Abstract:
Background Three first-line antituberculosis drugs, isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide, may induce liver injury, especially isoniazid. This antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATLI) ranges from a mild to severe form, and the associated mortality cases are not rare. In the past decade, many investigations have focused the association between drug-metabolising enzyme (DME) gene polymorphisms and risk for ATLI; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, ISI web of science and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the association between polymorphisms from 4 DME genes (NAT2, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1) and susceptibility to ATLI. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity among articles and their publication bias were also tested. Results 38 studies involving 2,225 patients and 4,906 controls were included. Overall, significantly increased ATLI risk was associated with slow NAT2 genotype and GSTM1 null genotype when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. Significantly increased risk was also found for CYP2E1*1A in East Asians when stratified by ethnicity. However, no significant results were observed for GSTT1. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that slow NAT2 genotype, CYP2E1*1A and GSTM1 null have a modest effect on genetic susceptibility to ATLI.

Abstract:
Preliminary study on the mechanism of Pd2+ biosorption by resting cells of Bacillus licheniformis R08 biomass has been carried out by means of chemical kinetics and AAS, TEM, XRD and FTIR methods. The results showed that at 30°C and pH 3.5, when dry R08 biomass powder (800 mg/L) was mixed with Pd2+ (100 mg/L) for 45 min, the rate constant k of biosorption of Pd2+ attained a maximum of 5.97 × 10 2 min 1 and the half life period of the reaction reached 12 min. The part of Pd2+ adsorbed by R08 biomass was reduced to elemental, cell-bound Pd at the same condition. The cell wall of R08 biomass was the primary location for accumulating Pd2+, and aldoses, i. e. hydrolysate of a part of polysaccharides on the peptidoglycan layer in the acidic medium, serving as the electron donor, in situ reduced the Pd2+ to Pd0.

Abstract:
Let $S$ be a Riemann surface of type $(p,n)$ with $3p+n>4$ and $n\geq 1$. Let $\alpha_1,\alpha_2\subset S$ be two simple closed geodesics such that $\{\alpha_1, \alpha_2\}$ fills $S$. It was shown by Thurston that most maps obtained through Dehn twists along $\alpha_1$ and $\alpha_2$ are pseudo-Anosov. Let $a$ be a puncture. In this paper, we study the family $\mathcal{F}(S,a)$ of pseudo-Anosov maps on $S$ that projects to the trivial map as $a$ is filled in, and show that there are infinitely many elements in $\mathcal{F}(S,a)$ that cannot be obtained from Dehn twists along two filling geodesics. We further characterize all elements in $\mathcal{F}(S,a)$ that can be constructed by two filling geodesics. Finally, for any point $b\in S$, we obtain a family $\mathcal{H}$ of pseudo-Anosov maps on $S\backslash \{b\}$ that is not obtained from Thurston's construction and projects to an element $\chi\in \mathcal{F}(S,a)$ as $b$ is filled in, some properties of elements in $\mathcal{H}$ are also discussed.

Abstract:
Let $S$ be a Riemann surface of type $(p,n)$ with $3p-3+n>0$. Let $\omega$ be a pseudo-Anosov map of $S$ that is obtained from Dehn twists along two families $\{A,B\}$ of simple closed geodesics that fill $S$. Then $\omega$ can be realized as an extremal Teichm\"{u}ller mapping on a surface of type $(p,n)$ which is also denoted by $S$. Let $\phi$ be the corresponding holomorphic quadratic differential on $S$. In this paper, we compare the locations of some distinguished points on $S$ in the $\phi$-flat metric to their locations with respect to the complete hyperbolic metric. More precisely, we show that all possible non-puncture zeros of $\phi$ must stay away from all closures of once punctured disk components of $S\backslash \{A, B\}$, and the closure of each disk component of $S\backslash \{A, B\}$ contains at most one zero of $\phi$. As a consequence of the result, we assert that the number of distinct zeros and poles of $\phi$ is less than or equal to the number of components of $S\backslash \{A, B\}$.

Abstract:
We show that the minimum of asymptotic translation lengths of all point-pushing pseudo-Anosov maps on any one punctured Riemann surface is one.

Abstract:
Let $S$ be a closed Riemann surface of genus $p>1$ with one point removed. In this paper, we identify those point-pushing pseudo-Anosov maps on $S$ that preserve at least one bi-infinite geodesic in the curve complex.

Abstract:
Let $S_n$ be a punctured Riemann spheres $\mathbf{S}^2\backslash \{x_1,..., x_n\}$. In this paper, we investigate pseudo-Anosov maps on $S_n$ that are isotopic to the identity on $S_n\cup \{x_n\}$ and have the smallest possible dilatations. We show that those maps cannot be obtained from Thurston's construction (that is the products of two Dehn twists). We also prove that those pseudo-Anosov maps $f$ on $S_n$ with the minimum dilatations can never define a trivial mapping class as any puncture $x_i$ of $S_n$ is filled in. The main tool is to give both lower and upper bounds estimations for dilatations $\lambda(f)$ of those pseudo-Anosov maps $f$ on $S_n$ isotopic to the identity as a puncture $x_i$ of $S_n$ is filled in.