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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 189843 matches for " Chandu G "
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An analysis of concentration of sucrose, endogenous pH, and alteration in the plaque pH on consumption of commonly used liquid pediatric medicines
Sunitha S,Prashanth G,Shanmukhappa,Chandu G
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Many parents are often unaware of the hidden, added sugars in many foods and drinks including pediatric liquid medicines; thus, hidden sugar in the form of pediatric medications has not been focused upon as cariogenic agents. Objective: (i) assess concentration of sucrose in six pediatric drugs, (ii) determine endogenous pH of these drugs, and (iii) estimate drop in the plaque pH in the oral cavity in first 30 minutes after consumption of the drugs. Materials and Methods: Ten adult volunteers with mean age of 22 years were double blinded for the study. Concentration of sucrose was assessed by volumetric method at Department of Chemical Branch of Engineering. Endogenous pH and drop in the plaque pH after consumption of the drugs were assessed using digital pH meter. Statistical analysis: SPSS software was used to assess the pH level at different time intervals and expressed as mean ± SD. Changes in pH were assessed by one-way ANOVA followed by Wilcoxons signed rank test. P-value was set at 0.05. Result: There were varying amounts of fermentable sucrose detected in the drugs; all the drugs were acidic. There is a significant drop of plaque pH after consumption of the drug. Conclusion: These sweeteners along with their low endogenic pH form a high cariogenic formulation. Thus, nonsucrose (noncariogenic) or sugar-free medications are needed to be prescribed along with proper oral hygiene care to the children under medication.
Oral health status and treatment needs in institutionalized psychiatric patients : One year descriptive cross sectional study
Kumar Manish,Chandu G,Shafiulla M
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2006,
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : Psychiatric patients are one of the special groups requiring attention as they are often neglected. Oral health is an major determinant of general health for psychiatric patients and may have a low priority in the context of mental illness. The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of institutionalized psychiatric patients of Davangere. METHODS : 220 psychiatric patients admitted in two general hospitals of Davangere during the period of one year were included in the study. The oral health status was evaluated with respect to caries, oral hygiene, and periodontal status. RESULTS : Of the 180 examined with the response rate of 81.8%. 58.3% were males, mean age was 36.7 years, 57.8% had < 1 year of mental illness with a mean of 2.2 years, and 90% were self-sufficient. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean DMFT (0.92) increased with age, duration of mental illness, and irregularity of oral hygiene habits (P<0.001). Mean OHI-S score was 3.3 and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the mean OHI-S score increased with age (P<0.001). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the CPI score increased with age, duration of mental illness, and degree of helplessness (P<0.001). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION : The findings of this study demonstrates low caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene, and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment.
Dental caries vaccine
Shivakumar K,Vidya S,Chandu G
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2009,
Abstract: Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.
International Caries Detection and Assessment System: A new paradigm in detection of dental caries
Shivakumar K,Prasad Sumanth,Chandu G
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2009,
Abstract: A new emphasis on caries measurement and management is required for the dental community. The dental professionals need new approaches in caries detection, its assessment, and management. The future of research, practice, and education in Cariology requires the development of an integrated definition of dental caries, and uniform systems for measuring the caries process. Keeping this in view, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) has presented a new paradigm for the measurement of dental caries, which was developed from the systematic reviews of literature on the clinical caries detection system and other sources. The ICDAS can serve as a basis and benchmark for clinical and epidemiological research and inform dental undergraduate and postgraduate teaching in Cariology. The ICDAS system was developed to bring forward the current understanding of the process of initiation and progression of dental caries to the fields of epidemiological and clinical research.
The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study
Prashant G,Chandu G,Murulikrishna K,Shafiulla M
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.
Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water
Mythri H,Chandu G,Prashant G,Subba Reddy V
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.
Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among middle and high school children of Davangere city, India by using Dental Aesthetic Index
Shivakumar K,Chandu G,Subba Reddy V,Shafiulla M
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Malocclusion has large impact on individual and society in term of discomfort, Quality of Life [QoL] Aims and Objectives: To assess prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among middle and high school children of Davangere city, India by using Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI]. Materials and Methods: A Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 1000, in the age group 12 to 15 year old school children studying in middle and high schools of Davangere city, India. 10 schools were selected by simple random sampling procedure and 100 study subjects were selected proportionately for males and females by using systematic random sampling procedures in each school. Data recorded using proforma consisted DAI components. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: The Chi-square test [x 2 ] was used for comparison of severity of malocclusion. Analysis of Variance [ANOVA] test was used for comparison of mean DAI scores between the age groups and in DAI scores. ′Z′ test was used for comparing the mean DAI scores between sex group. Results: Of the 1000 children examined, 518[ 51.8%] were males and 482[ 48.2%] were females. 80.1% school children had ≤ 25 DAI scores with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.7% had 26-30 DAI scores with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 3.7% had 31-35 DAI scores with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment and 0.5% had ≥ 36 DAI scores with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: 80.1% school children had no or minor malocclusion which required no or slight treatment, 19.9% had definite/handicapping malocclusion requiring definite/mandatory orthodontic treatment.
Ion-Acoustic Instabilities in a Multi-Ion Plasma
Noble P. Abraham,Sijo Sebastian,G. Sreekala,R. Jayapal,C. P. Anilkumar,Venugopal Chandu
Journal of Astrophysics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/838534
Abstract: We have, in this paper, studied the stability of the ion-acoustic wave in a plasma composed of hydrogen, positively and negatively charged oxygen ions, and electrons, which approximates very well the plasma environment around a comet. Modelling each cometary component ( , , and ) by a ring distribution, we find that ion-acoustic waves can be generated at frequencies comparable to the hydrogen ion plasma frequency. The dispersion relation has been solved both analytically and numerically. We find that the ratio of the ring speed ( ) to the thermal spread ( ts) modifies the dispersion characteristics of the ion-acoustic wave. The contrasting behaviour of the phase velocity of the ion-acoustic wave in the presence of ions for ts (and vice versa) can be used to detect the presence of negatively charged oxygen ions and also their thermalization. 1. Introduction Low-frequency electrostatic or longitudinal ion density waves are one of the most fundamental of oscillations in a plasma [1, 2]. In the long-wavelength limit, the ions provide the inertia with the electrons as the source of the restoring force [1]. Ion-acoustic waves also exhibit strong nonlinear properties and are highly Landau damped unless , where and are, respectively, the ion and electron temperatures [3–5]. These waves have been observed in both space and laboratory plasmas; they have thus been extensively studied in many types of high-temperature laboratory plasmas [4, 6]. The waves have been invoked to explain wave characteristics observed in Earth’s ionosphere [7] and transport in the solar wind, corona, chromosphere [8], and comets [9]. In general a cometary environment contains new born hydrogen and heavier ions, with relative densities depending on the distance from the nucleus. Previous studies have concentrated on positively charged oxygen as the heavier ion species [10]. However, Giotto’s observations of the inner coma of comet Halley showed that a new component, namely, negatively charged cometary ions was present, in addition to the usual thermal electrons and ions, fast cometary pickup ions, and so forth, [11]. These negative ions were observed in three broad mass peaks at 7–19, 22–65, and 85–110 amu with being identified unambiguously [11]. A popular model of a cometary environment is the solar wind plasma environment permeated by dilute, drifting ring distribution of electrons and ions with finite thermal spreads [10]. Instabilities driven by an electron velocity ring distributions have been studied by many authors [12–14]. However, ion ring distributions are more important
A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Three Dimensional Bin Packing with Heterogeneous Bins
Drona Pratap Chandu
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.14445/22312803/IJCTT-V17P108
Abstract: This paper presents a parallel genetic algorithm for three dimensional bin packing with heterogeneous bins using Hadoop Map-Reduce framework. The most common three dimensional bin packing problem which packs given set of boxes into minimum number of equal sized bins is proven to be NP Hard. The variation of three dimensional bin packing problem that allows heterogeneous bin sizes and rotation of boxes is computationally more harder than common three dimensional bin packing problem. The proposed Map-Reduce implementation helps to run the genetic algorithm for three dimensional bin packing with heterogeneous bins on multiple machines parallely and computes the solution in relatively short time.
A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Generalized Vertex Cover Problem
Drona Pratap Chandu
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: This paper presents a parallel genetic algorithm for generalised vertex cover problem (GVCP) using Hadoop Map-Reduce framework. The proposed Map-Reduce implementation helps to run the genetic algorithm for generalized vertex cover problem (GVCP) on multiple machines parallely and computes the solution in relatively short time.
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