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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10204 matches for " Charles Muyanja "
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Potential for Fumonisin Production by the Strains of Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex Isolated from Maize Produced in Uganda
Abel Atukwase,Charles Muyanja,Archileo N. Kaaya
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The study investigated the fumonisin production potential of 25 isolates of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex isolated from freshly harvested maize produced in Uganda. Twenty three out of the 25 isolates tested were able to produce fumonisins. The total fumonisin production varied between 19.4 and 99.8 mg kg-1. Majority of the isolates were high fumonisin producers. The ability to produce fumonisins varied amongst the isolates tested. Strains identified as Gibberella moniliformis (GU257904.1) and Gibberella fujikuroi (EU979565.1) were generally higher fumonisin producers (39.9-99.8 mg kg-1) compared to those identified as Gibberella moniliformis (FJI54074.1) (0-24.9 mg kg-1). The order of fumonisin production was G. moniliformis >G. fujikuroi >Fusarium proliferatum. Seven strains (MRC 9059, MRC 9063, MRC 9054, MRC 9053, MRC 9067, MRC 9055 and MRC 9066) produced higher amounts of total fumonisins than the reference strain (MRC 826). Some unidentified species (MRC 9061, MRC 9051 and MRC 9064) also produced high fumonisins levels of 87.9, 84.3 and 58.4 mg kg-1, respectively. The findings of this study indicated that the G. fujikuroi species associated with maize produced in Uganda are high fumonisin producers. These findings emphasize the need to put in place measures to control contamination of maize and maize based products with fumonisins.
Lipid Lowering Potential of Malakwang (Hibiscus) Species Leaf Extract in Hyperlipidaemia-Induced Rats  [PDF]
Gertrude M. Alal Ojera, Yusuf B. Byaruhanga, Christine Magala-Nyago, Charles M. B. K. Muyanja
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.92012
Malakwang (Hibiscus species) is a common vegetable regularly used in the diet and traditional health care support in Uganda. In this study, the efficacy of malakwang leaf extract as a potential regulator of serum lipids, urea and creatinine was investigated in hyperlipidemic rats. Forty two albino rats were arranged randomly into seven groups of six and fed with diets. Four experimental and three control groups were considered in the design. The rats in the experimental groups were fed on high fat diets containing different amounts of leaf extract from red and white malakwang variants. Control groups were fed on diets devoid of malakwang: a basic standard rat diet; high fat diet; and high fat with atorvastatin. The diets were administered daily and rat weight determined. On the last day, blood was drawn from the rats and the serum analysed for lipids, creatinine and urea using spectrophotometric techniques. Statistical analysis was used to estimate mean differences in weight and concentration of the biochemical parameters between experimental and control groups. Results indicated a decrease in weight gained up to the fourth week in rats fed on the high fat diet with malakwang leaf extract. There was a significant difference in the levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05), with lower levels in rats fed on 200 mg/kg red and 400 mg/kg white malakwang leaf extract. No significant change was noted in total cholesterol and triglycerides. Whereas there was a higher level of serum creatinine with the two malakwang variants (p < 0.05), serum urea levels were significantly lower. Leaf extracts of both red and white malakwang (Hibiscus) exhibited capacity to reduce low density lipoprotein cholesterol, maintained serum urea but not creatinine. This may offer prospects for using malakwang in the dietary approaches to address public health concerns linked to high level of cholesterols.
Peter Nyamuhanga Mwita,Romanus Odhiambo Otieno,Verdiana Grace Masanja,Charles Muyanja
Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1234/pjsor.v7i2.241
Abstract: This paper considers the modeling and prediction of households food security status using a sample of households in the Lake Victoria region of Kenya. A priori expected food security factors and their measurements are given. A binary logistic regression model derived was fitted to thirteen priori expected factors. Analysis of the marginal effects revealed that effecting the use of the seven significant determinants: farmland size, per capita aggregate production, household size, gender of household head, use of fertilizer, use of pesticide/herbicide and education of household head, increase the likelihood of a household being food secure. Finally, interpretations of predicted conditional probabilities, following improvement of significant determinants, are given.
Traditional processing, microbiological, physiochemical and sensory characteristics of kwete, a Ugandan fermented maize based beverage
C Muyanja, BS Namugumya
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: A survey was conducted to document the production methods of Kwete, a Ugandan fermented beverage in selected divisions in Kampala districts, Uganda. Microbial numbers in raw materials and during fermentation were enumerated using standard methods. Changes in selected physiochemical parameters: pH, titratable acidity (TA), ethanol and total soluble solids (TSS) were monitored at 24-hrs interval during 72hrs fermentation. Organoleptic properties of Kwete were also solicited from the producers. Similarities in raw material preparation and production techniques for Kwete were observed among the producers. Kwete was mainly produced from a mixture of maize and malted millet flour. All producers fermented the maize flours to produce raw sourdough for 24 hrs and roasted it before Kwete production. Fermentation was carried at ambient temperature in metallic drums. The duration of fermentation varied between 24 and 72 hrs. Most households (80%) consumed Kwete within 24-48 hrs of fermentation. Coliforms, Yeasts and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) numbers in maize flour and roasted sourdough varied between 1.59 and 5.24 log cfu-1. Yeasts and LAB numbers in raw sourdough and malted millet flour varied between 4.48 and 8.45 log cfu -1. No coliforms were detectable in raw sourdough. LAB numbers increased from 5.31 to 7.36 log cfu -1 during fermentation. Yeasts increased from 4.44 to 5.60 log cfu -1. Coliforms disappeared within 24 hrs of fermentation. The pH of maize flour dropped from pH 6.1 to 4.1 during sourdough production but increased to 4.89 during paste preparation. The final pH attained after 72 hrs of fermentation was 3.35. The TA increased from 0.84 to 1.43 % lactic acid. The TSS decreased from 9.02 to 5.87 o Brix. Ethanol content in Kwete increased from 4.85 to 13.30 % v/ v during fermentation. The various phases in Kwete production contribute significantly to the microorganisms involved in the fermentation. The high microbial numbers in added malted millet flour indicated that it is an important source of fermentation microorganisms during Kwete production.
Profitability and Economic Efficacy of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Production:A Case of Green Money in the Drylands of Northern Uganda
Buyinza Mukadasi,Muyanja Senjonga
Journal of Economics Theory , 2012,
Abstract: Indigenous fruit tree species have since time immemorial been used as an alternative source of food and nutrition for many people especially in the drylands during droughts when there is food shortage. A better knowledge of the economic viability of Tamarindus indica production is critical for the improved management of this indigenous tree in the north-eastern belt of Uganda. Sustainability of this management will depend on the resources` tangible benefits. This study makes an attempt to compare the net benefits and costs from T. indica in the open woodland and that from the cropland. Production and household surveys were carried out in Kamuli and Kaliro districts from July 2004 to February 2005. Costs and revenues of T. indica production were collected from local cottage firms trading in the product. Net benefits from open woodlands and croplands were determined using the Net Present Value criterion. The estimated mean productions were 127 kg/ha/yr from the open woodland areas and 84 kg/ha/yr for cropland. A significant difference (p< 0.05) was observed between per tree mean T. indica yield from open woodland and cropland sites. The average fodder harvest from open woodland was 2660 kg/ha/yr. The financial NPVs were Ush. 1,791,000 ha 1 from T. indica products in open woodland and Ush. 1,343,400 ha 1 for cropland areas (r = 0.0842). These values were larger by Ush 981,400 ha 1 and by Ushs. 450,800 ha 1, than the sum of NPV from farm crops and crop residuals of the two sites, respectively. Exporting of T. indica juice could generate foreign exchange of Ushs. 60 ha 1 and Ush 42 ha-1 from T. indica in open woodlands and cropland sites, respectively. Rural households earn 74% of their annual total revenue as wage for collecting T. indica fruits. Sensitivity analysis showed that managing T. indica in open woodlands always generates a higher NPV than when left as croplands. Therefore, managing the T. indica stands as open woodlands is a competitive land-use alternative and provides more net benefits than both the croplands and open woodlands.
Occurrence of listeria monocytogenes in bulked raw milk and traditionally fermented dairy products in Uganda
D Mugampoza, CMBK Muyanja, P Ogwok, ML Serunjogi, GW Nasinyama
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Bulked raw milk, locally processed yoghurt (LPY) and Bongo, a traditionally fermented dairy product sold at most informal milk cooling points in Uganda, were assessed for occurrence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Total plate counts (TPC), holding temperature, pH and titratable acidity were also determined in all the milk products at the point of collection using standard methods. A total of 40 samples of bulked raw milk and 30 for each of LPY and Bongo were examined. Listeria spp. was higher in bulked raw milk than in fermented milk. Listeria spp. were detected in 60% of bulked raw milk, 30% of LPY and 15% of Bongo samples. Bulked raw milk had significantly higher (p<0.05) mean Listeria counts (3.10±0.06 log10 cfu mL-1) than LPY and Bongo, 0.82±0.18 and 0.32±0.18 log10 cfu mL-1, respectively. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 13 % of bulked raw milk, 3.0% of LPY but was not detectable in Bongo. Total plate count was significantly different (p<0.05) among the different milk types studied. Bongo had higher TPC (9.00±0.13 log10 cfu mL-1) than bulked raw milk (8.40±0.11 log10 cfu mL-1) and LPY (7.40±0.13 log10 cfu mL-1). The mean total plate counts (4.90 to 9.00±0.13 log10 cfu mL-1) of the fermented dairy products were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The TPC for bulked raw milk (8.40±0.11 log10 cfu mL-1) was higher than the recommended values of national and international standards. Temperature, pH and titratable acidity were significantly different (p<0.05) among the different milk types. Holding temperature ranged from 5.40 to 8.60oC, pH was 4.20±0.04 to 6.10±0.04 whereas titratable acidity ranged from 0.22±0.01 to 089±0.01%. Listeria counts were not statistically predictable (p>0.05) from variation in the combined effect of pH, percent titratable acidity and temperature. Results of this study demonstrate a high risk associated with consumption of bulked raw milk and fermented dairy products in due to occurrence of Listeria spp.
Production Methods and Composition of Bushera: A Ugandan Traditional Fermented Cereal Beverage
CMBK Muyanja, JK Kikafunda, J A Narvhus, K Helgetun, T Langsrud
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2003,
Abstract: A survey was conducted using a questionnaire to document the production methods of Bushera, a Ugandan traditional fermented cereal beverage, in the districts of Kabale and Rukungiri in the South Western region of Uganda. The chemical composition of raw materials and Bushera was determined using standard methods. Similarities in the production of Bushera in Kabale and Rukungiri districts were observed. In both districts, sorghum grains are usually (80% of respondents) soaked in water overnight (12 h), some households (20%) indicated a soaking period of 24-48 h. Eighty seven percent of the households soaked the grains in streams, rivers and ponds. The germination period for sorghum grains varied between two and four days. Sixty five percent of the households germinated the grains for two-three days. The duration of fermentation of Bushera ranged from one to six days. Most of the households (90%) consumed Bushera after two-four days of fermentation. The moisture, fat, protein and carbohydrate contents of germinated and non-germinated sorghum grains ranged from 8.8-12.4 %, 1.8-3.0 %, 7.2-10.8 % and 77.7-85.7%, respectively. Germinated sorghum flour had lower fat, protein and carbohydrate contents but higher ash and fibre than non-germinated sorghum flour. Germinated millet flour had higher moisture, protein and fibre compared to the non-germinated flour while the latter had higher ash and carbohydrate contents. Germination resulted in an increase in the concentration of sugars in both sorghum and millet grains. Great variations were observed in the proximate composition of Bushera obtained from the households. Under laboratory conditions, the protein content of Bushera produced from germinated grains was higher than Bushera from non-germinated grains (12.2% vs. 10.6%), on dry matter basis. Higher levels of iron, magnesium and zinc were observed in germinated grains due to addition of wood ash during germination. Germinated grains had lower phenol and tannin content compared to non-germinated grains. Résumé Une étude basée sur les réponses à un questionnaire a été menée pour documenter les méthodes de production du Bushera, une boisson de céréales fermentées traditionnelle en Ouganda, dans les districts de Kabale et Rukungiri situés dans la région sud-ouest de l'Ouganda. La composition chimique des matières premières et du Bushera a été établie par méthodes standard. On a observé des similarités dans la production du Bushera dans les districts de Kabale et de Rukungiri. Dans les deux districts, les graines de sorgho sont habituellement (80% des réponses) trempées dans de l'eau pendant une nuit (12h), certains ménages (20%) signalant une période de trempage de 24-48h.Les graines sont trempées dans des ruisseaux, rivières et étangs par 87% des ménages. La période de germination des graines de sorgho varie de 2 à 4 jours. Soixante-cinq pour cent des ménages font germer les graines pendant 2-3 jours. La durée de fermentation du Bushera va de 1 à 6 jours.
Traditional processing, microbial and physicochemical changes during fermentation of malwa
C Muyanja, S Birungi, M Ahimbisibwe, J Semanda, B.S Namugumya
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2010,
Abstract: A survey was conducted to characterise production methods of malwa; a Ugandan traditional fermented millet beverage, in four divisions of Kampala district using a questionnaire. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus spp and coliforms were enumerated in the raw materials and during fermentation using standard microbiological methods. Changes in chemical parameters were determined using standard methods. Similarities in production methods were observed among the malwa producers. All producers germinated millet grains (2-3 days) to make green malt. The germinated grains were sun-dried for 2-3 days. Moistened millet flour was subjected to solid state pit fermentation for one week to produce acidified fermented dough. The acidified fermented dough was roasted over an open fire to produce roasted acidified dough. The duration of fermentation of malwa varied between 2 and 4 days. Only 5% of the producers practiced back slopping. Producers (90%) reported that consumers preferred sour malwa. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus spp numbers in the sour dough, roasted sour dough and green malt varied between 3.48 and 5.38, 2.02 and 2.60, and 4.45 and 6.25 log cfug–1 respectively. Coliforms in sour dough, roasted sour dough and green malt varied between 1.36 and 5.53 log cfug–1. Lactobacillus spp increased from 2.73 to 6.60 log cfu mL–1 whereas Lactococcus spp increased from 2.67 to 6.22 log cfu mL–1 during 72 h of fermentation. The greatest increase in numbers was observed during the first 24 h. Coliforms decreased from 2.80 to 1.19 log cfu mL–1 after 24 h with a slight increase to 1.26 log cfu mL–1 after 48 h due to further addition of green malt. Coliforms were still detectable after 72 h. The pH decreased from 4.3 to 3.65 as titratable acidity increased from 0.69 to 1.47% lactic acid after 72 h of fermentation. Total soluble solids decreased from 17.7 to 7.7 oBrix during 72 h fermentation. Ethanol increased from 1.07 to 12% v\v. Carbohydrates and tannins decreased during germination and fermentation. Apparent increase in protein content was observed. The high numbers of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus spp and coliforms in the sour dough suggest their involvement in the solid state pit fermentation of millet flour. Higher numbers of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus spp in the green malt indicates that these organisms play a big role in the fermentation process of malwa.
Efficacy of a synbiotic chewable tablet in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea  [PDF]
Charles Spielholz
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.32020
Abstract: Infection by Clostridium difficile, a complication of treatment with antibiotics, causes antibiotic- associated diarrhea (AAD) and can lead to colitis and pseudomembranous colitis. Incidence of C. difficile infection is increasing among the elderly undergoing antibiotics therapy confined to health care facilities, conditions that are expensive to treat, decrease the quality of life and are life threatening. Use of probiotics has been proposed as a method to decrease the incidence of AAD in health care facilities. To examine the efficacy of using probiotics, 120 nursing home residents undergoing antibiotic therapy were provided with a synbiotic tablet containing two probiotics, Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus coagulans, and a prebiotic, fructooligosaccharide. Residents were evaluated retrospectively for AAD and C. difficile infection. It was found that 95% of residents treated with antibiotics and taking the synbiotic tablet were free of AAD. More than 97% of the residents did not become infected with C. difficile. No adverse effects were reported. Minor side effects, gastrointestinal upset and nausea, were reported by less than 6% of the residents. The cause of the minor side effects was not known. Only 2.5% of the residents stopped taking the synbiotic tablet because of the gastrointestinal upset. These Results suggest that use of the synbiotic tablet prevents AAD and C. difficile infection in nursing home residents undergoing antibiotic therapy. It is concluded that this synbiotic tablet provides an easy to administer and safe approach to controlling AAD and C. difficile infection in residents in nursing homes.
Towards a Global Carbon Integrity System: Learning from the GFC1 and avoiding a GCC2  [PDF]
Charles Sampford
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.24026
Abstract: This paper examines some of the central globalethical and governance challenges of climate change and carbon emissions reduction in relation to globalization, the ‘global financial crisis’ (GFC), and unsustainable conceptions of the ‘good life’,and argues in favour ofthe development of a global carbon ‘integrity system’. It is argued that a fundamental driver of our climate problems is the incipient spread of an unsustainable Western version of the ‘good life’, whereresource-intensive, high-carbon western lifestyles,although frequently criticized as unsustainable and deeply unsatisfying, appear to have established anunearned ethical legitimacy.While the ultimate solution to climate change is the development of low carbon lifestyles, the paper argues that it is also important that economic incentives support and stimulate that search: the sustainable versions of the good life provide an ethical pull, whilst the incentives provide an economic push. Yet, if we are going to secure sustainable low carbon lifestyles, it is argued, we need more than the ethical pull and the economic push. Each needs to be institutionalized – built into the governance of global, regional, national, sub-regional, corporate and professional institutions. Where currently weakness in each exacerbates the weaknesses in others,it is argued that governance reform is required in all areas supporting sustainable, low carbon versions of the good life.
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