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Search Results: 1 - 6 of 6 matches for " Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa "
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Transition to adulthood: A critical role for exercise in building overall well-being  [PDF]
Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa, Ryan Punambolam
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57156
Abstract:

A growing number of multidisciplinary studies have reported the beneficial effects of physical activities towards the development of overall well-being and the reduction of chronic illnesses. Physical inactivity is a serious worldwide problem and is considered the key lifestyle factor that negatively influences health and function of individuals. Here we propose that growth kinetics of body and mind and associated disproportionate physical activity may have considerable effects on the increased physical and mental illnesses and premature death rates currently observed in mid to late adulthood people. Children and young adults, being in exponential growth phase and self-motivated to engage in physical activity, possess more cognition, resilience, and mind-body-emotion-spirit integration. In contrast, as our body transitions into adulthood, there is a decline in the growth of body and mind. Furthermore, in this period, adults experience the increased stressors of career and financial demands, time pressure, and family responsibilities. The decline in growth combined with prolonged stress appears to result in reduced cognition, resilience, and mind-body-emotion-spirit integration, leading to sedentary and other faulty lifestyles, which could further lead to a predisposition to maladaptive behaviours and various chronic diseases at a later stage. In agreement with this, currently more than two thirds of the adult population across the world are physically inactive and are failing to perform the daily recommended guidelines of moderate to vigorous exercise. As negative changes and faulty lifestyles begin to occur during and after adulthood transition, creating awareness in people between 29 to 35 years of age about mindful exercise should be considered a national priority. This would allow adults to achieve overall well-being, and increased productivity and life expectancy, reducing health care-associated economic burden placed on the nation.

CD154 and IL-2 Signaling of CD4+ T Cells Play a Critical Role in Multiple Phases of CD8+ CTL Responses Following Adenovirus Vaccination
Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa, Roopa Hebbandi Nanjundappa, Yufeng Xie, Andrew Freywald, Yulin Deng, Hong Ma, Jim Xiang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047004
Abstract: Adenoviral (AdV) vectors represent most commonly utilized viral vaccines in clinical studies. While the role of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in mediating AdV-induced protection is well understood, the involvement of CD4+ T cell-provided signals in the development of functional CD8+ CTL responses remain unclear. To explore CD4+ T helper signals required for AdVova-stimulated CTL responses, we established an adoptive transfer system by transferring CD4+ T cells derived from various knock out and transgenic mice into wild-type and/or CD4-deficient animals, followed by immunizing with recombinant ovalbumin (OVA)-expressing AdVova vector. Without CD4+ T help, both primary and memory CTL responses were greatly reduced in this model, and were associated with increased PD-1 expression. The provision of OVA-specific CD4+ T help in CD4+ T cell-deficient mice restored AdVova-induced primary CTL responses, and supported survival and recall responses of AdVova-stimulated memory CTLs. These effects were specifically mediated by CD4+ T cell-produced IL-2 and CD154 signals. Adoptive transfer of “helped” or “unhelped” effector and memory CTLs into na?ve CD4+ T cell-deficient or -sufficient mice also revealed an additional role for polyclonal CD4+ T cell environment in the survival of AdVova-stimulated CTLs, partially explaining the extension of CTL contraction phase. Finally, during recall responses, CD4+ T cell environment, particularly involving memory CD4+ T cells, greatly enhanced expansion of memory CTLs. Collectively, our data strongly suggest a critical role for CD4+ T help in multiple phases of AdV-stimulated CTL responses, and could partially explain certain failures in AdV-based immunization trials targeting malignant tumors and chronic diseases that are often associated with compromised CD4+ T cell population and function.
Th Cells Promote CTL Survival and Memory via Acquired pMHC-I and Endogenous IL-2 and CD40L Signaling and by Modulating Apoptosis-Controlling Pathways
Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa, Yufeng Xie, Shulin Xu, Roopa Hebbandi Nanjundappa, Andrew Freywald, Yulin Deng, Hong Ma, Jim Xiang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064787
Abstract: Involvement of CD4+ helper T (Th) cells is crucial for CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immunity. However, CD4+ Th’s signals that govern CTL survival and functional memory are still not completely understood. In this study, we assessed the role of CD4+ Th cells with acquired antigen-presenting machineries in determining CTL fates. We utilized an adoptive co-transfer into CD4+ T cell-sufficient or -deficient mice of OTI CTLs and OTII Th cells or Th cells with various gene deficiencies pre-stimulated in vitro by ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed dendritic cell (DCova). CTL survival was kinetically assessed in these mice using FITC-anti-CD8 and PE-H-2Kb/OVA257-264 tetramer staining by flow cytometry. We show that by acting via endogenous CD40L and IL-2, and acquired peptide-MHC-I (pMHC-I) complex signaling, CD4+ Th cells enhance survival of transferred effector CTLs and their differentiation into the functional memory CTLs capable of protecting against highly-metastasizing tumor challenge. Moreover, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis demonstrate that increased survival of CD4+ Th cell-helped CTLs is matched with enhanced Akt1/NF-κB activation, down-regulation of TRAIL, and altered expression profiles with up-regulation of prosurvival (Bcl-2) and down-regulation of proapoptotic (Bcl-10, Casp-3, Casp-4, Casp-7) molecules. Taken together, our results reveal a previously unexplored mechanistic role for CD4+ Th cells in programming CTL survival and memory recall responses. This knowledge could also aid in the development of efficient adoptive CTL cancer therapy.
OPTIMIZATION OF PLY STACKING SEQUENCE OF COMPOSITE DRIVE SHAFT USING PARTICLE SWARM ALGORITHM
MANJUNATH K.,S. MOHAN KUMAR,CHANNAKESHAVA K. R.
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper an attempt has been made to optimize ply stacking sequence of single piece E-Glass/Epoxy and Boron /Epoxy composite drive shafts using Particle swarm algorithm (PSA). PSA is a population based evolutionary stochastic optimization technique which is a resent heuristic search method, where mechanics are inspired by swarming or collaborative behavior of biological population. PSA programme is developed to optimize the ply stacking sequence with an objective of weight minimization by considering design constraints as torque transmission capacity, fundamental natural frequency, lateral vibration and torsional buckling strength having number of laminates, ply thickness and stacking sequence as design variables. The weight savings of the E-Glass/epoxy and Boron /Epoxy shaft from PAS were 51% and 85 % of the steel shaft respectively. The optimum results of PSA obtained are compared with results of genetic algorithm (GA) results and found that PSA yields better results than GA.
Content-Based Image Retrieval System for Optical Fiber Sensor Information Processing
Madhusudhan S,Channakeshava K.R.,Dr.T.Rangaswam
International Journal of Engineering Research , 2014,
Abstract: Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials are finding new application areas every day. Monitoring of FRP materials is essential to make the structure fail-safe. Researchers have developed many methods for structural health monitoring (SHM) of FRP structures by using optical fiber sensors. The interrogation system used for processing optical fiber sensor information in these SHMs is very complex and expensive. In this regard, a unique interrogation method has been emphasized in this paper. Proposed work involves in developing the interrogation system, with the aid of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) using MATLAB.
Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures
Chris Barrett, Karthik Channakeshava, Fei Huang, Junwhan Kim, Achla Marathe, Madhav V. Marathe, Guanhong Pei, Sudip Saha, Balaaji S. P. Subbiah, Anil Kumar S. Vullikanti
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045406
Abstract: In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded base stations than the evacuation compliance rate of 90%.
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