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Toda-like systems: solutions and symmetries
Liu Chao
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: This report is consisted of six independent chapters, each chapter (except chapter 1) is a paper carried out in colabouration with others, who's names are indicated in chapter1. The topics included are (1)Overview of general properties of Toda-like systems (chapter1) (2)Free field representations of some particular example of entended Toda like system via Drinfeld-Sokolov construction (chapter2) (3)Heterotic conformal Toda system (chapter3) (4)Heterotic Liouville systems related to Bernoulli equation (chapter4) (5)Two-extended Toda field in three-dimensions--a representative example of extended Toda systems in higher dimensions (chapter5) and (6) $W_N^{(l)}$ algebras in the exchange algebra's framework (chapter6)
Progress in Antimonide Based III-V Compound Semiconductors and Devices  [PDF]
Chao Liu, Yanbo Li, Yiping Zeng
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.28079
Abstract: In recent years, the narrow bandgap antimonide based compound semiconductors (ABCS) are widely regarded as the first candidate materials for fabrication of the third generation infrared photon detectors and integrated circuits with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. Due to their unique bandgap structure and physical properties, it makes a vast space to develop various novel devices, and becomes a hot research area in many developed countries such as USA, Japan, Germany and Israel etc. Research progress in the preparation and application of ABCS materials, existing problems and some latest results are briefly introduced.
Uncertainty Weight Generation Approach Based on Uncertainty Comparison Matrices  [PDF]
Chao Wang, Liang Lin, Jiajun Liu
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.35075
Abstract: In practical application of AHP, non-deterministic factors are frequently encountered. This paper employs uncertainty theory to deal with non-deterministic factors in problems of ranking alternatives. The concepts of uncertainty comparison matrix and uncertainty weights are proposed in this paper. It also gives the uncertain variable method to calculate uncertainty weights from uncertainty comparison matrices, which can be either consistent or inconsistent. The proposed uncertain variable method (UVM) is also applicable to interval comparison matrices and fuzzy comparison ma-trices when they are transformed into uncertainty comparison matrices using linear uncertainty distribution or zigzag uncertainty distribution. The proposed approach is computationally efficient as it consists of solving only inverse uncertainty distribution. At the end of this paper, five numerical examples are given to illustrate the method.
The Discrimination of Inrush Current from Internal Fault of Power Transformer based on EMD  [PDF]
Fanyuan Zeng, Qianjin Liu, Chao Shi
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B270
Abstract:

The method is based on that the waveform of the inrush distorts seriously, while the fault current nearly keeps sinusoid. The complicated signal can be decomposed into a finite intrinsic mode functions (IMF) by the EMD, then define and compute the projection area on X-axis of each IMF—\"\", the specific gravity of SIMF—\"\", and the maximum of \"\"\"\". We can get a new scheme of transformer-protection based on comparing the difference between inrush and fault current. Theoretical analysis show that the method can precisely discriminate inrush and fault current, fault clearance time is about 20ms. Moreover, it is convenient to achieve and hardly be affect by not-periodic component.

Painlevé Property and Exact Solutions to a (2 + 1) Dimensional KdV-mKdV Equation  [PDF]
Yuqing Liu, Fang Duan, Chao Hu
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2015.36083
Abstract: A (2 + 1) dimensional KdV-mKdV equation is proposed and integrability in the sense of Painlevé and some exact solutions are discussed. The B?cklund transformation and bilinear equations are obtained through Painlevé analysis. Some exact solutions are deduced by Hirota method and generalized Wronskian method.
A Gauge Transformation between Ragnisco-Tu Hierarchy and a Related Lattice Hierarchy  [PDF]
Yuqing Liu, Chao Hu, Juan Dai
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2015.310157
Abstract: A new lattice hierarchy related to Ragnisco-Tu equation is proposed and its gauge equivalence to Ragnisco-Tu equation is proven. As an application of gauge transformation, we construct Darboux transformation (DT) of this new equation through DT of Ragnisco-Tu equation. An explicit exact solution is presented as an example.
Solid Phase Synthesis of 3,4,5-Trisubstituted-1,2,4-Triazoles Derivatives from the Resin-Bound Acylhydrazines  [PDF]
Rongjian Xie, Xingang Liu, Chao Mai, Zhanxiang Liu
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2013.31A004
Abstract:

An extension of our methodology on solid-phase synthesis of 3,4,5-trisubstituted-1,2,4-triazoles under mild conditions has been developed. Firstly, the resin-bound acylhydrazine is reacted with orthoesters to provide resin-bound 1,3,4-oxadiazoles. Secondly, condensation of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles resin with the corresponding arylamines hydrochloride to form the the resin-bound triazoles. 3,4,5-Trisubstituted-1,2,4-triazoles derivatives were obtained from resin-bound acylhydrazines in several steps providing 78% - 87% overall yields and excellent purity. The advantages of this method include straightforward operation and high yield and purity of the products.

Numerical Calculation of Viscous-Elastic Fluid Flooding Residual Oil Film in the Complex Pore  [PDF]
Lili Liu, Chao Yu, Lihui Wang, Lu Liu
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2013.33019
Abstract:

In order to analyze the stress and deformation of different permeability of residual oil film in the complex pore, which are affected by the viscous-elasticity of the fluid, the hydrodynamic displacement mechanism is explored from the stand-point of hydrodynamics, that is, the residual oil film displaced by alternating injection of different concentrations of the polymer solution, viscous-elastic fluid flow equation is established in the complex pore by choosing continuity equation, motion equation and the upper convected Maxwell constitutive equation. The flow field is computed by using the method of numerical analysis. Not only the stress and deformation of residual oil film on the different permeability of micro pores, but also the analysis of the flooding mechanism of alternating injection of different concentrations of the polymer solution is got. The results show that the larger the viscous-elasticity of polymer solution is, the bigger the normal deviatoric stress acting on the residual oil film is; the distribution of normal deviatoric stress has the abrupt change. The stronger the viscous-elasticity of the polymer solution is, the bigger the horizontal stress difference acting on the residual oil film is and the more obvious the deformation is; the high-concentration polymer solution is suitable for high-permeability micro pores. Low-concentration polymer solution is suitable for medium and low-permeability micro pores. Alternating injection of polymer solution can improve

A review on hybridization modification of graphene and its polymer nanocomposites
Chao Zhang,TianXi Liu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5321-x
Abstract: Recently, graphene has attracted numerous interests from both fundamental and applied fields due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical conductivity and other novel properties. This review gives an overview of recent progress on hybridization modifications of graphene with carbon nanomaterials. Some example applications of graphene-based nanohybrids in polymer composites, optical and conducting materials, high performance electrolyte materials and as well as other functional materials are summarized and discussed.
Semi-analytical analysis of the response of the air temperature over the land surface to the global vegetation distribution
Fei Liu,JiPing Chao
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-009-0093-7
Abstract: Response of the air temperature over the land surface to the global vegetation distribution is investigated, using a three-dimensional governing equation to simulate the steady, large-scale, limited amplitude perturbation of the free, inviscid and adiabatic atmosphere. The adoption of the static equation leads to a temperature governing equation in the terrain following coordinate. With the prescribed temperature as the upper boundary condition and the radiation balance as the lower boundary condition, the semi-analytical solution of the global circulation temperature can be calculated. In this article, only the air temperature (at 2 m height) over the land surface is analyzed, and the result suggests that this model can simulate the air temperature pattern over the land surface reasonably. A better simulation occurs when a simple feedback of the albedo on the temperature is included. Two sensitivity experiments are analyzed through this model. One suggests that the air temperature over the land surface descends obviously when the land surface is covered with ice all over, while another suggests that the air temperature rises a little when the land surface is covered with forest except the ice-covered area. This model appears to be a good tool to study the response of the air temperature to the vegetation distribution. Limitations of the model are also discussed.
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