NAR) form was associated with an increase in median assessment (IQR) score to 25/28 (22-27) from 2/28 (1-4) at baseline. Inadequate and incorrect prescribing of penicillin and gentamicin were common at baseline. For newborns considerable improvements in prescribing in the post baseline period were seen for penicillin but potentially serious errors persisted when prescribing gentamicin, particularly to low-birth weight newborns in the first week of life. Prescribing essential feeds appeared almost universally inadequate at baseline and showed limited improvement after guideline dissemination.Routine records are inadequate to assess newborn care and thus for monitoring newborn survival interventions. Quality of documented inpatient care for neonates and severely malnourished children is poor with limited improvement after the dissemination of clinical practice guidelines. Further research evaluating approaches to improving care for these vulnerable groups is urgently needed. We also suggest pre-service training curricula should be better aligned to help improve newborn survival particularly.More than 7 million children die each year wo
Modelling Impacts of Socio-Economic Factors on Temporal Diffusion of PV-Based Communal Grids  [PDF]
Nicholas Opiyo
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2015.612026
Abstract: Impacts of socio-economic factors on temporal diffusions of solar electricity microgeneration systems in a rural developing community are modelled and simulated using an agent-based model (ABM). ABMs seek to capture the overall macro-effects of different micro-decisions in a virtual world; they model individual entities within a complex system and the rules that govern them to capture the overall effects of their interactions. Results showed that falling PV costs coupled with generally increasing grid electricity costs would lead to increased uptake of PV systems in such communities. On the other hand, high lending rates in most developing nations would stifle use of credit facilities in purchases of PV systems and thus diminishing their uptakes. Results also showed that introduction of favourable government policies in forms of subsidies would strongly stimulate PV installations in such communities. Social acceptance is important for diffusion of any new technology into a given market and more so with solar systems; results show that neighbourhood influence plays major roles in PV diffusions with many households installing PV systems if their neighbours within a given sensing radius do the same. Results also showed that requiring a certain percentage of neighbours to have installed PV before a household considered doing the same could have negative effects on PV installations as decisions to install PV are influenced by many independent and dependent factors and not by neighbourhood threshold alone.
Different Storage-Focused PV-Based Mini-Grid Architectures for Rural Developing Communities  [PDF]
Nicholas Nixon Opiyo
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.95006
Abstract: Impacts of grid architectures on temporal diffusion of PV-based communal grids (community owned minigrids or microgrids) in a rural developing community are modelled and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink and a survey-informed agent-based model (ABM) developed in NetLogo. Results show that decentralised control architectures stimulate minigrid formations and connections by allowing easy expansions of the minigrids as each decentralised PV system within a minigrid is treated equally and determines its own real and reactive power, eliminating the need for communication links. This also reduces the cost of implementing such a system; fewer connections are realized with centralised controls as such systems require high speed communication links which make them both difficult to expand and expensive to implement. Results also show that multi-master operation modes lead to more communal grid connections compared to single-master operation modes because in the former, all distributed PV systems within a communal grid have the same rank and can act as masters or can be operated as combinations of master generators (VSIs) and PQ inverters, allowing for more design flexibility and easy connections from potential customers.
Droop Control Methods for PV-Based Mini Grids with Different Line Resistances and Impedances  [PDF]
Nicholas Nixon Opiyo
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.96007
Abstract: Different droop control methods for PV-based communal grid networks (minigrids and microgrids) with different line resistances (R) and impedances (X) are modelled and simulated in MATLAB to determine the most efficient control method for a given network. Results show that active power-frequency (P-f) droop control method is the most efficient for low voltage transmission networks with low X/R ratios while reactive power-voltage (Q-V) droop control method is the most efficient for systems with high X/R ratios. For systems with complex line resistances and impedances, i.e. near unity X/R ratios, P-f or Q-V droop methods cannot individually efficiently regulate line voltage and frequency. For such systems, P-Q-f droop control method, where both active and reactive power could be used to control PCC voltage via shunt-connected inverters, is determined to be the most efficient control method. Results also show that shunt-connection of inverters leads to improved power flow control of interconnected communal grids by allowing feeder voltage regulation, load reactive power support, reactive power management between feeders, and improved overall system performance against dynamic disturbances.
The challenges of preventive diplomacy: The United Nations’ post-Cold War experiences in Africa
JO Opiyo
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2012,
Abstract: The United Nations Organisation (UN) is best endowed to conduct preventive diplomacy (PD) by preventing disputes and conflicts arising from interstate and intrastate relationships. The UN has the means to prevent such conflicts and disputes from emerging and escalating into armed confrontation. This article examines the challenges faced by the United Nations as it practises PD with specific reference to Africa. The Charter of the UN sets out the legal basis of PD for the UN, and for regional and sub-regional organisations. Contributions of four UN Secretary-Generals on matters of PD are examined, and special note is taken of the way in which the current Secretary-General, Mr. Ban Ki-moon, uses a four-pronged approach to matters of PD in Africa. The UN has performed well in PD in Africa, especially in collaboration with sub-regional organisations. While the UN derives its mandate to conduct PD from Articles in its Charter, its options are limited to peaceful settlement of disputes, and its action is restricted by rules of international law on intervention, especially with regard to the prohibition of the use of force. The UN is challenged by its inherent problems such as its structures, and its lack of early warning systems and finances. Challenges arising from the principle of state sovereignty also limit the UN in preventing internal problems, especially at the pre-conflict stages. This article concludes by proposing that strengthening the Secretary-General’s good offices, enhancing conflict early warning systems and encouraging the international community to work together could give legitimacy to UN preventive diplomacy endeavours. Fundamentally, the realisation that violent political problems require political solutions is instrumental in order for the UN to play its PD role.
Frontier citizenship and state fragility in Kenya
Ododa Opiyo
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2010,
Abstract: Insecurity is a major problem amongst the nomadic communities in North western Kenya. The communities include the Pokots, Turkana, Marakwet, Toposa and Karamoja. Using the Pokot Community as a case study of nomadic life style, this paper examines the environmental constraints, cattle rustling and small arms as triggers of Pokot community movements into their frontiers; -zones of contact of states or communities. In search of water and pasture, the Pokot traverse their frontiers and interact socially, economically and environmentally with their neighbours. The movements expose their cattle and property to banditry and cattle rustling. The Pokots thus acquire small arms to protect their livestock and property even though the acquisition of and stocking of arms is the responsibility of the government. So the acquirement of small arms by the Pokot creates a fragile insecurity situation characterised by cattle rustling and banditry. As Kenyan citizens, the Pokots have a social contract with the state to provide security but this is not the case because of the transitional nature, as nomads. Insecurity to the nomadic communities manifests in terms of environmental, natural resource based and identity based conflicts. It is concluded that addressing insecurity in this region has to lessen banditry, cattle rustling, social underdevelopment and negative ethnicity. The steps towards solving state fragility and insecurity ought to take cognizance of the interactions between frontier citizens, environmental constraints, traditions, politics and acquisition of small arms.
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