Abstract:
We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC, superfluidity) of particle-hole pairs in ultracold Fermionic atoms with repulsive interactionsand arbitrary polarization, which are trapped within optical lattices. Near a Feshbach resonance, the dynamics of particle-hole pairs can be described by a hard-core Bose-Hubbard model. The insulator - superfluid and charge-density-wave (CDW) - superfluid phase transitions can be induced by decreasing and increasing the potential depths with controlling the trapping laser intensity, respectively. The parameter and polarization dependence of the critical temperatures for the ordered states (BEC and/or CDW) is discussed simultaneously.

Abstract:
We study both mean-field and full quantum dynamics of symmetry-breaking transitions (SBTs) in a coupled two-component Bose-Einstein condensate. By controlling s-wave scattering lengths and coupling strength, it is possible to stimulate SBTs between normal and spontaneously polarized ground states. In static transitions, the probability maxima of full quantum ground states correspond to the mean-field ground states. In dynamical transitions, due to the vanishing of excitation gaps, the mean-field dynamics shows universal scalings obeying Kibble-Zurek mechanism. Both mean-field and full quantum defect modes appear as damped oscillations, but they appear at different critical points and undergo different oscillation regimes. The anomalous breakdown of mean-field dynamics induced by SBTs depends on the approaching direction.

Abstract:
We propose a scheme to achieve a Mach-Zehnder interferometry using a quantized Bose-Josephson junction with negative charging energy. The quantum adiabatic evolution through a dynamical bifurcation is used to accomplish the beam splitting and recombination. The negative charging energy ensures the existence of a path-entangled state which enhances the phase measurement precision to the Heisenberg limit. A feasible detection procedure is also presented. The scheme should be realizable with current technology.

Abstract:
Matter-wave bright solitons are predicted to reflect from a purely attractive potential well although they are macroscopic objects with classical particle-like properties. The non-classical reflection occurs at small velocities and a pronounced switching to almost perfect transmission above a critical velocity is found, caused by nonlinear mean-field interactions. Full numerical results from the nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation are complimented by a two-mode variational calculation to explain the predicted effect, which can be used for velocity filtering of solitons. The experimental realization with laser-induced potentials or two-component Bose-Einstein condensates is suggested.

Abstract:
We develop an efficient method to derive a class of surface states in photonic superlattices. In a kind of infinite bichromatic superlattices satisfying some specific conditions, we obtain a finite portion of their in-gap states, which are superpositions of finite numbers of their unstable Bloch waves. By using these unstable in-gap states, we construct exactly several stable surface states near various interfaces in photonic superlattices. We analytically explore the parametric dependence of these exact surface states. Our analysis provides an exact demonstration for the existence of surface states and would be also helpful to understand surface states in other lattice systems.

Abstract:
We propose a scheme for scalable and universal quantum computation using diatomic bits with conditional dipole-dipole interaction, trapped within an optical lattice. The qubit states are encoded by the scattering state and the bound heteronuclear molecular state of two ultracold atoms per site. The conditional dipole-dipole interaction appears between neighboring bits when they both occupy the molecular state. The realization of a universal set of quantum logic gates, which is composed of single-bit operations and a two-bit controlled-NOT gate, is presented. The readout method is also discussed.

Abstract:
We investigate the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a classically chaotic system, which describes an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical lattice and driven by a spatiotemporal periodic laser field. It is demonstrated that the exact Floquet states appear when the external time-dependent potential is balanced by the nonlinear mean-field interaction. The balance region of parameters is divided into a phase-continuing region and a phase-jumping one. In the latter region, the Floquet states are spatiotemporal vortices of nontrivial phase structures and zero-density cores. Due to the velocity singularities of vortex cores and the blowing-up of perturbed solutions, the spatiotemporal vortices are unstable periodic states embedded in chaos. The stability and instability of these Floquet states are numerically explored by the time evolution of fidelity between the exact and numerical solutions. It is numerically illustrated that the stable Floquet states could be prepared from the uniformly initial states by slow growth of the external potential.

Abstract:
We study many-body quantum coherence and interaction blockade in two Josephson-linked Bose-Einstein condensates. We introduce universal operators for characterizing many-body coherence without limitations on the system symmetry and total particle number $N$. We reproduce the results for both coherence fluctuations and number squeezing in {\em symmetric} systems of large $N$, and reveal several peculiar phenomena that may occur in {\em asymmetric} systems and systems of small $N$. For asymmetric systems, we show that, due to an interplay between asymmetry and inter-particle interaction, the coherence fluctuations are suppressed dramatically when $|E_{C}/E_{J}|\ll 1$, and both {\it resonant tunneling} and {\it interaction blockade} take place for large values of $|E_{C}/E_{J}|$, where $E_C$ and $E_J$ are the interaction and tunneling energies, respectively. We emphasize that the resonant tunneling and interaction blockade may allow creating single-atom devices with promising technology applications. We demonstrate that for the systems at finite temperatures the formation of self-trapped states causes an anomalous behavior.

Abstract:
We explore the coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) in a lattice array under selective in-phase harmonic modulations, in which some selected lattice sites are driven by in-phase harmonic oscillating fields and other lattice sites are undriven. Due to the occurrence of CDT, if the driving amplitude $A$ and the driving frequency $\omega$ are tuned to satisfy the zeroth-order Bessel function $J_0(A/\omega)=0$, the driven lattice sites are approximately decoupled with the undriven lattice sites. The CDT even takes place in lattice systems with high-order couplings between non-nearest lattice sites. By using the CDT, we propose a scheme for realizing directed transport of a single particle. It is possible to observe the CDT in the engineered optical waveguide array, which provides a new opportunity for controlling light propagation and designing switch-like couplers.

Abstract:
We find a set of new exact solutions of a quantum harmonic oscillator, which describes some wave-packet trains with average energy being proportional to both the quantum level and classical energy of the oscillator. Center of the wave-packet trains may oscillate like a classical harmonic oscillator of frequency $\omega$. Width and highness of the trains may change simultaneously with frequency $2 \omega $ as an array of breathers. Under some perturbations the wave-packet trains could transit between the states of different quantum numbers. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that the wave-packet trains can be strictly fitted to the matter-wave soliton trains observed by Strecher et al. and reported in Nature 417, 150(2002). When the wave-packets breathe with greater amplitudes, they show periodic collapse and revival of the matter-wave.