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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 276 matches for " Changhyun Roh "
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A Facile Inhibitor Screening of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protein Using Nanoparticle-Based RNA
Changhyun Roh
Biosensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/bios2040427
Abstract: Globally, over hundreds of million people are infected with the hepatitis C virus: the global rate of death as a direct result of the hepatitis C virus has increased remarkably. For this reason, the development of efficient drug treatments for the biological effects of the hepatitis C virus is highly necessary. We have previously shown that quantum dots (QDs)-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide can recognize the hepatitis C virus NS3 protein specifically and sensitively. In this study, we elucidated that this biochip can analyze inhibitors to the hepatitis C virus NS3 protein using a nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide. Among the polyphenolic compounds examined, 7,8,4 '-trihydroxyisoflavone and 6,7,4 '-trihydroxyisoflavone demonstrated a remarkable inhibition activity on the hepatitis C virus NS3 protein. Both 7,8,4 '-trihydroxyisoflavone and 6,7,4 '-trihydroxyisoflavone attenuated the binding affinity in a concentrated manner as evidenced by QDs conjugated RNA oligonucleotide. At a concentration of 0.01 μg·mL ?1, 7,8,4 '-trihydroxyisoflavone and 6,7,4 '-trihydroxyisoflavone showed more than a 30% inhibition activity of a nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide biochip system.
Biotransformation of Isoflavone Using Enzymatic Reactions
Changhyun Roh
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules18033028
Abstract: The roles of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) from Streptomyces spp. which are called the “treasure islands” for natural products for medicine and antibiotics are not well understood. Substrate specificity studies on CYPs may give a solution for elucidation of their roles. Based on homology sequence information, the CYP105D7 of a soluble cytochrome P450 known as heme protein from Streptomyces avermitilis MA4680 was expressed using the T7 promoter of the bacterial expression vector pET24ma, over-expressed in Escherichia coli system and characterized. An engineered whole cell system for daidzein hydroxylation was constructed using an exogenous electron transport system from ferredoxin reductase (PdR) and ferredoxin (Pdx). Also, an in vitro reaction study showed the purified CYP105D7 enzyme, using NADH-dependent-reducing equivalents of a redox partner from Pseudomonas putida, hydroxylated daidzein at the 3' position of the B ring to produce 7,3,'4' trihydroxyisoflavone. The hydroxylated position was confirmed by GC-MS analysis. The turnover number of the enzyme was 0.69 μmol 7,3,'4'-trihydroxyisoflavone produced per μmol P450 per min. This enzyme CYP105D7 represents a novel type of 3'-hydroxylase for daidzein hydroxylation. A P450 inhibitor such as coumarin significantly (ca.98%) inhibited the daidzein hydroxylation activity.
Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity
Changhyun Roh,Uhee Jung
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13021710
Abstract: Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.
Fucoidan from Marine Brown Algae Inhibits Lipid Accumulation
Min-Kyoung Park,Uhee Jung,Changhyun Roh
Marine Drugs , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/md9081359
Abstract: In this study, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan from marine brown algae on the lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism. The treatment of fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner was examined on lipid inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells by using Oil Red O staining. Fucoidan showed high lipid inhibition activity at 200 μg/mL concentration ( P < 0.001). Lipolytic activity in adipocytes is highly dependent on hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which is one of the most important targets of lipolytic regulation. Here, we examined the biological response of fucoidan on the protein level of lipolysis pathway. The expressed protein levels of total hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and its activated form, phosphorylated-HSL were significantly increased at concentration of 200 μg/mL fucoidan. Furthermore, insulin-induced 2-deoxy-D-[ 3H] glucose uptake was decreased up to 51% in fucoidan-treated cells as compared to control. Since increase of HSL and p-HSL expression and decrease of glucose uptake into adipocytes are known to lead to stimulation of lipolysis, our results suggest that fucoidan reduces lipid accumulation by stimulating lipolysis. Therefore, these results suggest that fucoidan can be useful for the prevention or treatment of obesity due to its stimulatory lipolysis.
Screening of Anti-Obesity Agent from Herbal Mixtures
Changhyun Roh,Uhee Jung,Sung-Kee Jo
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17043630
Abstract: Globally, one in three of the World’s adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion—Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl gallate from the herbal composition known as HemoHIM that actively inhibits lipid formation as evidenced by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG) contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting their use as an anti-obesity agent. Furthermore, the amount of glycerol released from cells into the medium had increased by treatment of methyl gallate in a concentration-dependent manner. The present study suggests that a promising anti-obesity agent like methyl gallate might be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of obesity.
Label Free Inhibitor Screening of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS5B Viral Protein Using RNA Oligonucleotide
Changhyun Roh,Sang Eun Kim,Sung-Kee Jo
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110706685
Abstract: Globally, over 170 million people (ca. 3% of the World’s population) are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which can cause serious liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, evolving into subsequent health problems. Driven by the need to detect the presence of HCV, as an essential factor in diagnostic medicine, the monitoring of viral protein has been of great interest in developing simple and reliable HCV detection methods. Despite considerable advances in viral protein detection as an HCV disease marker, the current enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based detection methods using antibody treatment have several drawbacks. To overcome this bottleneck, an RNA aptamer become to be emerged as an antibody substitute in the application of biosensor for detection of viral protein. In this study, we demonstrated a streptavidin-biotin conjugation method, namely, the RNA aptamer sensor system that can quantify viral protein with detection level of 700 pg mL?1 using a biotinylated RNA oligonucleotide on an Octet optical biosensor. Also, we showed this method can be used to screen inhibitors of viral protein rapidly and simply on a biotinylated RNA oligonucleotide biosensor. Among the inhibitors screened, (?)-Epigallocatechin gallate showed high binding inhibition effect on HCV NS5B viral protein. The proposed method can be considered a real-time monitoring method for inhibitor screening of HCV viral protein and is expected to be applicable to other types of diseases.
The Biological Response of Spermidine Induced by Ionization Radiation
Changhyun Roh,Dong-Kyung Yu,Insub Kim,Sung Kee Jo
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17010145
Abstract: Globally, there are concerns over the risks associated with radiation exposure, so it is important to understand the biological effects of radiation exposure. Driven by the need to detect the presence of radiation exposure, biomarkers to monitor potential exposure after radiological accidents can be developed and would be extremely valuable for biological response. In this study, the behavior of spermidine as a biomarker was investigated in a C57BL/6 mouse model exposed to an acute whole-body sublethal dose of 6 Gy. The spermidine content values in serum increased for up to two days after 6 Gy irradiation. However, the enhanced spermidine content observed on day +3 in irradiated mice returned to normal levels on the subsequent five days. The result indicates that spermidine can be used as a biomarker of biological response to radiation exposure.
Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Mice
Changhyun Roh,Min-Kyoung Park,Hee-June Shin,Uhee Jung,Jin-Kyu Kim
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17078687
Abstract: Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we elucidated that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 2.7/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice. In addition, in Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 21% and 17%, respectively. The discovery of bioactive compounds from diet or dietary supplementation is one of possible ways to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of various obesity-related diseases. These results support that Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz extract is expected to create the therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.
Effect of Acute and Fractionated Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis
Min-Kyoung Park,Seolhwa Kim,Uhee Jung,Insub Kim,Jin Kyu Kim,Changhyun Roh
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17089462
Abstract: Ionizing radiation has become an inevitable health concern emanating from natural sources like space travel and from artificial sources like medical therapies. In general, exposure to ionizing radiation such as γ-rays is one of the methods currently used to stress specific model systems. In this study, we elucidated the long-term effect of acute and fractionated irradiation on DCX-positive cells in hippocampal neurogenesis. Groups of two-month-old C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at acute dose (5 Gy) or fractional doses (1 Gy × 5 times and 0.5 Gy × 10 times). Six months after exposure to γ-irradiation, the hippocampus was analyzed. Doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry was used to measure changes of neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The number of DCX-positive cells was significantly decreased in all acute and fractionally irradiation groups. The long-term changes in DCX-positive cells triggered by radiation exposure showed a very different pattern to the short-term changes which tended to return to the control level in previous studies. Furthermore, the number of DCX-positive cells was relatively lower in the acute irradiation group than the fractional irradiation groups (approximately 3.6-fold), suggesting the biological change on hippocampal neurogenesis was more susceptible to being damaged by acute than fractional irradiation. These results suggest that the exposure to γ-irradiation as a long-term effect can trigger biological responses resulting in the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.
A highly sensitive and selective viral protein detection method based on RNA oligonucleotide nanoparticle
Changhyun Roh, Ho-Young Lee, Sang-Eun Kim, et al
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S10134
Abstract: highly sensitive and selective viral protein detection method based on RNA oligonucleotide nanoparticle Original Research (4471) Total Article Views Authors: Changhyun Roh, Ho-Young Lee, Sang-Eun Kim, et al Published Date April 2010 Volume 2010:5 Pages 323 - 329 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S10134 Changhyun Roh1, Ho-Young Lee2, Sang-Eun Kim2, Sung-Kee Jo1 1Radiation Research Division for Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk, South Korea; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, South Korea Abstract: Globally, approximately 170 million people (representing approximately 3% of the population worldwide), are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and at risk of serious liver disease, including chronic hepatitis. We propose a new quantum dots (QDs)-supported RNA oligonucleotide approach for the specific and sensitive detection of viral protein using a biochip. This method was developed by immobilizing a HCV nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) on the surface of a glass chip via the formation of a covalent bond between an amine protein group and a ProLinkerTM glass chip. The QDs-supported RNA oligonucleotide was conjugated via an amide formation reaction from coupling of a 5′-end-amine-modified RNA oligonucleotide on the surface of QDs displaying carboxyl groups via standard EDC coupling. The QDs-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide was interacted to immobilized viral protein NS5B on the biochip. The detection is based on the variation of signal of QDs-supported RNA oligonucleotide bound on an immobilized biochip. It was demonstrated that the value of the signal has a linear relationship with concentrations of the HCV NS5B viral protein in the 1 μg mL-1 to 1 ng mL-1 range with a detection limit of 1 ng mL-1. The major advantages of this RNA-oligonucleotide nanoparticle assay are its good specificity, ease of performance, and ability to perform one-spot monitoring. The proposed method could be used as a general method of HCV detection and is expected to be applicable to other types of diseases as well.
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