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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19715 matches for " Chang "
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Bayesian Decision Analysis for Recurrent Cervical Cancer  [PDF]
Chi-Chang Chang
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2014.42013
Abstract: Risk modeling for recurrent cervical cancer requires the development of new concepts and methodologies. Unlike most daily decisions, many medical decision making have substantial consequences, and involve important uncertainties and trade-offs. The uncertainties may be about the accuracy of available diagnostic tests, the natural history of the cervical cancer, the effects of treatment in a patient or the effects of an intervention in a group or population as a whole. With such complex decisions, it can be difficult to comprehend all options “in our heads”. This study applied Bayesian decision analysis to an inferential problem of recurrent cervical cancer in survival analysis. A formulation is considered where individual was expected to experience repeated events, along with concomitant variables. In addition, the sampling distribution of the observations is modelled through a proportional intensity Nonhomogeneous Poisson process. The proposed decision models can provide decision support techniques not only for taking action in the light of all available relevant information, but also for minimizing expected loss. The decision process is useful in selecting the best alternative when a patient with recurrent cervical cancer, in particular, the proposed decision process can provide more realistic solutions.
A Novel Particle Swarm Optimization for Optimal Scheduling of Hydrothermal System  [PDF]
Wenping Chang
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2010.24033
Abstract: A fuzzy adaptive particle swarm optimization (FAPSO) is presented to determine the optimal operation of hydrothermal power system. In order to solve the shortcoming premature and easily local optimum of the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO), the fuzzy adaptive criterion is applied for inertia weight based on the evolution speed factor and square deviation of fitness for the swarm, in each iteration process, the inertia weight is dynamically changed using the fuzzy rules to adapt to nonlinear optimization process. The performance of FAPSO is demonstrated on hydrothermal system comprising 1 thermal unit and 4 hydro plants, the comparison is drawn in PSO, FAPSO and genetic algorithms (GA) in terms of the solution quality and computational efficiency. The experiment showed that the proposed approach has higher quality solutions and strong ability in global search.
Are Securities Also Derivatives?  [PDF]
Kuoping Chang
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.23051
Abstract: This paper has used the Arbitrage Theorem (Gordan Theorem) to show that first, all securities are derivatives for each other, and they are priced by the same risk neutral probability measure. Second, after the firm changes its debt-equity ratio, the equityholders can always combine the new equity with other existing securities to create a home-made equity which will give exactly the same time-1 payoff of the old equity. That is, we have a capital structure irrelevancy proposition: changes in firms’ debt-equity ratios will not affect equityholders’ wealth (welfare), and equityholders’ preferences toward variance are irrelevant. Third, when the firm moves from a more certain project to a more uncertain one, the time-0 price of equity will increase, but (because the time-1 payoff of common bond has an upper bound) the time-0 price of common bond will decrease. Fourth, different labor contractual arrangements will not affect the time-0 price of labor input. When the firm moves from a more certain project to a more uncertain one, the time-0 price of labor input will increase if it is under the share or the mixed contract.
The Scientificalization and Vulgarization of Marxism in the 20th Century: A Critical Analysis on K. Popper’s Critique of Marxism  [PDF]
Fan Chang
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34069
Abstract: Marxism was indeed vulgarized due to scientism in the 20th century, which even limits the development of Chinese social theories nowadays. This paper put forward the idea that it was serious misunderstanding to interpret Marx as prophet or inventor like empiricists who regard finding out eternal laws as the goal of science. In fact, Marx did not propose any so-called “natural laws of historical development”. He articulated that the only thing worth to do was to take note of what happened before his eyes and to become its mouthpiece. Thus, to understand science in the face of social practice, to analyze everything historically and never to thrust “eternal” laws in any era should be taken as the core of Marx’s new science, which is very important to China today.
The Development History of Chinese TV Audience Ratings and Its Critical Thinking  [PDF]
Qiyun Chang
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2014.22006
Abstract: Along with Chinese economic system transition from a planned economy to market economy, Chi-nese television audience survey also implements the changes from the audience’s letters, calls, collective and individual interviews in the 1980s, to the TV audience ratings of the 1990s. But the TV audience ratings purely take the AD share and economic interests as the guidance, under the globalization era background, not only can greatly reduce the TV programs quality, but also even-tually lead to the crisis of Chinese traditional culture.
Neutrinos as Superluminal Particles  [PDF]
Tsao Chang
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.412A1002
Abstract:

Based on parity violation in the weak interaction and evidences from neutrino oscillation, a natural choice is that neutrinos may be superluminal particles with tiny mass. To keep causality for Superluminal particles, a kinematic time under a non-standard form of the Lorentz transformation is introduced. A Dirac-type equation for Superluminal neutrinos is further investigated, and its solution is brief discussed. This equation can be written in two spinor equations coupled together via tiny mass while respecting maximum parity violation. As a consequence, parity violation implies that the principle of relativity is violated in the weak interaction.

Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBR) for Wastewater Treatment  [PDF]
Sheng Chang
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.41008
Abstract:

This paper focuses on the recent research in the development of anaerobic membrane bioreactors in wastewater treatment. Anaerobic wastewater treatment technology is gaining increasing attention due to its capacity to convert wastewater BODs to usable biogas with relatively low energy consumption. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), which is a combination of the anaerobic biological wastewater treatment process and membrane filtration, represents a recent development in the high-rate anaerobic bioreactors. This paper reviews applications and performances of AnMBR and the membrane filtration behaviour in AnMBRs.

Analysis of Education Wage Premium in Several Provinces of China  [PDF]
Xinyang Chang
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.68081
Abstract: By using the CHIP-2007 data, this paper builds a model based on the Mincer wage equation model, and analyses the education wage premium of three levels of education—“junior middle school and the following”, “high school or technical secondary school”, and “junior college or above” in several provinces of China by the OLS estimation method. The analysis results show that the wage income of workers in China increases with the improvement of education level. There does exist the education wage premium. There isn’t the phenomenon that the intellectual workers get less wage income than manual workers. Education wage premium of the population of tertiary and higher education level is much higher than that of the population of high school or secondary school education level.
An Experiment to Improve the Model of Lumped Element Circuit  [PDF]
Tsao Chang
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.94041
Abstract: The model of lumped element circuit ignores the finite time of signals to propagate around a circuit. However, using modern oscilloscope, the time of nanoseconds in a circuit can be measured. Then the speed of alternating electricity can be obtained in a RL circuit. A typical RL circuit is formed by a power source, wire, resistance and inductance. The basic formula is: U(t)=I(t)R+LdI(t)/dt. It can be derived from the Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff laws. Based on our experimental results, this paper has discussed the new explanation of this equation in a RL circuit. As a result, the speed of alternating electricity is greater than light in a special RL circuit. The model of lumped element circuit can be improved when considering the finite time of signals.
The Cognitive Metaphorical Expressions of King Lear  [PDF]
Chengxia Chang
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/als.2018.62005
Abstract: From a linguistic cognitive perspective, Shakespeare highlights the theme of King Lear through metaphorical expressions. One of the main clues to the play was the reckless and irrational act that King Lear and Gloucester had to deal with some of their own problems. These behaviors cause their personal and family tragedies. The author analyzes the tragic favour of King Lear from three aspects: The cognitive metaphorical expressions of language, tragic theme and the eyes. The drama King Lear shows the metaphorical expression of language cognition in the modeling of characters, the theme expression and the plot construction. From a linguistic point of view, Shakespeare highlights the internal structure and theme of drama by setting reckless and irrational actions of characters, and metaphorically expresses the grave consequence of recklessness and irrationality by this way of setting.
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