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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1719 matches for " Chandrama Mukherjee "
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Entamoeba Shows Reversible Variation in Ploidy under Different Growth Conditions and between Life Cycle Phases
Chandrama Mukherjee,C. Graham Clark,Anuradha Lohia
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000281
Abstract: Under axenic growth conditions, trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica contain heterogenous amounts of DNA due to the presence of both multiple nuclei and different amounts of DNA in individual nuclei. In order to establish if the DNA content and the observed heterogeneity is maintained during different growth conditions, we have compared E. histolytica cells growing in xenic and axenic cultures. Our results show that the nuclear DNA content of E. histolytica trophozoites growing in axenic cultures is at least 10 fold higher than in xenic cultures. Re-association of axenic cultures with their bacterial flora led to a reduction of DNA content to the original xenic values. Thus switching between xenic and axenic growth conditions was accompanied by significant changes in the nuclear DNA content of this parasite. Changes in DNA content during encystation-excystation were studied in the related reptilian parasite E. invadens. During excystation of E. invadens cysts, it was observed that the nuclear DNA content increased approximately 40 fold following emergence of trophozoites in axenic cultures. Based on the observed large changes in nuclear size and DNA content, and the minor differences in relative abundance of representative protein coding sequences, rDNA and tRNA sequences, it appears that gain or loss of whole genome copies may be occurring during changes in the growth conditions. Our studies demonstrate the inherent plasticity and dynamic nature of the Entamoeba genome in at least two species.
The Cytoplasmic Capping Complex Assembles on Adapter Protein Nck1 Bound to the Proline-Rich C-Terminus of Mammalian Capping Enzyme
Chandrama Mukherjee,Baskar Bakthavachalu,Daniel R. Schoenberg
PLOS Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001933
Abstract: Cytoplasmic capping is catalyzed by a complex that contains capping enzyme (CE) and a kinase that converts RNA with a 5′-monophosphate end to a 5′ diphosphate for subsequent addition of guanylic acid (GMP). We identify the proline-rich C-terminus as a new domain of CE that is required for its participation in cytoplasmic capping, and show the cytoplasmic capping complex assembles on Nck1, an adapter protein with functions in translation and tyrosine kinase signaling. Binding is specific to Nck1 and is independent of RNA. We show by sedimentation and gel filtration that Nck1 and CE are together in a larger complex, that the complex can assemble in vitro on recombinant Nck1, and Nck1 knockdown disrupts the integrity of the complex. CE and the 5′ kinase are juxtaposed by binding to the adjacent domains of Nck1, and cap homeostasis is inhibited by Nck1 with inactivating mutations in each of these domains. These results identify a new domain of CE that is specific to its function in cytoplasmic capping, and a new role for Nck1 in regulating gene expression through its role as the scaffold for assembly of the cytoplasmic capping complex.
Inter-Cellular Variation in DNA Content of Entamoeba histolytica Originates from Temporal and Spatial Uncoupling of Cytokinesis from the Nuclear Cycle
Chandrama Mukherjee equal contributor,Shubhra Majumder equal contributor,Anuradha Lohia
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000409
Abstract: Accumulation of multiple copies of the genome in a single nucleus and several nuclei in a single cell has previously been noted in Entamoeba histolytica, contributing to the genetic heterogeneity of this unicellular eukaryote. In this study, we demonstrate that this genetic heterogeneity is an inherent feature of the cell cycle of this organism. Chromosome segregation occurs on a variety of novel microtubular assemblies including multi-polar spindles. Cytokinesis in E. histolytica is completed by the mechanical severing of a thin cytoplasmic bridge, either independently or with the help of neighboring cells. Importantly, cytokinesis is uncoupled from the nuclear division cycle, both temporally and spatially, leading to the formation of unequal daughter cells. Sorting of euploid and polyploid cells showed that each of these sub-populations acquired heterogeneous DNA content upon further growth. Our study conclusively demonstrates that genetic heterogeneity originates from the unique mode of cell division events in this protist.
Cold agglutinin disease associated with mycoplasma infection in an individual with type 2 diabetes: An atypical case  [PDF]
Chandrama Shrestha, Liu Min, Zhaohui Mo
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2012.24062
Abstract: Cold Agglutinin Disease is a hemolytic anemia associated with cold reactive autoantibodies. Although the acute form of cold agglutinin disease can be attributed to autoimmune or infectious diseases and lymphoproliferative diseases, it has, to the best of our knowledge, so far,never been reported as secondary to mycoplasma pneumonia in a type 2 diabetic individual. In this paper, we report a case of cold agglutinin disease following mycoplasma pneumonia in a 47-year-old female patient with type 2 diabetes and schizophrenia. Cold agglutinin test and direct Coombs’ test was positive. Anti-mycoplasma anti-body titre by complement fixation was high (Anti-IgG was negative and Anti-C3d was positive) and was accompanied by hemolytic anemia. Her general condition, including Cold Agglutinin Disease improved after conservative therapy with antibiotics, hypoglycemic agents and short-term use of steroids. The patient recuperated and was discharged in good health after 7 days’ stay in the hospital. She remains clinically well with no recurrence of anemia. The simultaneous occurrence of cold agglutinin disease, mycoplasma infection and diabetes mellitus is rare and accumulation of case reports is required to gain better insight of this case scenario.
Ex Ante Inequality and Under-Nutrition Vulnerability Dynamics: Case Study of the Sundarbans Delta Region, West Bengal, India  [PDF]
Moumita Mukherjee
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.520207
Abstract: In this paper ex ante inequality measure is used to estimate inequality in childhood chronic under-nutrition among different vulnerable subgroups. Ex ante inequality in nutritional achievement is determined by estimating Concentration Index by ranking the sample population as per different contextual absolute and predicted vulnerabilities. Such vulnerabilities include climatic shock induced asset loss, livelihood insecurity, physical accessibility and consumption sacrifice after treatment seeking of children for under-nutrition related morbidities and perception of care givers regarding quality and effectiveness of care provided by unqualified providers. Results found that vulnerability to consumption poverty aggravated chronic under-nutrition among less vulnerable groups mainly among those who perceived that unqualified providers provided quality service and were very effective during crisis. Whereas, vulnerability to investment poverty due to asset loss aggravates chronic under-nutrition among more vulnerable groups as their low economic resilience against any safety net results in no treatment seeking but rely on home remedies to cure the child. Though due to good social cohesion, traditional knowledge and beliefs for treatment are shared among each other but this is not sufficient to break the under-nutrition morbidity vicious circle, especially when the under-nutrition is chronic in nature. So the paper finally suggests several policy suggestions for different vulnerable segments.
Poverty Reduction and Pattern of Chronic Childhood Under-Nutrition in India: How Far Does the Link Exist?  [PDF]
Moumita Mukherjee
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.520208
Abstract: In spite of an established link between poverty and under-nutrition in India, fall in under-nutrition is sluggish with fall in poverty. This research paper aims to seek answer on the effect of poverty decline on child under-nutrition in India over a period of one and a half decades. After examining the extent of association between poverty reduction and reciprocal changes in child under-nutrition, the paper found that although there was a definite influence of poverty levels on child under-nutrition at the state-level, the strength of the impact was not very high. This possibly explains why improvements in nutritional status among children have failed to keep up pace with steady reduction in mass poverty across the states in the last couple of decades. The results also strongly reiterate the magnificent role of child’s healthcare utilization and higher public spending which can help to capitalize on the increase in economic capabilities at the household level, resulting from robust economic growth and alleviation of endemic poverty.
Sites of Desire: Chandrapore-Mayapore-Jummapur: Race, Sexuality and Law in Colonial India  [PDF]
Tutun Mukherjee
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/als.2017.55010
Abstract: The three selected texts by E. M. Forster, 1924 (A Passage to India Forster, 1924), Paul Scott, 1983 (Jewel in the Crown 1983), and Top Stoppard, 1995 (Indian Ink 1995) explore the complex interweaving of race, sexuality and law in colonial India suggesting the interpolation of subliminal desire that affected the relationship of the colonizers and the colonized. This essay focuses upon the intervention of race and sex in these narratives that defined the relationship between the colonizer and the colonized which have not be adequately discussed earlier. The narratives reveal the fraught and ambiguous attitude of the British colonizers towards the “natives” as objects of sexual desire though infected by the threat of racial contamination and miscegenation. Hence, such relations were either to be shunned or controlled by law. It has also been suggested that imperial administration may have used “sexual relations” as central political mechanism to control its subject population. The point to note is that the sexual gaze was in many instances reciprocal and the colonizer was also an object of desire for the colonized. The selected narratives explore three sites where the play of desire and their culmination take place.
Enhanced Healing of Diabetic Wounds by Subcutaneous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Derived Stem Cells and Their Conditioned Media
Chandrama Shrestha,Liling Zhao,Ke Chen,Honghui He,Zhaohui Mo
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/592454
Abstract: Objective. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from the umbilical cord and their conditioned media (CM) can be easily obtained and refined compared with stem cells from other sources. Here, we explore the possibility of the benefits of these cells in healing diabetic wounds. Methodology and Results. Delayed wound healing animal models were established by making a standard wound on the dorsum of eighteen db/db mice, which were divided into three groups with six mice in each: groups I, II, and III received PBS, UC-MSC, and CM, respectively. UC-MSC and their CM significantly accelerated wound closure compared to PBS-treated wounds, and it was most rapid in CM-injected wounds. In day-14 wounds, significant difference in capillary densities among the three groups was noted ( ; ), and higher levels of VEGF, PDGF, and KGF expression in the CM- and UC-MSC-injected wounds compared to the PBS-treated wounds were seen. The expression levels of PDGF-β and KGF were higher in CM-treated wounds than those in UC-MSC-treated wounds. Conclusion. Both the transplantation of UC-MSC and their CM are beneficial to diabetic wound healing, and CM has been shown to be therapeutically better than UC-MSC, at least in the context of diabetic wound healing. 1. Introduction Diabetes has undoubtedly become a major public health concern of the twenty-first century. Various studies have estimated the impact of diabetes, and it seems that the numbers are growing at unprecedented rates. The International Diabetes Federation claims that 366 million people had diabetes in 2011 and by 2030 this number will have increased to 552 million, and that this caused 4.6 million deaths in 2011 [1]. About 15% of people with diabetes suffer from foot ulcerations [2]. Diabetic wounds that resist healing are also associated with decreased peripheral blood flow and often resist current therapies. These achieve only 50% healing rates even with the best treatment available, that too, for a short-term [2], and 4/5 of these cases eventually succumb to amputation of the lower extremity [3, 4]. Normal wounds, without underlying pathological defects, heal readily, but the healing deficiency of diabetic wounds can be attributed to a number of factors, including decreased production of growth factors and reduced revascularization. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent, nonhematopoeitic progenitor cells that hold great promise for tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the umbilical cord and their conditioned media can be easily obtained and refined compared to stem cells from other sources.
Bikram Yoga as a Countermeasure of Bone Loss in Women  [PDF]
Apurba Mukherjee, Prithwis Mukherjee, Robert R. Rude
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2010.11001
Abstract: The purpose of this pilot study was to observe whether Bikram Yoga training helps bone growth or arrest bone loss in women. In this study, the bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the hip, spine and whole body for a group of 14 pre-menopausal women (11 Caucasians, 2 Asians and 1 African Ameri-can). These 14 women had participated in Bikram Yoga classes (26 yoga postures) at least 3 times a week for 3 or more years. DEXA scans were used to measure BMD at the lumbar spine, hip and the whole body. In addition, the Z-scores were calculated for each subject at these three locations. The study results indicate that the BMD at these body areas of this group of women is generally above the mean BMD expected for normal, healthy, women of comparable age and ethnicity. Overall, the study findings suggest that the intervention of Bikram Yoga training may be beneficial for skeletal health and could prevent bone loss.
Early Diagnosis of Gynecological Cancers in Ladies with Review of Literature  [PDF]
Tanushri Mukherjee, Soma Mukherjee, Rajat Dutta
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.75054
Abstract: The most prevalent cancers in ladies are cervical, endometrial and Ovarian. The biomarkers prevalent in use for these gynaecological cancers are commonly Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), B, Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Inhibin, Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen, Carbohydrate antigen 19-9, Cancer antigen 27-29, Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), Osteopontin, transthyretin, Immunosuppressive acidic protein(IAP), leptin, CA15-3, CK19 and Thymidine kinase. The biomarker marker Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen, CK19 and immunosuppressive acidic protein IAP are raised in cervical squamous cell carcinomas. Endometrial cancer is a common cancer in women. In 75% of endometrial cancer cases, the tumor remains confined to the uterus and has a favorable prognosis if early detected. The prognosis, however, worsens dramatically as the disease progresses. The objective of this review is to elucidate the importance of the tumor markers for early diagnosis of gynaecological malignancies which are vital and life saving. Similarly the relevant biomarkers in combination are found to have positive predictive values and significant p values in the endometrial and cervical cancer. In Cervix cancer the positive predictive value of these markers combined is usually 92% - 95% and negative predictive value 93% - 96%. The confidence interval is 98% and p value significant 0.005. Sensitivity of tumor markers combined CK19, SCC and immunosuppressive acidic protein IAP in Cervix cancer detection is 95% and specificity 96%. The highest sensitivity was for SCC antigen (98.7%) while the highest specificity was for Cytokeratin 19 (99.7%). The positive predictive value by combination of CK19, SCC and IAP for the detection of Cervix cancer was 90% - 94%. In endometrial cancer the sensitivity of tumor markers combined CA19-9, CA125, leptin, thymidine kinase, CEA, CA15-3, and HE4 in endometrial cancer detection was 95% and specificity 96%. The highest sensitivity was for CA125 (99.7%) while the highest specificity was for CA19-9 (95.7%) which revealed that the efficacy of CA19-9 was more than that of CA125. The positive predictive value by combination of CA19-9, CA-125 levels, HE4, CA15-3, leptin, thymidine kinase and CEA for the detection of Endometrial cancer was 93%. For Gynecological malignancies namely Ovarian, Cervix and Endometrial cancers screening with these novel tumor markers in combination which are significant to a particular group of cancers.
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